click links in text for more info

Fritz Pflaum Hut

The Fritz Pflaum Hut is an Alpine club hut belonging to the Bayerland Section of the German Alpine Club, located in the Kaisergebirge mountains in the Austrian federal state of Tyrol. The Fritz Pflaum Hut is an unmanned climbers' hut high above the Kaiserbachtal that lies in the Griesner Cirque at the foot of the Mitterkaiser, it is thus the highest hut in the Wilder Kaiser. It is accessible with an Alpine Club key; the hut is a base for all summits around the Griesener Kar bowl as well as a starting point for the Kleinkaiser and Mitterkaiser peaks. It has 23 bedspaces. There is no caretaker at the hut. A caretaker may be on hand for prearranged group bookings; the hut was named after the Alpinist, Fritz Pflaum, born in 1871. He loved the Wilder Kaiser. On 25 August 1908 he died during a difficult mountain tour on the Mönch. Relatives and acquaintances donated 8,000 marks for the construction of the Fritz Pflaum Hut, opened on 25 August 1912 four years after his death. Subsequent attempts to rename it the Griesnerkar Hut have not succeeded.

An attempt to provide a basic managed service in the spring of 2007 failed because of a ban by the district commission. The normal approach to the hut is from the Griesner Alm in the Kaiserbach valley over a good path with numerous bends that takes 2​1⁄2 hours as a mountain hike and 2​1⁄4 hours as a ski tour; the alternative is a used climb from the Fischbachalm down in the Kaiserbach valley, via the pine oil distillery and the Kleiner Griesner Tor which takes 2 hours. This route requires sure-footedness; some sections are protected by cable. Gaudeamus Hut, via the Kleines Törl, Gildensteig and Wildererkanzel, duration: 3​1⁄2 hours Ackerl Hut, via the Kleines Törl, Gildensteig and Wilder Kaiser Path, duration: 3 hours Ackerl Hut, via the Ackerlspitze and Maukspitze, duration: 5 hours Grutten Hut, via the Kleines Törl, Wilder Kaiser Path, Jubiläumssteig, duration: 4 hours Stripsenjochhaus, via the Großes Griesner Tor, Hüttenweg, duration: 2​1⁄2 hours The following ascents are listed by the DAV: Ackerlspitze, duration: 2 hours, medium difficulty Lärcheck, duration: 2¼ hours, difficult Mitterkaiser, duration: ½-1 hour, medium difficulty Regalmspitze, duration: 2 hours, difficult Maukspitze (2,231 m _, duration of crossing: 1 hour, difficult Bayerland Section of the DAV The climbing garden at Fritz Pflaum Hut

We Remain

"We Remain" is a song by American singer Christina Aguilera, taken from The Hunger Games: Catching Fire – Original Motion Picture Soundtrack, the soundtrack to the 2013 American science-fiction adventure film The Hunger Games: Catching Fire. It was released as the third single from the soundtrack on October 1, 2013, following Coldplay's "Atlas" and Sia's "Elastic Heart". Composed by Ryan Tedder, Brent Kutzle and Mikky Ekko, "We Remain" is an arena pop power ballad about perseverance. Contemporary music critics lauded the song for its sound and picked it as one of the highlights from the soundtrack; the single appeared on a few national record charts including Belgium, South Korea and the United Kingdom. Following the release of her seventh studio album, which spawned two singles "Your Body" and "Just a Fool", Aguilera was reported to be featured on the soundtrack for The Hunger Games: Catching Fire Original Motion Picture Soundtrack with a song called "We Remain" in September 2013. On September 25, 2013, Aguilera unveiled a 90-second preview of the track.

The song was released as the third single from the soundtrack, following "Atlas" by Coldplay and "Elastic Heart" by Sia Furler. It was released as a digital download single at on October 1, 2013. It was released on the iTunes Stores on the same day. On October 8, "We Remain" impacted. Aguilera performed "We Remain" live with her contestant Jacquie Lee during the season finale of the fifth season of The Voice on December 17, 2013. A studio version of the duet was released on the US iTunes Store on December 16, 2013. "We Remain" was written by Ryan Tedder and Brent Kutzle of OneRepublic, Mikky Ekko. The song is a midtempo arena pop power ballad, it lasts for a duration of 4:00. Aguilera sings with "enormous" and "soaring" vocals on a "propulsive Ryan Tedder-ish beat" background. "We Remain" drum machine in its instrumentation. According to Billboard magazine, the ballad "finds tamping down for a natural and forceful message of perseverance". At the chorus, Aguilera sings "So burn me with fire/ Drown me with rain/ I'm gonna wake up screaming your name/ Yes I'm a sinner, yes I'm a saint/ whatever happens here, whatever happens here, we remain".

