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Fromental Halévy

Jacques-François-Fromental-Élie Halévy known as Fromental Halévy, was a French composer. He is known today for his opera La Juive. Halévy was born in Paris, son of the cantor Élie Halfon Halévy, the secretary of the Jewish community of Paris and a writer and teacher of Hebrew, a French Jewish mother; the name Fromental, by which he was known, reflects his birth on the day dedicated to that plant: 7 Prairial in the French Revolutionary calendar, still operative at that time. He entered the Conservatoire de Paris at the age of nine or ten, in 1809, becoming a pupil and protégé of Cherubini. After two second-place attempts, he won the Prix de Rome in 1819: his cantata subject was Herminie; as he had to delay his departure to Rome because of the death of his mother, he was able to accept the first commission that brought him to public attention: a Marche Funèbre et De Profundis en Hébreu for three part choir and orchestra, commissioned by the Consistoire Israélite du Département de la Seine, for a public service in memory of the assassinated duc de Berry, performed on 24 March 1820.

His brother Léon recalled that the De Profundis, "infused with religious fervor, created a sensation, attracted interest to the young laureate of the institute". Halévy was chorus master at the Théâtre Italien. Despite the mediocre reception of L'artisan, at the Opéra-Comique in 1827, Halévy moved on to be chorus master at the Opéra; the same year he became professor of harmony and accompaniment at the Conservatoire de Paris, where he was professor of counterpoint and fugue in 1833 and of composition in 1840. He had many notable students. See: List of music students by teacher: G to J#Fromental Halévy. With his opera La Juive, in 1835, Halévy attained not only his first major triumph, but gave the world a work, to be one of the cornerstones of the French repertory for a century, with the role of Eléazar one of the great favorites of tenors such as Enrico Caruso; the opera's most famous aria is Eléazar's "Rachel, quand du Seigneur". Its orchestral ritornello is the one quotation from Halévy that Berlioz included in his Treatise on Instrumentation, for its unusual duet for two cors anglais.

It is probable, that this aria was inserted only at the request of the great tenor Adolphe Nourrit, who premiered the role and may have suggested the aria's text. La Juive is one of the grandest of grand operas, with major choruses, a spectacular procession in Act I and impressive celebrations in Act III, it culminates with the heroine plunging into a vat of boiling water in Act V. Mahler admired it stating: "I am overwhelmed by this wonderful, majestic work. I regard it as one of the greatest operas created". Other admirers included Wagner, who wrote an enthusiastic review of Halévy's grand operas for the German press in 1841. Halévy was elected to the Institut de France in 1836, but after La Juive, his real successes were few, although at least three operas, L'Éclair, La Reine de Chypre and Charles VI received some critical and popular acclaim. Heine commented that Halévy was an artist, but "without the slightest spark of genius", he became, however, a leading bureaucrat of the arts, becoming Secretary of the Académie des Beaux-Arts and presiding over committees to determine the standard pitch of orchestral A, to award prizes for operettas, etc.

The artist Eugène Delacroix described Halévy's decline in his diaries: I went on to Halévy’s house, where the heat from his stove was suffocating. His wretched wife has crammed his house with bric-a-brac and old furniture, this new craze will end by driving him to a lunatic asylum, he has changed and looks much older, like a man, being dragged on against his will. How can he do serious work in this confusion? His new position at the Academy must take up a great deal of his time and make it more and more difficult for him to find the peace and quiet he needs for his work. Left that inferno as as possible; the breath of the streets seemed positively delicious. Halévy's cantata Prométhée enchaîné was premiered in 1849 at the Paris Conservatoire and is considered the first mainstream western orchestral composition to use quarter tones. Halévy died in retirement at Nice in 1862, aged 62, leaving his last opera Noé unfinished, it was completed by his former student Georges Bizet, but was not performed until ten years after Bizet's own death.

