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Friuli

Friuli is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity containing 600,000 Friulians. It comprises the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, i.e. the administrative provinces of Udine and Gorizia, excluding Trieste. The multiethnic and subsequent multilingual tradition of Friuli means that the name of the region varies according to locality. Besides Friuli from Italian, other local Romance forms include Venetian Friul; the name Friuli originates from the ancient Roman town of Forum Iulii. Friuli is bordered on the west by the Veneto region with the border running along the Livenza river, on the north by the crest of the Carnic Alps between Carnia and Austrian Carinthia, on the east by the Julian Alps, the border with Slovenia and the Timavo river, on the south by the Adriatic Sea; the adjacent Slovene parts of the Soča/Isonzo valley from Gorizia/Nova Gorica up to Mt. Triglav and the Vipava Valley, forming the Goriška region, may be considered part of historic Friuli.

\. The mountainous northern part of the region belongs to the Southern Limestone Alps. From west to east, the region's highest peaks are, in the Carnic Prealps — the Cima dei Preti, 2,703 metres, Duranno 2,652 metres, Cridola 2,581 metres. Rivers flowing southwards from the mountains are numerous; the Friulian mountains surround the course of the Tagliamento river, which, at the latitude of Gemona del Friuli first crosses the hills that occupy the center of the Friuli flows into a large flood plain. This plain is divided into the High Friulian plain and the Low Friulian plain, whose boundary is the Napoleonic road that connects the cities of Codroipo and Palmanova. To the south of this road is the risorgive zone, where water resurfaces from underground waterways in spring-fed pools throughout the area. South of the plains lie the lagoons of Grado, which are nature reserves. Other important rivers include the Torre, Stella, Isonzo/Soča, Ausa. Friuli covers an area of 8,240 square kilometres, subdivided among the provinces of Udine 4,905 square kilometres, Pordenone 2,178 square kilometres and Gorizia 466 square kilometres.

The historical capital and most important city of is Udine, it was the capital of the medieval Patria del Friuli. Other important towns are Pordenone, Gorizia/Nova Gorica, Codroipo, Cervignano del Friuli, Cividale del Friuli, Gemona del Friuli and Tolmezzo; the climate of the Friulian plain is humid sub-Mediterranean. The climate in this area is suitable for growing white wine grapes, 2.5% of wine produced in Italy comes from this part of the region. The hills, have a continental climate, the mountainous regions have an alpine climate. On the coast the mean annual temperature is 14 °C, while in the inner plains, the average is lowered to 13 to 13.5 °C. Further north, in Tolmezzo, the average temperature is 10.6 °C. The lowest values are recorded in the Alps: 4 °C at Passo di Monte Croce Carnico and between 5.5 and 7 °C in Val Canale, situated 850 metres above sea level. In the coldest month, temperatures vary between 4.5 °C in Monfalcone and nearly −5 °C in Passo di Monte Croce Carnico, with intermediate temperatures of 3 °C in Udine and −2 or −3 °C in Valcanale.

Gorizia, a short distance from Udine, enjoys a milder micro-climate with its approximate annual average of 4 °C. In the warmest month, the temperatures range between 22.5 and 24 °C along the coast and plains and between 14 and 16 °C in Val Canale. Precipitation in Friuli is abundant. Minimum values in the southern part fall between 1,200 and 1,500 mm, whereas the alpine area's maximum annual rainfall is 3,000 mm; the Julian Prealps is one of Italy's rainiest regions: Musi receives about 3,300 mm of annual precipitation, sometimes 5000 mm, can receive 400 mm in a single month. In some areas of Friuli, excessive rainfall has caused the flooding of many rivers. Snow is sparse in the southern plains but falls more further to the north; the following weatherbox is from the main city of Friuli. Friuli has a little under one million people, it must be considered that Mandament of Portogruaro and comune of Sappada belong to Friuli. With these lands, the total population reaches 1,060,000 people. One of the most important demographic phenomena in Friuli was emigration.

