Citroën Traction Avant
The Citroën Traction Avant was a range of 4-door saloons and executive cars, with four or six-cylinder engines, produced by the French manufacturer Citroën from 1934 to 1957. 760,000 units were produced. The Traction Avant pioneered mass-production of three revolutionary innovations adopted since, still used today: front-wheel drive, four-wheel independent suspension, the use of a crash resistant, monocoque body. Additionally, the car was one of the earliest mass-production adopters of pinion steering. Although the car's name emphasized its front-wheel drive power delivery – the car stood out at least as much by its much lower profile and stance – made possible by the absence of a separate chassis under the car's unitary body – distinguishing it visually from its contemporaries; the Traction Avant, French for front-wheel drive, was designed by André Lefèbvre and Flaminio Bertoni in late 1933 / early 1934. The Traction Avant pioneered front-wheel drive on the European mass car market, along with DKW's and Adler's 1930s models.
Front-wheel drive had just appeared for the first time through luxury vehicle manufacturers Alvis, which built the 1928 Racing FWD in the UK, Cord, which produced the L29 from 1929 to 1932 in the United States. The Traction Avant's structure was a welded unitary body / chassis. Most other cars of the era were based on a separate frame onto which the non-structural body was built. Unitary construction results in a lighter vehicle, is now used for all car constructionThis unitary body saved 70 kg in steel per car, it was mass-produced. Weight reduction was a motivation for Citroën; this method of construction was viewed with great suspicion in many quarters, with doubts about its strength. A type of crash test was conceived, taking the form of driving the car off a cliff, to illustrate its great inherent resilience; the novel design made the car low-slung relative to its contemporaries – the Traction Avant was always distinctive, which went from appearing rakish in 1934 to familiar and somewhat old fashioned by 1955.
The suspension was advanced for the car's era. The front wheels were independently sprung, using a torsion bar and wishbone suspension arrangement, where most contemporaries used live axle and cart-type leaf spring designs; the rear suspension was a simple steel beam axle and a Panhard rod, trailing arms and torsion bars attached to a 75-millimetre steel tube, which in turn was bolted to the main platform. Since it was lighter than conventional designs of the era, it was capable of 100 km/h, consumed fuel only at the rate of 10 L/100 km; the scale of investment in production capacity reflected André Citroën's ambitions for the car. Site preparation began during the winter of 1932/33, on 15 March 1933 demolition of the existing 30,000 m2 factory started. Construction of the new factory started on 21 April, by the end of August the building's shell had been erected, four times the size of the factory that it replaced, using 5,000 t of structural iron and steel. All this was achieved while continuing to produce several hundred Rosalies every day.
With characteristic showmanship, André Citroën celebrated by inviting 6,000 guests – dealers and agents and others who would be involved in selling and promoting the car – to a spectacular banquet in the new and at this stage still empty factory, on 8 October 1933. Citroën's gesture came to be seen as hubristic, as the ensuing months became a race against time to finish the development of the car and tool up for its production before his investors lost patience. In the end the first car was presented at Citroën's huge Paris showroom on 18 April 1934, by which time principal dealers had had their own private unveiling on 23 March. There had been much chatter and speculation, before April 1934 the details of the car had been kept remarkably quiet outside the walls of the Quai de Javel plant. Volume production formally started on 19 April 1934. Although the revolutionary unitary bodyshell was, according to most reports, not affected by the rushed launch schedule, problems with transmission joints and the hydraulic brakes – another "first" in a volume car in Europe – reflected the financial pressure to get the car into production as as possible.