Halévy wrote some forty operas in all, including: Halévy wrote for the ballet, provided incidental music for a French version of Aeschylus's Prometheus Bound, wrote cantatas. Halévy's wife, Léonie who had experienced serious mental problems during their marriage, underwent a remarkable recovery after his death and became a talented sculptress In 1869, their daughter Geneviève married the composer Georges Bizet, one of Halévy's pupils at the Conservatoire. After Bizet's death and an alliance with Élie-Miriam Delaborde, the son of Charles-Valentin Alkan, Geneviève married a banker with Rothschild connections and became a leading Parisian salonnière. Amongst the guests at her soirées was the young Marcel Proust, who used her as one of the models for the Duchesse de Guermantes in his epic In Search of Lost Time. Halévy's brother was the writer and historian Léon Halévy, who wrote an early biography of his brother and was the father of Ludovic Halévy, librettist of many French operas, including Bizet's Carmen and Jac

Gertrude Dunn

Gertrude Dunn was an American baseball player with the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, the league made famous by the 1992 film A League Of Their Own. Dunn played shortstop on two teams, the Battle Creek Belles and the South Bend Blue Sox, was named "Rookie of the Year" in 1952; when the league was unable to continue in 1955, Dunn joined several other players selected by former Fort Wayne Daisies manager Bill Allington to play in the national touring team known as the All-Americans All-Stars. The team played 100 games, each booked in a different town, against male teams, while traveling over 10,000 miles in the manager's station wagon and a Ford Country Sedan. Besides Dunn, the Allington All-Stars included players as Joan Berger, Gloria Cordes, Jeanie Descombes, Betty Foss, Mary Froning, Jean Geissinger, Katie Horstman, Maxine Kline, Dolores Lee, Magdalen Redman, Ruth Richard, Dorothy Schroeder, Jean Smith, Dolly Vanderlip and Joanne Weaver, among others, she attended West Chester University of Pennsylvania and graduated with the class of 1960.

Dunn was a player on the United States women's national field hockey team. She coached field hockey and was named to the USA Field Hockey Hall of Fame on January 16, 1988. At the age of 70, on September 29, 2004, Dunn died in Avondale, Pennsylvania when the Piper Archer airplane she was solo-piloting crashed shortly after takeoff from New Garden Airport, she was posthumously inducted into the Lacrosse Museum and National Hall of Fame in Baltimore, Maryland in 2007. Batting Fielding

Conrad I of Germany

Conrad I, called the Younger, was the king of East Francia from 911 to 918. He was the first king not of the Carolingian dynasty, the first to be elected by the nobility and the first to be anointed, he was chosen as the king by the rulers of the East Frankish stem duchies after the death of young king Louis the Child. Ethnically Frankish, prior to this election he had ruled the Duchy of Franconia from 906. Conrad was the son of duke Conrad of Thuringia and his wife Glismut related to Ota, wife of the Carolingian emperor Arnulf of Carinthia and mother of Louis the Child; the Conradines, counts in the Franconian Lahngau region, had been loyal supporters of the Carolingians. At the same time, they competed vigorously for predominance in Franconia with the sons of the Babenbergian duke Henry of Franconia at Bamberg Castle. In 906 the two parties battled each other near Fritzlar. Conrad the Elder was killed. King Louis the Child took the Conradines' side and the third Babenbergian brother Adalbert was arrested and executed shortly thereafter, despite a promise of safe conduct by the king's chancellor, Archbishop Hatto I of Mainz.

Conrad became the undisputed duke of all Franconia. He failed in his attempts to extend the rule of Conradines over the western Lotharingia after the death of his uncle, duke Gebhard. After the death of Louis the Child, Conrad was elected king of East Francia on 10 November 911 at Forchheim by the rulers of Saxony and Bavaria; the dukes prevented the succession to the throne of Louis' Carolingian relative Charles the Simple, king of West Francia. They chose the Conradine scion, maternally related to the late king. Only Conrad's rival, duke of Lotharingia refused to give him his allegiance and joined West Francia; because Conrad I was one of the dukes, he found it hard to establish his authority over them. Duke Henry of Saxony was in rebellion against Conrad I until 915 and the struggle against Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria cost Conrad I his life. Burchard II, Duke of Swabia received more autonomy. Arnulf of Bavaria called on Magyars for assistance in his uprising, when defeated, fled to Magyar lands.