Several critics compared "We Remain" to Aguilera's previous hit "Beautiful" and Alicia Keys' "Girl on Fire" for musical similarities. "We Remain" received critical acclaim from music critics. Ryan Reed from Rolling Stone magazine praised the "triumphant sounding" track "sure to be a hit at District 12 radio". An editor from The Huffington Post picked "We Remain" as one of the standout tracks from the soundtrack that "encapsulates the spirit and power of Games' heroine, Katniss". Sam Lansky for Idolator praised the single's musical departure from Aguilera's ballads for her 2012 album Lotus. Brett Malec of E! Simply called it "a beautiful track", while a staff writer from Billboard named it a "triumphant" song. While reviewing the soundtrack for The Hunger Games: Catching Fire, Alex Young from Consequence of Sound selected "We Remain" as one of the highlights from the album, which made Aguilera "the biggest star on display". Entertainment Weekly writer Nick Catucci picked it as one of the best tracks, calling it "an awesome reminder of Christina's power" and "one of the most righteous doses of uplift this year, on any platform".

Credits adapted from The Hunger Games: Catching Fire soundtrack digital inlay cover Digital download"We Remain" – 4:00 "We Remain" peaked at number 58 on the South Korean Gaon International Download Chart with 2,689 copies sold on October 6, 2013. The single peaked at number 31 on the Belgian Flanders Singles Chart and number 14 on the Belgian Wallonian Singles Chart. Notes

Tunguska Nature Reserve

Tunguska Nature Reserve is a Russian'zapovednik' located in the central part of the Central Siberian Plateau. As a result of a meteorite in 1908, more than 2,000 km2 of boreal forest was burned; the taiga affected in the disaster area has been restored in the past 100 years. The reserve is situated in the Evenkiysky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai; the reserve sits on a low plateau, with cut river valleys. The valley tops resemble elongated ridges, with hills of a typical height of 100–300 meters; the highest point in the territory is 602 meters above sea level. The Tunguska Event occurred on the northern edge of the reserve; the Stony Tunguska River runs across the southern border of the site. Two main rivers run south through the Chamby River and the Hushmy River; the river valleys are waterlogged when not frozen. Lake Cheko, a round, picturesque. Tunguska is located in the East Siberian taiga ecoregion, which sits between the Yenisei River and Lena River, its northern border reaches the Arctic Circle, its southern border reaches 52°N latitude.

The dominant vegetation is light coniferous taiga with Dahurian larch forming the canopy in areas with low snow cover. This ecoregion is rich in minerals; the climate of Tunguska is Subarctic climate, without dry season. This climate is characterized by cold, snowy winters. About 70% of the territory is forested, a further 15-20% is swamp. Aside from the dominant pine and larch there are occasional cedar. There is undergrowth of alder, dwarf birch, blueberries, mosses and a covering of lichens. Scientists on the reserve have recorded 314 species of angiosperms; the animals of the reserve are characteristic of the central Siberian taiga. Mammals include elk, brown bear, squirrel, wolf and wolverine. Scientists on the reserve have recorded 19 species of fish. Birds are wetland species. A number of archaeological sites from the Neolithic Period have been identified on the site, with stone tools and bone fragments; as a strict nature reserve, the Tunguska Reserve is closed to the general public, although scientists and those with'environmental education' purposes can make arrangements with park management for visits.

There are four'ecotourist' routes in the reserve, that are open to the public, but require permits to be obtained in advance. All four lead to the presumed site of the meteor explosion; the main office is in the city of Vanavara. There are several flights per week to Vanavara from Krasnoyarsk. List of Russian Nature Reserves Map of Tunguska Reserve, OpenStreetMap Map of Tunguska Reserve, ProtectedPlanet

Le grand mogol

Le grand mogol is an opéra bouffe with music by Edmond Audran. The opera depicts the love between an Indian prince and a young Parisienne, the unsuccessful attempts of conspirators to thwart their romance; the piece exists in two versions. The first, in three acts, with words by Henri Chivot, was produced at the Théâtre du Gymnase, Marseille, on 24 February 1877. A revised four-act version, with words by Chivot and Alfred Duru, was given at the Théâtre de la Gaîté, Paris, on 19 September 1884. In the 1860s and into the 1870s Edmond Audran was a church choirmaster in Marseille, he composed some one-act opéras comiques in the 1860s, but they attracted little attention, he did not return to the genre until the mid-1870s when Henri Chivot, a family friend, wrote a libretto, Le grand mogol, invited Audran to set it. The work was accepted by the Théâtre Marseille; the leading lady was the 18-year-old Jane Hading. The opera opened on 24 February 1877 and ran for 60 performances – a run of rare length for a provincial French theatre of the time.