Traction Avant, which translates as "front wheel drive," is not the official name. The car was named according to the French fiscal horsepower rating, or CV, used to determine annual car tax levels. However, manufacturers did not change the model name every time a change of engine size caused a change in fiscal horsepower. For example, in 1934, Citroën introduced the 7CV, unofficially the 7A, they continued calling the car 7CV when the 7B model's larger engine pushed it into the 9 CV tax band. Other designations were 11CV, 15CV and 22CV. In France, the Traction is known as "Reine de la Route". In September 1939 France declared war on Germany and in June 1940 the German Army invaded and occupied Northern France; the war years were characterised by a desperate shortage of raw materials for civilian industry and of petrol, but these factors were not apparent instantly. The Paris Motor Show scheduled for October 1939 was cancelled at short notice. For the Traction Avant, the last “normal”
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Renault 5 is a four passenger, three or five-door, front-engine, front wheel drive hatchback supermini manufactured and marketed by Renault over two generations 1972–1985 and 1984–1996. The R5 was marketed in the US as Le Car, from 1976 to 1983; the R5 spawned the Renault 7, a four door sedan variant manufactured marketed 1974–1984 in Spain by Renault's subsidiary, FASA-Renault. The Renault 5 became the best-selling car in France from 1972-1986, with a total production exceeding 5.5 m over a 14-year period, making it France’s most popular car. Images and details of the Renault 5 were published on 10 December 1971, the car's formal launch following on 28 January 1972; the Renault 5 was styled by Michel Boué, who designed the car in his spare time, outside of his normal duties. When Renault executives learned of Boué's work, they were so impressed by his concept they authorized a formal development programme; the R5 featured a steeply sloping rear front dashboard. Boué had wanted the tail-lights to go all the way up from the bumper into the C-pillar, in the fashion of the much Fiat Punto and Volvo 850 estate / wagon, but the lights remained at a more conventional level.
It was launched onto the right-hand drive UK market in the autumn of 1972, where alongside the launched Fiat 127 it competed as an imported but more modern alternative to British Leyland's Mini and Chrysler Europe's Hillman Imp. The 5 narrowly missed out on the 1973 European Car of the Year award, instead given to the Audi 80. Boué died of cancer in 1971; the R5 borrowed mechanicals from the popular Renault 4, using a longitudinally-mounted engine driving the front wheels with torsion bar suspension. OHV engines were borrowed from the Renault 4 and larger Renault 8: there was a choice, at launch, between 782 cc and 956 cc according to price level. A "5TS/5LS" with the 1,289 cc engine from the Renault 12 was added from April 1974; as on the Renault 4, entry level Renault 5s had their engine sizes increased to 845 cc in 1976 and at the top of the range models had the engine sizes expanded to 1,397 cc. It was one of the first modern superminis, which capitalised on the new hatchback design, which Renault had patented on its R16, launched in 1965.
It was launched a year after the booted version of the Fiat 127, during the same year that the 127 became available with a hatchback. The R5 was launched three years before the Volkswagen Polo and Vauxhall Chevette, four years before the Ford Fiesta - new superminis which met the growing demand for this type of car in Western Europe. British Leyland was working on a new modern supermini during the 1970s, but the end product - the Austin Metro - was not launched until 1980. Although the mechanical components came from earlier models, body construction involved floor sections welded together with the other body panels, resulting in a monocoque structure; the approach had by become mainstream among many European automakers, but represented an advance on the mechanically similar Renault 4 and Renault 6 both of which used a separate platform. The monocoque structure reduced the car's weight, but required investment in new production processes; the Renault 5 was targeted at cost conscious customers, the entry level "L" version came with the same 782 cc power plant as the cheaper Renault 4 and drum brakes on all four wheels.
In 1972, it was priced in France at below 10,000 francs. However, for many export markets the entry level version was excluded from the range and front wheel disc brakes were offered on the more powerful 956 cc "Renault 5TL" along with such attractions under the bonnet/hood as an alternator, in the cabin reclining back rests for the front seats. From outside the "TL" was differentiated from the "L" by a thin chrome strip below the doors; the early production R5 used a dashboard-mounted gearshift, linked by a rod which ran over the top of the engine to a single bend where the rod turned downwards and linked into the gearbox, positioned directly in front of the engine. A floor-mounted lever employing a cable linkage replaced this arrangement in 1973. An automatic version, with the larger 1,289 cc engine, was added in early 1978. At the time, the automatic represented just under five percent of overall Renault 5 production. Door handles were formed by a cut-out in B-pillar; the R5 was one of the first cars produced with plastic bumpers, which came from a specialist Renault factory at Dreux.