For this he was condemned to death as a traitor. In 913 Conrad I married the sister of the Swabian count Erchanger, grandson of king Louis the German. Cunigunde, widow of Liutpold and mother of Duke Arnulf of Bavaria, gave him two children: Cunigunda and Herman, both born in 913. In 913 Erchanger revolted against Conrad I. In 914 He captured Solomon III, Bishop of Constance, Conrad’s chief counselor. Erchanger still managed to defeat royal army in a battle near Lake Constance, he was arrested for treason in assembly of nobles at Hohenaltheim in Swabia and on 21 January 917 was executed together with his brother Berthold. Conrad's reign was a continuous and unsuccessful struggle to uphold the power of king against the growing power of the local dukes, his military campaigns against Charles the Simple to regain Lotharingia and the Imperial city of Aachen were failures. Archbishop Ratbod of Trier became West Frankish chancellor in 913. Conrad's realm was exposed to the continuous raids of the Magyars since the disastrous defeat of the Bavarian forces at the 907 Battle of Pressburg, leading to a considerable decline in his authority.

His attempt to mobilize the East Frankish episcopate led by Archbishop Unni of Bremen to his cause at the 916 synod of Hohenaltheim was not enough to compensate other failures. After several clashes, Conrad at least was able to come to terms with duke Henry of Saxony; the restless Swabian dukes Erchanger and Burchard II were a continuous threat, as was Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria. Injured at one of his battles with Arnulf, Conrad died on 23 December 918 at his residence in Weilburg Castle, he was buried in Fulda Cathedral. According to the Res gestae saxonicae by the chronicler Widukind of Corvey, Conrad on his deathbed persuaded his younger brother Eberhard of Franconia to offer the royal crown to Henry the Fowler, the duke of Saxony and one of his principal opponents, since he considered Henry to be the only duke capable of holding the kingdom together in the face of internal rivalries among the dukes and the continuous Magyar raids, it was not until May 919, when Eberhard and the other Frankish nobles accepted Conrad's advice, Henry was elected king as Henry I at the Reichstag of Fritzlar.

Kingship now changed from Franks to Saxons, who had suffered during the conquests of Charlemagne and were proud of their identity. Eberhard succeeded Conrad as duke of Franconia, he was killed in 939 at the Battle of Andernach during his rebellion against emperor Otto I, whereafter the duchy of Franconia became a direct Imperial possession of the Ottonian dynasty until 1024

Toyota Vitz

The Toyota Vitz is a line of three- and five-door hatchback subcompact cars, produced from 1999 until 2019 by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota. Throughout its production, the name "Vitz" nameplate had been used in Japan, with most international markets received the same vehicle under the Toyota Yaris name, or as the Toyota Echo in some markets for the first generation; the Vitz was available in Japan from Toyota's Netz Store dealerships. As of 2010, the first two generations had achieved in excess of 3.5 million sales in over 70 countries, including more than 1.4 million in Japan. The "Vitz" nameplate was discontinued in Japan in 2019 for the XP210 series Yaris nameplate; the nameplate change is due to sharp drop in sales. The first generation XP10 series Vitz was designed by Sotiris Kovos at Toyota's ED2 studio in Europe, it was first unveiled at the 1998 Paris Motor Show. Production began in late 1998, with a Japanese on-sale date of January 1999; when introduced to Australasia in October 1999, the "Toyota Echo" name was used, as was the case in Canada when released there in 2003 for the 2004 model year.

The "Echo" and "Yaris" names were given to the export version of the related Japanese market Toyota Platz sedan available as a coupé in North America. Sold alongside the hatchback and marketed as a single line of vehicles, exterior panels common between the Vitz and Platz were restricted to the front doors. However, as Vitz and Platz were designed using the same platform, the mechanicals are identical and both share a common dashboard module. There was a "Yaris Verso" or "Echo Verso" variant sold in some export markets from late 1999, based on the Japanese "Toyota Fun Cargo"; the Verso MPV features a more spacious interior. At its introduction in 1999, it won the Car of the Year Japan Award. What became; this concept, titled "Funtime" was developed under the leadership of Shuhei Toyoda, who commissioned two additional models based on the same platform: the "Funcoupe" and the "Funcargo", the predecessor to the forthcoming production model Fun Cargo. Styled in Brussels by Toyota's European Office of Creation, the "Fun project" as it was known, was envisaged to underline the versatility of shared platform engineering.

