Jackson Heights, Queens
Jackson Heights is a neighborhood in the northwestern portion of the borough of Queens in New York City. The neighborhood is part of Queens Community Board 3, Jackson Heights is neighbored by North Corona to the east, Elmhurst to the south, Woodside to the west, northern Astoria to the northwest, and East Elmhurst to the northeast. The main ZIP code of Jackson Heights is 11372, according to the 2010 United States Census, the neighborhood has a population of 108,152. The Jackson Heights name comes from Jackson Avenue, the name for Northern Boulevard. John C. Jackson built the road across what is now Jackson Heights in 1859, the Jackson Avenue name is retained by this major road in a short stretch between Queens Plaza and Queens–Midtown Tunnel in Long Island City. The place was not particularly high, but the name heights showed that the place was meant to be exclusive. Until 1916, the area was called Trains Meadow, but contrary to the name and it is suspected that it was corrupted from drain. The first land purchase of 128 acres was completed in 1910, Jackson Heights was a planned development laid out by the Queensboro Corporation beginning in about 1916, and residents came after the arrival of the Flushing Line into Jackson Heights in 1917.
The community was planned as a place for middle- to upper-middle income workers from Manhattan to raise their families. The Queensboro Corporation coined the name garden apartment to convey the concept of apartments surrounded by a green environment, targeted toward the middle class, the Queensboro Corporation-based the new apartments off of similar ones in Berlin. These new apartments were to share garden spaces, have ornate exteriors and features such as fireplaces, parquet floors, sun rooms, and built-in bathtubs with showers, and be cooperatively owned. In addition, the corporation divided the land into blocks and building lots, as well as installed streets and power, and sewage lines. Although land for churches was provided, the apartments themselves were limited to white Anglo-Saxon Protestants, while excluding Jews and perhaps Greeks and Italians. The Laurel apartment building on 82nd Street at Northern Boulevard was the first of the Queensboro Corporation buildings in Jackson Heights, the Greystones on either side of 80th Street between 37th and 35th Avenues were completed in 1918 with a design by architect George H.
Wells. There was leftover unused space, which was converted to parks and this was followed by the 1919 construction of the Andrew J. Thomas-designed Linden Court, a 10-building complex between 84th Street, 85th Streets, 37th Avenue, and Roosevelt Avenue. The Hampton Gardens, the Château, and the Towers followed in the 1920s, the Château and the Towers, both co-ops on 34th Avenue, had large, airy apartments and were served by elevators. At first purely decorative, the gardens in developments included paved spaces where people could meet or sit. The Queensboro Corporation started the Ivy Court, Cedar Court, and Spanish Gardens projects, all designed by Thomas, the Queensboro Corporation advertised their apartments from 1922 on
Weimar Republic is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state between 1919 and 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place, the official name of the state was still Deutsches Reich, it had remained unchanged since 1871. In English the country was known simply as Germany. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich was written, in its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, and contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War. The people of Germany blamed the Weimar Republic rather than their leaders for the countrys defeat. However, the Weimar Republic government successfully reformed the currency, unified tax policies, Weimar Germany eliminated most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, it never completely met its disarmament requirements, and eventually paid only a small portion of the war reparations.
Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the borders of the republic. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen, the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brünings policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government, the Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the éminence grise who would keep Hitler under control, within months the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency, it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitlers seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation and these events brought the republic to an end, as democracy collapsed, a single-party state founded the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, Germany from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model, the Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellors SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany, after the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were officially altered to reflect the political changes. The Weimar Republic retained the Reichsadler, but without the symbols of the former Monarchy and this left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. If the Reichs Eagle is shown without a frame, the charge and colors as those of the eagle of the Reichs coat of arms are to be used. The patterns kept by the Federal Ministry of the Interior are decisive for the heraldic design, the artistic design may be varied for each special purpose. The achievements and signs of movement were mostly done away with after its downfall
Protestantism is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. It is one of the three divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. The term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks from or attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Protestants reject the notion of papal supremacy and deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. The Five solae summarize the reformers basic differences in theological beliefs, in the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, the Baltic states, and Iceland. Reformed churches were founded in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by such reformers as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, the political separation of the Church of England from Rome under King Henry VIII brought England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement.