These covered a larger area of potential contact than conventional car bumpers of the time and survived low speed parking shunts without permanently distorting. This helped the car gain a reputation as an "outstanding city car", bumpers of this type subsequently became an industry standard; the R5's engine was set well back in the engine bay, behind the gearbox, allowing the stowage of the spare wheel under the bonnet/hood, an arrangement that freed more space for passengers and luggage within the cabin. The passenger compartment "is remarkably spacious" in comparison to other modern, small European cars; the Renault 5 body's drag coefficient was only 0.37. Other versions of the first generation included the four-door saloon version called the Renault 7 and built by FASA-Renault of Spain, where all examples were sold. A five-door R5 was added to the range in 1979, making it one of the first cars of its size to feature four passenger doors; the three-speed Automatic, which received equipment similar to the R5 GTL but with a 1,289 cc engine, a vinyl roof, the TS' front seats b
Front-wheel drive is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only. Most modern front-wheel-drive vehicles feature a transverse engine, rather than the conventional longitudinal engine arrangement found in rear-wheel-drive and four-wheel drive vehicles. By far the most common layout for a front-wheel drive car is a with the engine and transmission at the front of the car, mounted transversely. Other layouts of front-wheel drive that have been produced are a front-engine mounted longitudinally, a mid-engine layout and a rear-engine layout. Experiments with front-wheel-drive cars date to the early days of the automobile. According to various sources, sometime between 1895 and 1898 Gräf & Stift built a voiturette with a one-cylinder De Dion-Bouton engine fitted in the front of the vehicle, powering the front axle, it was thus arguably the world's first front-wheel-drive automobile, but it never saw mass production, with only one copy made.
In 1898, Latil, in France, devised a front-wheel-drive system for motorising horse-drawn carts. In 1898/9 the French manufacturer Société Parisienne patented their front-wheel drive articulated vehicle concept which they manufactured as a Victoria Combination, it was variously powered by 1.75 or 2.5 horsepower De Dion-Bouton engine or a water cooled 3.5 horsepower Aster engine. The engine so was rotated by the tiller steering; the name Victoria Combination described the lightweight, two-seater trailer known as a Victoria, combined with the rear axle and drive mechanism from a motor tricycle, placed in front to achieve front wheel drive. It known as the Eureka. By 1899 Victoria Combinations were participating in motoring events such as the 371 km Paris-St Malo race, finishing 23rd overall and second in the class. In October a Victoria Combination won its class in the Paris-Rambouillet-Paris event, covering the 100 kilometre course at 26 km/h. In 1900 it completed 240 kilometres non-stop at 29 km/h.
When production ceased in mid-1901, over 400 copies had been sold for 3,000 Francs each. J. Walter Christie of the United States patented a design for a front-wheel-drive car, the first prototype of which he built in 1904, he promoted and demonstrated the vehicle by racing at various speedways in the United States, competed in the 1906 Vanderbilt Cup and the French Grand Prix. In 1912 he began manufacturing a line of wheeled fire engine tractors which used his front-wheel-drive system, but due to lack of sales this venture failed; the next successful application of front-wheel drive was the supercharged Alvis 12/50 racing car designed by George Thomas Smith-Clarke and William M. Dunn of Alvis Cars of the United Kingdom; this vehicle was entered in the 1925 Kop Hill Climb in Princes Risborough in Buckinghamshire on March 28, 1925. Harry Arminius Miller of Menomonie, Wisconsin designed the Miller 122 front-wheel-drive racecar, entered in the 1925 Indianapolis 500, held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Saturday, May 30, 1925.