These concept vehicles morphed into the New Basic Car program, with each separate NBC model designated a number, NBC1 in the case of the Vitz three-door. The name Vitz is the phonetic Anglicized spelling of the German word Witz which means "wit". Toyota claims the contrived name Yaris is "intended to convey a European impression", while Echo "is intended to Echo nothing."Instead of conventional analogue instruments, the Vitz utilized digital instruments which were mounted in a "pod" in the center of the dashboard. When sales commenced in the Canadian market this was not the case, with Toyota opting to fit a conventional speedometer, still mounted in the center of the dashboard. In 2003, the facelifted'Phase 2' Vitz was released with different bumpers and'teardrop' front lights. Euro NCAP crash tested the dual-airbag equipped XP10 series in 2000, rating the car 29 out of 37 for adult occupant protection, or four out of five stars; the pedestrian rating is two of out of four stars. In July 2004, ANCAP tested the XP10 with only a driver's airbag fitted, resulting in a 23.64 out of 37 grading, or three out of five stars.

The 2010 edition of Monash University's Used Car Safety Ratings, found that the XP10 provides a "poor" level of occupant safety protection in the event of an accident. The Japanese launch of the Vitz occurred on 13 January 1999, along with the related Platz, was retailed through the Netz dealership channel; the Vitz "RS" was introduced in October 2000. The "RS" featured revised front and rear bumpers, a mesh grille, black-tinted headlamps, front fog lamps, side skirts and alloy wheels. Interior upgrades include, sports-oriented front seats, a leather-wrapped steering wheel, a leather and chrome gear shifter, metallic door sill scuff plates. Two engines were available in the "RS", the 1.3-litre 84 hp 2NZ-FE and the 1.5-litre 110 hp 1NZ-FE. More powerful brakes and a firmer suspension calibration were fitted to the "RS"; the Phase 2 Vitz RS was modified by Toyota Racing Development for the domestic Japanese market, outfitted with an IHI Rhf4 turbocharger with 0.5 bars boost. Produced in limited numbers, the TRD-tuned "RS" sported the 1.5-litre engine, produced 148 hp and offered a 0–100 kilometres per hour time of 7.9 seconds.

The Yaris was sold in China as the Xiali Vizi from December 2002 to 2012, equipped with a 1.0 and 1.3 litre engine. The XP10 series was introduced to Australia on 8 October 1999 as the "Echo". Both the three- and five-door hatchback variants were available, which sold alongside the four-door Toyota Platz-derived Echo sedan. Sourced from Japan, Australian-market Echo hatchbacks received the 1.3-litre 2NZ-FE engine with a standard five-speed manual transmission and optional four-speed automatic. The base model was fitted with a driver's airbag and cassette player, although the optional safety pack added a passenger airbag and anti-lock brakes. Power steering was made standard equipment in October 2002; the Echo "Sportivo" was introduced in March 2001, fitted with the 1.5-litre 1NZ-FE engine with manual transmission only. Compared to the models equivalent to the Echo "Sportivo" in other markets (the

King David Hotel

The King David Hotel is a 5-star hotel in Jerusalem and a member of The Leading Hotels of the World. Opened in 1931, the hotel was built with locally quarried pink limestone and was founded by Ezra Mosseri, a wealthy Egyptian Jewish banker, it is located on King David Street in the centre of Jerusalem, overlooking the Old City and Mount Zion. The hotel and operated by the Dan Hotels group, has traditionally been the chosen venue for hosting heads of state and other personalities during their visits to Jerusalem, it is famous for having been targeted by a terrorist bombing in 1946 undertaken by the Zionist paramilitary group Irgun, in which 91 people died. In 1929, Palestine Hotels Ltd. purchased 4.5 acres on Jerusalem's Julian’s Way, today King David Street. Half the construction costs were paid by Ezra Mosseri, an affluent Egyptian Jewish banker and director of the National Bank of Egypt, another 46% by other wealthy Cairo Jews; the 4% remaining was paid by the National Bank, which purchased 693 shares of the company between 1934 and 1943.