After this, Audran gave up his church post and moved to Paris, where he soon had a solid success with his opéra comique Les noces d'Olivette, which ran for over a year in London, extended his international fame with La mascotte. In the mid-1880s, together with Chivot and the playwright Alfred Duru, Audran revised and expanded Le grand mogol; the new version was produced on 19 September 1884 at the Théâtre de la Gaîté, where it ran for 248 performances. Except for Jane Hading as Irma, Les Annales du théâtre et de la musique give no details of the 1877 Marseille cast; the 1884 Paris cast was: Prince Mignapour – M. Cooper Joquelet, travelling dentist – M. Alexandre Nicobar, grand vizier – M. Mesmaker Madras, innkeeper – M. Gobereau Palace officer – M. Berville Captain Crakson – M. Scipion Irma – Mme. Thuillier-Leloir Princess Bengaline – Mlle. GélabertSource: Libretto. In some printed editions of the final Paris version the second and third acts are joined together, Act IV becomes Act III; the opera is set in the Kingdom of Delhi in 1750.

Act I A public square in Almora, near Delhi At the court of the Great Moguls, the custom is that the Crown Princes must remain chaste until they reach the age of majority, on pain of losing their rights to the throne. The prince must at all times wear a magical white pearl necklace, which will turn black if he strays from the path of virtue, it is two days until Prince Mignapour ascends the throne. He is less concerned about his accession than about finding Irma, a young Frenchwoman he met two months ago and fell in love with. Irma and her brother, have fled from France to avoid their creditors, he has become she a snake charmer. Mignapour declares his love. There are three people unhappy about the betrothal. Princess Bengaline, the prince's cousin, is ambitious to share the throne. Act IIThe palace gardens Crakson and Nicobar plot to prevent the marriage of Irma and the prince, they decide to prevent his accession to the throne by leading him to lose his innocence. Bengaline and her retinue of bayadères surround the young man, nearly provoke him to a kiss, but the sudden intrusion of Joquelet prevents it in the nick of time.

Mignapour tries to persuade Irma to meet him in the rose garden at midnight. She does not agree. At night he is in the care of bodyguards, he asks Crakson, who has access to drug the guards. Crakson does so, but keen to have Irma to himself, he drugs Mignapour too, while the latter is unconscious, Crakson swaps the white necklace for a black one, before going to meet Irma in the garden. For the plotters, Bengaline has had a similar idea, it is she, disguised as Irma, whom Crakson meets in the rose garden. Neither realises the real identity of the other. Act IIIA hall in the palace Before the wedding of his sister, Joquelet tactfully attempts to explain what is expected of a bride. After a ballet, Prince Mignapour appears, but, to the amazement of all, his necklace has turned black, it is assumed. Nicobar reveals that the guards saw someone answering to the prince's appearance embracing a woman in the rose garden. There is uproar and the prince is ejected from the palace. Act IVThe hall of a caravanserai Joquelet finds an old casket.

When it is opened, after much difficulty, it is found to contain a document which reveals that earlier Great Moguls invented the myth of the magic necklace to keep their heirs on the path of virtue. Bengaline had earlier found the casket, thus learning the facts, disposed of it, but when it falls into the hands of Joquelet it becomes clear to all that the black necklace has no significance whatever. Mignapour can marry his little Parisienne. Bengaline attempts to stop the marriage by telling how she trysted with Mignapour in the rose garden, but when it emerges that she met Crakson she finds to her fury that she is obliged to marry him. Source: Libretto and Gänzl's Book of the Musical Theatre. Act I Overture Chorus and song – "Allons et point de paresse … Mon nom est Joquelet" – Come on, no idleness … My name is Joquelet Couplets – "Je ne veux pas de vous pour époux " – I do not want you for a husband Narration – "Si le prince, m'a-t-on conté" – If the prince, so I am told Chorus and couplets – "Place à Bengaline … J'aime

2009 southeastern Australia heat wave

The 2009 southeastern Australia heat wave was a heat wave that commenced in late January and led to record-breaking prolonged high temperatures in the region. The heat wave is considered one of the, most extreme in the region's history. During the heat wave, fifty separate locations set various records for consecutive, highest daytime and overnight temperatures; the highest temperature recorded during the heat wave was 48.8 °C in Hopetoun, Victoria, a record for the state. Many locations through the region recorded all-time high temperatures including capital cities Adelaide, which reached its third-highest temperature, 45.7 °C, Melbourne, which recorded its highest-ever temperature on record, 46.4 °C. Both cities broke records for the most consecutive days over 40 °C, while Mildura, Victoria recorded an all-time record twelve consecutive days over 43 °C; the exceptional heat wave was caused by a slow-moving high-pressure system that settled over the Tasman Sea, with a combination of an intense tropical low located off the North West Australian coast and a monsoon trough over Northern Australia, which produced ideal conditions for hot tropical air to be directed down over southeastern Australia.