However, the idea of front-wheel drive languished outside the motor racing arena as no major auto manufacturer attempted the same for production automobiles. Market experiments in the United States were left to small endeavors such as the Ruxton, the Cord L-29 of 1929. Neither automobile maker was successful on the open market. Alvis Cars introduced a front-wheel-drive commercial model of the Alvis 12/50 in 1928, but it was not a success either; the first successful consumer application came in 1929. The BSA produced the unique front-wheel-drive BSA three-wheeler. Production continued until 1936. In 1931 the DKW F1 from Germany made its debut. Buckminster Fuller adopted front wheel drive for his three Dymaxion Car prototypes. Other German car producers followed: Stoewer offered a car with front-wheel drive in 1931, Adler in 1932 and Audi in 1933. In 1934, the successful Traction Avant cars were introduced by Citroën of France; the Cord 810 of the United States managed a bit better in the late 1930s than its predecessor one decade earlier.
These vehicles featured a layout that places the engine behind the transmission, running "backwards,". The basic front-wheel-drive layout provides sharp turning, better weight distribution creates "positive handling characteristics" due to its low polar inertia and favourable weight distribution.. Another result of this design is a lengthened chassis. After the 1930s, front-wheel drive would become abandoned for the following twenty years. Front-wheel drive continued with the 1948 Citroën 2CV, where the air-cooled lightweight aluminium flat twin engine was mounted ahead of the front wheels, but used Hooke type universal joint driveshaft joints, 1955 Citroën DS, featuring the mid-engine layout. Panhard of France, DKW of Germany and Saab of Sweden offered front-wheel-drive cars, starting with the 1948 Saab 92. In 1946, Lloyd Cars, the English car company, had produced the front-wheel-drive roadster, Lloyd 650; the two-stroke, two-cylinder motor was mounted transversely in the front and connected to the front wheels through four-speed synchronised gearbox.
The high price and lacklustre performance had doomed its production. Only 600 units were produced from 1946 to 1950. In 1954, Alfa-Romeo had experimented with its first front-wheel-drive compact car named "33" (not related or ref
A drive shaft, driving shaft, propeller shaft, or Cardan shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them. As torque carriers, drive shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress, equivalent to the difference between the input torque and the load, they must therefore be strong enough to bear the stress, while avoiding too much additional weight as that would in turn increase their inertia. To allow for variations in the alignment and distance between the driving and driven components, drive shafts incorporate one or more universal joints, jaw couplings, or rag joints, sometimes a splined joint or prismatic joint; the term drive shaft first appeared during the mid 19th century. In Stover's 1861 patent reissue for a planing and matching machine, the term is used to refer to the belt-driven shaft by which the machine is driven.
The term is not used in his original patent. Another early use of the term occurs in the 1861 patent reissue for the Watkins and Bryson horse-drawn mowing machine. Here, the term refers to the shaft transmitting power from the machine's wheels to the gear train that works the cutting mechanism. In the 1890s, the term began to be used in a manner closer to the modern sense. In 1891, for example, Battles referred to the shaft between the transmission and driving trucks of his Climax locomotive as the drive shaft, Stillman referred to the shaft linking the crankshaft to the rear axle of his shaft-driven bicycle as a drive shaft. In 1899, Bukey used the term to describe the shaft transmitting power from the wheel to the driven machinery by a universal joint in his Horse-Power. In the same year, Clark described his Marine Velocipede using the term to refer to the gear-driven shaft transmitting power through a universal joint to the propeller shaft. Crompton used the term to refer to the shaft between the transmission of his steam-powered Motor Vehicle of 1903 and the driven axle.
The pioneering automobile industry company, was the first to use a drive shaft in a gasoline-powered car. Built in 1901, today this vehicle is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution. An automobile may use a longitudinal shaft to deliver power from an engine/transmission to the other end of the vehicle before it goes to the wheels. A pair of short drive shafts is used to send power from a central differential, transmission, or transaxle to the wheels. In front-engined, rear-drive vehicles, a longer drive shaft is required to send power the length of the vehicle. Two forms dominate: The torque tube with a single universal joint and the more common Hotchkiss drive with two or more joints; this system became known as Système Panhard after the automobile company Panhard et Levassor patented it. Most of these vehicles have a clutch and gearbox mounted directly on the engine, with a drive shaft leading to a final drive in the rear axle; when the vehicle is stationary, the drive shaft does not rotate.