It ended in the 1970s. It is estimated that more than a million Friulian people emigrated away over a period

2014–15 Biathlon World Cup – Relay Women

The 2014–15 Biathlon World Cup – Relay Women started on Saturday December 13, 2014 in Hochfilzen and finished on Friday March 13, 2015 at the World Championships in Kontiolahti. The defending titlist Germany finished on the 2nd place; the title was won by the Czech Republic. The relay teams consist of four biathletes, who each ski 6 kilometres, each leg skied over three laps, with two shooting rounds. For every round of five targets there are eight bullets available, though the last three can only be single-loaded manually one at a time from spare round holders or bullets deposited by the competitor into trays or onto the mat at the firing line. If after eight bullets there are still misses, one 150 m penalty loop must be taken for each missed target remaining; the first-leg participants start all at the same time, as in cross-country skiing relays, every athlete of a team must touch the team's next-leg participant to perform a valid changeover. On the first shooting stage of the first leg, the participant must shoot in the lane corresponding to their bib number for the remainder of the relay, the relay team shoots at the lane in the position they arrived

Kakegawa Castle

Kakegawa Castle is a hirayama-style Japanese castle. It was the seat of various fudai daimyō clans who ruled over Kakegawa Domain, Tōtōmi Province, in what is now central Kakegawa, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Kakegawa Castle is located at a small hill in the center of Kakegawa, an important post station on the Tōkaidō highway connecting Kyoto with eastern Japan since the Heian period; because of its geographical location, Kakegawa was strategic point in controlling the eastern half of Tōtōmi province. The first Kakegawa Castle was built by Asahina Yasuhiro in the Bunmei era, a retainer of the warlord Imagawa Yoshitada to consolidate his holdings over Tōtōmi Province; the castle remained in the hands of the succeeding generations of the Asahina clan. After the defeat of the Imagawa clan at the Battle of Okehazama, the former Imagawa territories were divided between Takeda Shingen of Kai and Tokugawa Ieyasu of Mikawa. Kakegawa Castle was surrendered to Tokugawa forces in 1568 by Asahina Yasutomo after a five month siege.

The surrounding area remained a territory contested between the Takeda for many years. After the Battle of Odawara in 1590 and the rise to power of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu was forced to trade his domains in the Tōkai region for the Kantō region instead. Kakegawa was relinquished to Toyotomi retainer Yamauchi Kazutoyo as the center of a new 51,000 koku domain. Yamauchi Kazutoyo rebuilt the castle per the latest contemporary designs, the current layout and much of the stone walls and moats date from his period. After the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate, the Tokugawa recovered their lost territories, reassigned Tōtōmi to various fudai daimyō; the Yamauchi clan was reassigned to Kōchi in Shikoku, Kakegawa was assigned to Hisamatsu Sadakatsu. Over the years, numerous daimyō clans ruled Kakegawa Domain, ending with seven generations of the Ōta clan; the keep built by the Yamauchi was destroyed in an earthquake in 1604, reconstructed in 1621. The castle was kept in repair through the Bakumatsu period, however it suffered from extensive damage in 1854, due to the Ansei Tōkai earthquake.

Many structures were rebuilt by 1861, were in use after the Meiji Restoration as local government offices. Kakegawa Castle remained in ruins through the Shōwa period, with the exception of the Ni-no-Maru Goten, built by Ōta Sukekatsu after the earthquake, registered with the government in 1980 as an Important Cultural Property. Other surviving portions of the castle included a portion of the moats and stone walls, the drum house. A gate from the main bailey of the castle built in 1659 was given to the Buddhist temple of Yusan-ji in Fukuroi, where it now serves as the main gate of that temple, it is a National ICP. In April 1994, sections of the innermost bailey, including some walls, a yagura, the keep, were reconstructed using the original methods; the tenshukaku's reconstruction was done based on a few diagrams of the original tenshukaku that survived, marked the first time in post-war Japan that a tenshukaku had been reconstructed in wood using the original construction methods. The cost of 1 billion yen for the reconstruction was raised through public donation.

In 2006, the site of Kakegawa Castle was listed as No. 42 of the 100 Fine Castles of Japan by the Japan Castle Foundation due to its historical significance. Benesch and Ran Zwigenberg. Japan's Castles: Citadels of Modernity in War and Peace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. 374. ISBN 9781108481946. Schmorleitz, Morton S.. Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co. pp. 144–145. ISBN 0-8048-1102-4. Motoo, Hinago. Japanese Castles. Tokyo: Kodansha. P. 200 pages. ISBN 0-87011-766-1. Mitchelhill, Jennifer. Castles of the Samurai: Power and Beauty. Tokyo: Kodansha. P. 112 pages. ISBN 4-7700-2954-3. Turnbull, Stephen. Japanese Castles 1540–1640. Osprey Publishing. P. 64 pages. ISBN 1-84176-429-9. Profile at J-Castle Shizuoka Prefecture Tourism Association Japanese Castle Explorer - Kakegawa Castle Japan Visitor’s Guide