Protestants developed their own culture, which made major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, some Protestant denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of families, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Reformed churches, Methodism. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier. During the Reformation, the term was used outside of the German politics. The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was more widely used for those involved in the religious movement. Nowadays, this word is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and Calvinist traditions in Europe, above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the EKD.
In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Lutheran or a Calvinist, the German word evangelisch means Protestant, and is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical usually refers to Evangelical Protestant churches, and it traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, and was brought to the United States. Protestantism as a term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i. e. Roman Catholicism. Initially, Protestant became a term to mean any adherent to the Reformation movement in Germany and was taken up by Lutherans. Even though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ and Swiss Protestants preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, beginning in the nineteenth century, with the ascent of academic history, there developed a body of historiographic literature. The extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups, in 2007, of 5,723 faculty in the departments of history at British universities,1,644 identified themselves with social history and 1,425 identified themselves with political history. In the early period, the term historiography meant the writing of history. In that sense certain official historians were given the title Historiographer Royal in Sweden, the Scottish post is still in existence. Understanding the past appears to be a human need. What constitutes history is a philosophical question, the earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, though no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name.
For the purposes of article, history is taken to mean written history recorded in a narrative format for the purpose of informing future generations about events. Before writing, there was only oral history or oral tradition, in China, the earliest history was recorded in oracle bone script which was deciphered and may date back to around late 2nd millennium BCE. The Zuo Zhuan, attributed to Zuo Qiuming in the 5th century BCE, is the earliest written of narrative history in the world, the Classic of History is one of the Five Classics of Chinese classic texts and one of the earliest narratives of China. It is traditionally attributed to Confucius, zhan Guo Ce was a renowned ancient Chinese historical compilation of sporadic materials on the Warring States period compiled between the 3rd and 1st centuries BCE. Sima Qian was the first in China to lay the groundwork for professional historical writing and his written work was the Shiji, a monumental lifelong achievement in literature. His work influenced every subsequent author of history in China, including the prestigious Ban family of the Eastern Han Dynasty era, traditional Chinese historiography describes history in terms of dynastic cycles.
In this view, each new dynasty is founded by a morally righteous founder, over time, the dynasty becomes morally corrupt and dissolute. Eventually, the dynasty becomes so weak as to allow its replacement by a new dynasty, the tradition of Korean historiography was established with the Samguk Sagi, a history of Korea from its allegedly earliest times. It was compiled by Goryeo court historian Kim Busik after its commission by King Injong of Goryeo. It was completed in 1145 and relied not only on earlier Chinese histories for source material, the latter work is now lost. The earliest works of history produced in Japan were the Rikkokushi, the first of these works were the Nihon Shoki, compiled by Prince Toneri in 720
Free University of Berlin
The Freie Universität Berlin is a research university located in Berlin and one of the most prominent universities in Germany. It is internationally known for its research in the humanities and social sciences, as well as in the field of natural, founded in West Berlin during the early Cold War period, its name refers to citys status as part of the free western world. Freie Universität Berlin is one of eleven German elite universities in the German Universities Excellence Initiative, winning a distinction for five doctoral programs, three interdisciplinary research clusters and its overall institutional strategy as an International Network University. Freie Universität Berlin was established by students and scholars on 4 December 1948, the foundation is strongly connected to the beginning of the Cold War period. The University of Berlin was located in the former Soviet sector of Berlin and was granted permission to continue teaching by the Soviet Military Administration in Germany in January 1946, the universities were increasingly influenced by communism as they were ground for the political disputes of the postwar period.
This led to protests by students critical of the prevailing system, between 1945 and 1948, more than 18 students were arrested or persecuted, some even executed by the soviet secret police. At the end of 1947, first students demanded a university free from political influence, the climax of the protests was reached on 23 April 1948, after three students were expelled from the university without a trial, about 2,000 students protested at the Hotel Esplanade. By the end of April, the governor of the United States Army Lucius D. Clay gave the order to check for the formation of a new university in the western sectors. On 19 June 1948 the preparatory committee for establishing a university consisting of politicians, administrative staff members and students. With a manifesto titled Request for establishing a university in Berlin the committee appealed to the public for support. The municipal authorities of Berlin granted the foundation of a free university, the council-manager government accepted the by-law on 4 November 1948.