Some vehicles, seeking improved weight balance between rear, use a rear-mounted transaxle. In some non-Porsche models, this places the clutch and transmission at the rear of the car and the drive shaft between them and the engine. In this case the drive shaft rotates continuously with the engine when the car is stationary and out of gear. However, the Porsche 924/944/928 models have the clutch mounted to the back of the engine in a bell housing and the drive shaft from the clutch output, located inside of a hollow protective torque tube, transfers power to the rear mounted transaxle, thus the Porsche driveshaft only rotates when the rear wheels are turning as the engine-mounted clutch can decouple engine crankshaft rotation from the driveshaft. So for Porsche, when the driver is using the clutch while briskly shifting up or down, the engine can rev with the driver's accelerator pedal input, since with the clutch disengaged, the engine and flywheel inertia is low and is not burdened with the added rotational inertia of the driveshaft.
The Porsche torque tube is solidly fastened to both the engine's bell housing and to the transaxle case, fixing the length and alignment between the bell housing and the transaxle and minimizing rear wheel drive reaction torque from twisting the transaxle in any plane. A drive shaft connecting a rear differential to a rear wheel may be called a half-shaft; the name derives from the fact. Early automobiles used chain drive or belt drive mechanisms rather than a drive shaft; some used electrical motors to transmit power to the wheels. In British English, the term "drive shaft" is restricted to a transverse shaft that transmits power to the wheels the front wheels. A drive shaft connecting the gearbox to a rear differential is called a propeller shaft, or prop-shaft. A prop-shaft assembly consists of a slip joint and one or more universal joints. Where the engine and axles are separated from each other, as on four-wheel drive and rear-wheel drive vehicles, it is the propeller shaft that serves to transmit the drive force generated by the engine to the axles.
Several different types of drive shaft are used in the automotive industry: One-piece drive shaft Two-piece drive shaft Slip-in-tube drive shaftThe slip-in-tube drive shaft is a new type that improves crash safety. It can be compressed to absorb energy in the event of a crash, so is known as a collapsible drive shaft
The Saab 99 is a compact executive car, produced by Saab from 1968 to 1984. It was manufactured both in Finland. On 2 April 1964, Gudmund's day in Sweden, after several years of planning, the Saab board started Project Gudmund; this was a project to develop a new and larger car to take the manufacturer beyond the market for the smaller Saab 96. This new car became the Saab 99, designed by Sixten Sason and unveiled in Stockholm on November 22, 1967; the first prototypes of the 99 were built by cutting a Saab 96 lengthwise and widening it by 20 centimetres. After that phase as a disguise, the first 99 body shell was badged "Daihatsu" as that name could be made up out of the badging available for the Saab Sport; the 99 was not only built in Saab's own Trollhättan Assembly - some variants were built by the Finnish Valmet Automotive in Uusikaupunki from 1969 onwards. Although Saab engineers liked the company's existing two-stroke engine, it was decided that a four-stroke engine was necessary, the choice was a 1.7 L engine from Triumph.
This was the same Triumph Slant-4 engine used in the Triumph Dolomite, but the Saab version was fitted with a Zenith-Stromberg CD carburetor developed specially for Saab. A run of 48 Saab 99s were equipped with a Triumph Stag V8, but the V8 was dropped in favour of a turbocharged unit which powered the 99 Turbo. A three-door estate version never made it into production. In 1971 the work on an estate was restarted, this time as a five-door; the first engine used in the original 99 was a four-cylinder in-line engine, tilted at 45 degrees. The 1709 cc Triumph-sourced engine produced 87 PS SAE gross at 5500 rpm; the engine was conventionally water-cooled, but unlike most cars of the time it had an electric cooling fan. Triumph soon upgraded the engine to 1.85 L. Saab experienced reliability problems with the Triumph-sourced engines and decided to bring the design in-house. From September 1972 the 1985 cc Saab B engine was used. During the lifetime of the 99 model, several subsequent engine developments took place, including the incorporation of fuel injection for some versions.