From its earliest days, the King David Hotel hosted royalty: the dowager empress of Persia, queen mother Nazli of Egypt, King Abdullah I of Jordan stayed at the hotel, three heads of state forced to flee their countries took up residence there: King Alfonso XIII of Spain, forced to abdicate in 1931, Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, driven out by the Italians in 1936, King George II of Greece, who set up his government in exile at the hotel after the Nazi occupation of his country in 1942. During the British Mandate, the southern wing of the hotel was turned into a British administrative and military headquarters. On July 22, 1946, the southwestern corner of the hotel was bombed during an attack led by the Zionist paramilitary group Irgun. 91 people died and 45 people were injured. An earlier attempt by the Irgun to attack the hotel had been foiled when the Haganah learned of it, warned the British authorities. On May 4, 1948, when the British flag was lowered as the British Mandate ended, the building became a Jewish stronghold.

At the end of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the hotel found itself overlooking "no-man’s land" on the armistice line that divided Jerusalem into Israeli and Jordanian territory. The hotel was purchased by the Dan Hotels chain in 1958. Multiple scenes in the 1960 film Exodus were shot at the hotel, both outside and inside, in the main lobby and on the terrace; when East Jerusalem was annexed by Israel following the 1967 Six-Day War, the hotel was expanded, with two additional floors. King David accommodated many foreign heads of state and diplomats visiting Israel. Among the hotel's more famous guests were King George V. S. Presidents Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, Barack Obama, Donald Trump; the design for the hotel was commissioned from a Swiss architect, Emile Vogt, with the actual construction supervised by Jerusalem architect Benjamin Chaiken. According to Hebrew University professor Ruth Kark, Vogt's approach was typical of European architects who, commissioned to design buildings in Jerusalem, incorporated "Eastern-style domes, various kinds of different-colored stone, interior decorations with religious symbols and inscriptions," in buildings whose strict symmetry marks them indelibly as European.

The public rooms were decorated by G. G. Hufschmid in motifs taken from Assyrian, Hittite and Muslim buildings in an effort to evoke a "Biblical" style. Hufschmid Swiss, stated that his intention was "to evoke by reminiscence the ancient Semitic style and the ambiance of the glorious period of King David." The hotel includes four dining options: La Régence – fine dining King's Garden The Oriental Bar Poolside Snack BarLa Régence and King's Garden are run by executive chef David Biton. “Hotel Design in British Mandate Palestine: Modernism and the Zionist Vision,” Journal of Israel History 29 King David Hotel Jerusalem Official site

Bruno Gissoni

Bruno Sang Gissoni is a Brazilian actor. Born in Rio de Janeiro, Bruno lived for eight years in United States. In Los Angeles he attended Venice High School. Back in Brazil, he played professional soccer for Nova Iguaçu Futebol Clube. In 2007, he made a cameo in the novel the Rede Record, he debuted in theater in 2009, with the number Capitães de Areia, based on literary works of Jorge Amado, soon after, joined the Actors School Rede Record, given by actor Roberto Bomtempo. The same year he joined the cast of the play Os Melhores anos de nossas vidas. In 2010, he had his first role in television, when it pioneered the tenth to eighth season of Malhação. In 2011 works in the series Julie e os Fantasmas, exhibited by Rede Bandeirantes, in 2012, he joined the cast of the telenovela Avenida Brasil, Rede Globo. In 2013, the telenovela is the Flor. Bruno is the son of Ana Paula Sang producer and stepson of capoerista Beto Simas, is the brother of actor Rodrigo Simas, with whom he served in Capitães de Areia and Os Melhores anos de nossas vidas, the football player Felipe Simas.

Bruno Gissoni on IMDb