This form was unique in Germany at that time, as the students had more influence on the system than before. On 15 November 1948, the first lectures were held in the buildings of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science. The actual foundation took place on 4 December 1948 in the Titania palace, attendants of the event were not only scientists and students, but representatives of American universities, among them Stanford University and Yale University. The first elected president of the FU Berlin was the historian Friedrich Meinecke, in 1949, Freie Universität already registered 4,946 students. Until the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, many came from the soviet sector. On 26 June 1963, the day he held his famous Ich bin ein Berliner speech at Rathaus Schöneberg. Amongst the attendant crowd are the Governing Mayor of Berlin Willy Brandt and his brother, Robert F. Kennedy visited Freie Universität in 1962 for the first time and in June 1964 for receiving his honorary degree from the Department of Philosophy
Lionel Mordecai Trilling was an American literary critic, short story writer and teacher. He was one of the leading U. S. critics of the century who traced the contemporary cultural, social. With his wife Diana Trilling, whom he married in 1929, he was a member of the New York Intellectuals and contributor to the Partisan Review. Lionel Trilling was born in Queens, New York, the son of Fannie, who was from London, and David Trilling, a tailor from Bialystok in Poland. In 1921, he graduated from DeWitt Clinton High School, and, at age sixteen, entered Columbia University and he joined the Boars Head Society and wrote for the Morningside literary journal. In 1925, he graduated from Columbia College, and, in 1926 and he taught at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and at Hunter College. In 1929 he married Diana Rubin, and the two began a literary partnership. In 1932 he returned to Columbia to pursue his degree in English literature. He earned his doctorate in 1938 with a dissertation about Matthew Arnold that he published and he was promoted to assistant professor the following year, becoming Columbias first tenured Jewish professor in its English department.
He was promoted to professor in 1948. Lionel Trilling became the George Edward Woodberry Professor of Literature and Criticism in 1965 and he was a popular instructor and for thirty years taught Columbias Colloquium on Important Books, a course about the relationship between literature and cultural history, with Jacques Barzun. Trilling was the Charles Eliot Norton Professor of Poetry at Harvard University for academic year 1969–70, Trilling was a senior fellow of the Kenyon School of English and subsequently a senior fellow of the Indiana School of Letters. In 1937, Trilling joined the revived magazine Partisan Review, a Marxist. The New York Intellectuals distanced themselves from the New Critics, in his preface to the essays collection, Beyond Culture, Trilling defended the New York Intellectuals, As a group, it is busy and vivacious about ideas, even more, about attitudes. The structure of our society is such that a class of this kind is bound by organic filaments to groups less culturally fluent that are susceptible to its influence, Trilling wrote one novel, The Middle of the Journey, about an affluent Communist couples encounter with a Communist defector.
His short stories include The Other Margaret, otherwise, he wrote essays and reviews in which he reflected on literatures ability to challenge the morality and conventions of the culture. In Sincerity and Authenticity, he explores the ideas of the self in post-Enlightenment Western civilization. In 2008, Columbia University Press published a novel that Trilling had abandoned in the late 1940s
National Socialism, more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi Germany, as well as other far-right groups. Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying Germans as part of what Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race and it aimed to overcome social divisions and create a homogeneous society, unified on the basis of racial purity. The term National Socialism arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of socialism, the Nazi Partys precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and anti-Semitic German Workers Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s, Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organisation, following the Holocaust and German defeat in World War II, only a few fringe racist groups, usually referred to as neo-Nazis, still describe themselves as following National Socialism. The full name of Adolf Hitlers party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, the shorthand Nazi was formed from the first two syllables of the German pronunciation of the word national.