The 99 was'front-wheel-drive', its engine being unconventionally fitted'back to front', with the clutch at the front. Drive to the under-mounted gearbox was by triplex chain. Front-wheel-drive was still a uncommon configuration at the time of the 99's introduction, although earlier Saabs had featured it; the bonnet was front-hinged and the panel extended over the front wheel-arches. The windscreen was'wrap-around' and deep for the era; the A-pillar had a steep angle. In 1968, the English test-driver Archie Vicar wrote in Mass Motorist magazine: "The little 99 has been given a striking and wholly rational appearance, it gives the flavour of an aeroplane on four wheels." The Cw value was 0.37 while other cars of the time had 0.4 to 0.5. The chassis was designed for passive safety, with deformation zones front and rear. Due to the American sealed beam headlamp requirement in place at the time, the USA models had a special front fascia with four round headlights instead of the two rectangular units it had in other markets.
The "US front" became an item for car customisers in Europe, vice versa. Early 99s carried over the freewheel transmission from the Saab 96, but the freewheel was removed with the introduction of the 1.85 L engine on account of the extra power that the apparatus would have to transmit. The handbrake was on the front wheels; the 99 was Saab's last rally car, first in EMS guise and as the Turbo version. The Saab 99 Turbo was one of the first'family cars' to be fitted with a turbo after the 1962-63 Oldsmobile Turbo Jetfire. Popular Mechanics lists the Saab 99 Turbo as number two on its Top Ten list of turbocharged cars of all time; the UK's "Mass Motorist" magazine summarised their view of the 99 as follows: "That the 99 is comfortable, well-made, satisfying to drive and well-equipped ought to mean that other makers should take heed. The BMW 2002 and Alfa Romeo Giulia are the SAAB 99's main rivals. I would contend here that SAAB has the advantage of them, should SAAB choose to fit an more powerful motor, the 99 could be a class leader in a short space of time."Wheels magazine wrote in a July 1978 road test of the 99 Turbo, "Compare the top-gear times and you'll see that the Turbo is as fast between 60 km/h and 160 km/h in fourth gear as any five-seater in the world".
Modern Motor of August 1978 wrote. A police version of the 99 was built; the hood/bonnet of the 99 caused problems for the police livery team. Since it wraps around, covering the wheel arches, the paint had to be extended up onto the hood panel and not restricted to just the fenders as on other cars; the Saab 99 featured a heating duct leading to the rear window - a lever between the front seats controlled the de-fogging airflow. The 99 featured a floor-located ignition switch which locked the gear stick (rathe
The Lancia Fulvia is an automobile produced by Lancia between 1963 and 1976. Named after Via Fulvia, the Roman road leading from Tortona to Torino, it was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show in 1963 and manufactured in three variants: Berlina 4-door saloon, 2-door Coupé, Sport, an alternative fastback coupé designed and built by Zagato on the Coupé floorpan. Fulvias are notable for their role in motorsport history, including winning the International Rally Championship in 1972. On testing a Fulvia in 1967, Road & Track summed it up as "a precision motorcar, an engineering tour de force"; the Fulvia Berlina was designed by Antonio Fessia, to replace the Lancia Appia with which it shared no components. The Appia was a rear wheel drive car, while the Fulvia moved to front wheel drive like the Flavia; the general engineering design of the Fulvia was identical to that of the Flavia with the major exception of the engine, the Flavia having a four-cylinder horizontally opposed engine and the Fulvia a'Narrow Angle' vee configuration as featured on most production Lancias from the Lambda.