The heat began in South Australia on 25 January but became more widespread over southeast Australia by 27 January. A weak cool change moved over the southern coastal areas bringing some relief on 30 January, including Melbourne, where the change arrived that evening, dropping temperatures to an average of 30.8 °C. Higher temperatures returned on the following weekend with Melbourne recording its hottest day since records began in 1855, 46.4 °C. The heat wave generated extreme fire conditions during the peak of the 2008–09 Australian bushfire season, causing many bushfires in the affected region, contributing to the extreme bushfire conditions on 7 February known as the Black Saturday bushfires, which claimed 173 lives in Victoria; the heat wave was caused by a slow-moving high-pressure system. Coupled with an intense tropical low and a monsoon trough over Northern Australia, this produced hot, tropical air to be directed over southeastern Australia, raising temperatures significantly; the CSIRO stated that "The warm lower tropospheric anticyclone is the key synoptic weather system responsible for the heat-waves."

The heat wave was the worst in Australia's history. During the heat wave, several records were broken. Average daily maximum 27 January – 7 February: 40.5 °C – 13 Consecutive days over 33 °C 6 Consecutive days over 40 °C 4 Consecutive days over 43 °C Average daily maximum 27 January – 7 February: 35.9 °C – 12 Consecutive days over 28 °C 5 Consecutive days over 30 °C 3 Consecutive days over 43 °C 12 Consecutive days over 40 °C 5 Consecutive days over 42 °C 14 Consecutive days over 35 °C 13 Consecutive days over 37.8 °C 4 Consecutive days over 40 °C January 2009 27th – 32.9 °C 28th – 41.9 °C 29th – 45.8 °C 30th – 45.0 °C February 7th – 47.9 °C January 2009 27th – 44.8 °C 28th – 47.5 °C 29th – 42.3 °C 30th – 39.3 °C 31st – 42.9 °C February 1st – 41.1 °C 2nd – 34.1 °C 3rd – 32.1 °C 4th – 41.5 °C 5th – 31.7 °C 6th – 46.4 °C January 2009 26th – 38.0 °C 27th – 41.5 °C 28th – 43.7 °C 29th – 42.8 °C 30th – 43.3 °C 31st – 44.1 °C February 1st – 42.9 °C 2nd – 42.6 °C 3rd – 40.1 °C 4th – 40.9 °C 5th – 41.1 °C 6th – 43.1 °C 7th – 46.7 °C – 12th consecutive day over 40 °C 8th – 34.6 °C January 2009 26th – 37.8 °C 27th – 39.5 °C 28th – 43.0 °C 29th – 42.7 °C 30th – 44.5 °C 31st – 44.2 °C February 1st – 43.0 °C 2nd – 38.3 °C 3rd – 38.2 °C 4th – 39.2 °C 5th – 42.1 °C 6th – 41.5 °C 7th – 46.6 °C January 2009 26th – 37.7 °C 27th – 40.8 °C 28th – 43.8 °C 29th – 43.4 °C 30th – 44.6 °C 31st – 44.5 °C February 1st – 43.0 °C 2nd – 40.8 °C 3rd – 38.3 °C 4th – 40.0 °C 5th – 42.5 °C 6th – 42.6 °C 7th – 46.6 °C Temperatures have been recorded since in 1855.

January 2009 27th – 36.4 °C 28th – 43.4 °C 29th – 44.3 °C 30th – 45.1 °C – Third-hottest day recorded in Melbourne. 31st – 30.5 °C February 1st – 33.8 °C 2nd – 28.5 °C 3rd – 30.2 °C 4th – 30.2 °C 5th – 29.2 °C 6th – 33.1 °C 7th – 46.4 °C – Hottest day recorded in Melbourne 0.8 °C hotter than previous record. January 2009 26th – 36.6 °C 27th – 43.2 °C 28th – 45.7 °C 29th – 43.4 °C 30th – 43.1 °C 31st – 41.1 °C February 1st – 40.6 °C 2nd – 38.8 °C 3rd – 36.3 °C (9

Heinrich GroƟ von Trockau

Heinrich Groß von Trockau was the Prince-Bishop of Bamberg from 1487 to 1501. The date of Heinrich Groß von Trockau's birth is unknown, but he was a prebendary of Augsburg Cathedral in 1451. On 14 March 1452 he became a canon of Bamberg Cathedral, he graduated from Heidelberg University in 1452. He was made a deacon on 20 April 1454. On 1 February 1487 the cathedral chapter of Bamberg Cathedral elected Groß von Trockau to be Prince-Bishop of Bamberg and Pope Innocent VIII confirmed his appointment on 28 March 1487, he was consecrated as a bishop by Friedrich von Hohenzollern, Prince-Bishop of Augsburg, in Nuremberg on 15 July 1487. He died in Bamberg on 30 March 1501