The term was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a peasant, characterizing an awkward. It derived from Ignaz, being a version of Ignatius, a common name in Bavaria. Opponents seized on this and shortened the first word of the name, Nationalsozialistische. The NSDAP briefly adopted the Nazi designation, attempting to reappropriate the term, the use of Nazi Germany, Nazi regime, and so on was popularised by German exiles abroad. From them, the spread into other languages and was eventually brought back to Germany after World War II. In English, Nazism is a name for the ideology the party advocated. The majority of scholars identify Nazism in practice as a form of far-right politics, far-right themes in Nazism include the argument that superior people have a right to dominate over other people and purge society of supposed inferior elements. Adolf Hitler and other proponents officially portrayed Nazism as being neither left- nor right-wing, but the politicians of the Right deserve exactly the same reproach.
It was through their miserable cowardice that those ruffians of Jews who came into power in 1918 were able to rob the nation of its arms, a major inspiration for the Nazis were the far-right nationalist Freikorps, paramilitary organisations that engaged in political violence after World War I. The Nazis stated the alliance was purely tactical and there remained substantial differences with the DNVP, the Nazis described the DNVP as a bourgeois party and called themselves an anti-bourgeois party. After the elections in 1932, the alliance broke after the DNVP lost many of its seats in the Reichstag, the Nazis denounced them as an insignificant heap of reactionaries. The DNVP responded by denouncing the Nazis for their socialism, their violence. Kaiser Wilhelm II, who was pressured to abdicate the throne and flee into exile amidst an attempted communist revolution in Germany, there were factions in the Nazi Party, both conservative and radical
He was a leading municipal reformer fighting for efficiency during the Progressive Era. Seth Low was the son of Abiel Abbot Low and Ellen Almira Dow, Lows father was a leading China trader, and his fathers sister, Harriet Low, was one of the first young American women to live in China. The Low family was old Puritan New England stock, descended from Thomas Low of Essex County, Low was named after his grandfather Seth Low who moved with his son Abiel to Brooklyn to start a prosperous importing company. When Brooklyn was incorporated as a city in 1834, Seth the elder was one of the incorporators, Seth the elder was involved with charity and support work for the poor, on his deathbed, he admonished his three-year-old grandson and namesake, Be kind to the poor. Seths father was a Unitarian, and his mother was an Episcopalian, for years, Seth wavered between the two faiths. Finally, at age 22, Seth decided he would henceforth be an Episcopalian, Low attended Poly Prep Country Day School in Brooklyn and Columbia College.
After graduating from Columbia in 1870, Low made a trip abroad. Low & Brothers, which had been founded by his father in New York, in 1875, he was admitted a member of the firm, from which, upon its liquidation in 1888, he withdrew with a large fortune. On December 9,1880 he married Anne Wroe Scollay Curtis of Boston and they had no biological children, but adopted two nieces and a nephew. By 1881 Brooklyn had been governed for years by a corrupt Democratic political machine under Hugh McLaughlin, by this time, a wave of goo-goo sentiment had begun to gain favor, and public sentiment was starting to turn against the incumbent Democratic regime. Brooklyn Republicans sensed an opportunity, but they were split between the stalwart candidate Benjamin F. Tracy and reform candidate Ripley Ropes, Low accepted the nomination at the Republican city convention, making it clear that he would not be a partisan mayor. Low defeated the incumbent Democrat James Howell after a campaign,45,434 votes to 40,937.
Lows time in office was marked by a number of reforms, the State Government dictated city policies, hiring and other affairs. Low managed to secure a veto over all Brooklyn bills in the State Assembly. Low instituted a number of educational reforms and he was the first to integrate Brooklyn schools. He introduced free textbooks for all students, not just those who had taken a paupers oath and he instituted a competitive examination for hiring teachers, instead of giving teaching jobs to pay political debts. Low set aside $430,000 for the construction of new schools to accommodate 10,000 new students, Low introduced Civil Service Code to all city employees, eliminating patronage jobs. German immigrants wanted to enjoy their local beer gardens on the Sabbath, in violation of state dry laws, Lows compromise solution was that saloons could stay open as long as they were orderly
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, literature and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at a ceremony on December 10. The first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to Jacobus Henricus van t Hoff, of the Netherlands, for his discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions. From 1901 to 2016, the award has been bestowed on a total of 174 individuals, though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, and signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895.
Nobel bequeathed 94% of his assets,31 million Swedish kronor, to establish. Due to the level of surrounding the will, it was not until April 26,1897 that it was approved by the Storting. The executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, the members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved. The prize-awarding organisations followed, the Karolinska Institutet on June 7, the Swedish Academy on June 9, the Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundations newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II, according to Nobels will, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences were to award the Prize in Chemistry. The committee and institution serving as the board for the prize typically announce the names of the laureates in October. The prize is awarded at formal ceremonies held annually on December 10. The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm is when each Nobel Laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of His Majesty the King of Sweden, the Nobel Laureate receives three things, a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount.
Later the Nobel Banquet is held in Stockholm City Hall, a maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected. The award can be given to a maximum of three recipients per year and it consists of a gold medal, a diploma, and a cash grant. The Nobel Laureates in chemistry are selected by a committee that consists of five elected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In its first stage, several people are asked to nominate candidates
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luthers efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone and this is in contrast to the belief of the Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. In addition, Lutheranism accepts the teachings of the first seven ecumenical councils of the undivided Christian Church, unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lords Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of Gods Law, the grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints.
Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest denominations of Protestantism, with approximately 80 million adherents, it constitutes the third most common Protestant denomination after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism. The Lutheran World Federation, the largest communion of Lutheran churches, Other Lutheran organizations include the International Lutheran Council and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, as well as independent churches. The name Lutheran originated as a term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Catholics followed the practice of naming a heresy after its leader. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, the followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition began to use that term. To distinguish the two groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed.
As time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped, Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church, Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway, through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen, under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark-Norway remained officially Catholic. Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers. During Fredericks reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark, at an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted, We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops anymore.
Fredericks son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his fathers death, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark-Norway
Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples and cultures. The Jewish diaspora began with the Assyrian conquest and continued on a larger scale with the Babylonian conquest. Jews were widespread throughout the Roman Empire, and this carried on to an extent in the period of Byzantine rule in the central. In 638 CE the Byzantine Empire lost control of the Levant, the Arab Islamic Empire under Caliph Omar conquered Jerusalem and the lands of Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt. The Golden Age of Jewish culture in Spain coincided with the Middle Ages in Europe, during that time, Jews were generally accepted in society and Jewish religious and economic life blossomed. During the Classical Ottoman period, the Jews, together with most other communities of the empire, in the 17th century, there were many significant Jewish populations in Western Europe. During the period of the European Renaissance and Enlightenment, significant changes occurred within the Jewish community, Jews began in the 18th century to campaign for emancipation from restrictive laws and integration into the wider European society.
During the 1870s and 1880s the Jewish population in Europe began to actively discuss immigration back to Israel. The Zionist movement was founded officially in 1884, the Jews of Europe and the United States gained success in the fields of science and the economy. Among those generally considered the most famous were scientist Albert Einstein, a large number of Nobel Prize winners at this time were Jewish, as is still the case. In 1933, with the rise to power of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party in Germany, economic crises, racial anti-Semitic laws, and a fear of an upcoming war led many Jews to flee from Europe to Palestine, to the United States and to the Soviet Union. In 1939 World War II began and until 1941 Hitler occupied almost all of Europe and this genocide, in which approximately six million Jews were methodically exterminated, is known as The Holocaust or Shoah. In Poland, three million Jews were killed in gas chambers in all concentration camps combined, with one million at the Auschwitz concentration camp alone, in 1945 the Jewish resistance organizations in Palestine unified and established the Jewish Resistance Movement.
The movement began attacking the British authority, David Ben-Gurion proclaimed on May 14,1948, the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel to be known as the State of Israel. Immediately afterwards all neighbouring Arab states attacked, yet the newly formed IDF resisted, in 1949 the war ended and the state of Israel started building the state and absorbing massive waves of hundreds of thousands of Jews from all over the world. Today, Israel is a democracy with a population of over 8 million people. The largest Jewish communities are in Israel and the United States, with communities in France, Russia, United Kingdom, Canada. For statistics related to modern Jewish demographics see Jewish population, the history of the early Jews, and their neighbors, centers on the Fertile Crescent and east coast of the Mediterranean Sea