The Fulvia used a longitudinal engine mounted in front of its transaxle. An independent suspension in front used wishbones and a single leaf spring, while a beam axle with a panhard rod and leaf springs was used in back. Four wheel Dunlop disc brakes were fitted to first series Fulvias. With the introduction of the second series in 1970 the brakes were uprated with larger Girling calipers all round and a brake servo; the handbrake design was changed - using separate drums and brake-shoes operating on the rear wheels. One element, new was the narrow-angle V4 engine. Designed by Zaccone Mina, it was mounted well forward at a 45 ° angle; the engine is a DOHC design with a one camshaft operating all intake valves and another operating all exhaust valves. The narrow angle of the cylinders allowed for use of a single cylinder head. Displacement began at just 1091 cc with 58 bhp with 67 mm stroke. A higher compression ratio and the fitment of twin Solex carburettors raised power to 71 bhp soon after; the engine was bored to 6 mm to enlarge displacement to 1216 cc for the HF model.
This, some tuning, raised output to 80 to 88 bhp. The engine was re-engineered with a narrower bank angle and longer stroke for 1967. Three displacements were produced: 1199 cc, 1231 cc, 1298 cc; the new 1298 cc engine was produced in two versions. The Type 818.303 was first produced with 92 hp and was fitted to the 1st series Coupé Rallye S and Sport S. For the 2nd Series Coupé and Sport power was reduced to 90 hp at 6000 rpm; the 1199 cc engine was only fitted to the Berlina sold in Greece. The engine was reworked for the new 1.6 HF with an even-narrower angle and longer 75 mm stroke combined with a bore of 82 mm gave it a displacement of 1584 cc, power ranged from 115 to 132 bhp depending on tune. Series IBerlina: 1963–64. A compact four-door saloon introduced in 1963 with a 1091 cc, single twin-choke carburettor engine producing 58 bhp at 5800 rpm. Berlina 2C: 1964–69. Improved, more powerful Berlina launched late in 1964, with a 71 bhp engine fitted with double twin-choke Solex carburettors.
155R14 Michelin X radial tyres. The body-shell had revised front subframe mountings. Distinguished by an enamelled "2C" badge on the radiator grille and rear "Fulvia 2C" script. Berlina GT: 1967–68. Introduced at the 1967 Geneva Salon with the 1216 cc engine from the Coupé, producing 80 bhp at 6000 rpm. Distinguished by an enamelled "GT" badge on the radiator grille and rear "Fulvia GT" script. Fitted with 155R14 Michelin X Berlina "Grecia": 1967–69. Greece-only version fitted with a smaller 818.282 1.2 L engine. 145R14 Pirelli Cinturato CA67 radial tyres Berlina GTE: 1968–69. Introduced in 1968 with the 1298 cc engine from the Coupé Rallye 1.3, for an output of 87 bhp at 6000 rpm. In addition the brakes were uprated with a brake servo, fitted with 145HR14 Pirelli Cinturato radial tyresSeries IIThe Fulvia saloon was updated in August 1969 with a redesigned body on a 20 mm longer wheelbase, an updated interior. An altered roofline provided more space for rear-seat passengers. Berlina: 1969–71. Series 2 introduced in 1969 with the 1298 cc. Berlina "Grecia": 1969–70.
Series 2 Greece-only limited displacement version. Berlina: 1970–72. Series 2 with the 1298 cc engine and 5-speed gearbox, introduced in 1970. Larger Girling calipers and pads replaced. Berlina "Grecia": 1970–72. Updated with the 5-speed gearbox like the regular saloon; the Fulvia Coupé was a compact two-door, three-box coupé introduced in 1965. Like the saloon it was designed in-house by Piero Castagnero; the coupé used a 150 mm shorter wheelbase. It was the last Fulvia model to be discontinued, being replaced only in 1977 by a 1.3-litre version of the Beta Coupé. When leaving the factory the series 1 Coupés fitted 145HR14 Pirelli Cinturato tyres and the series 2 Coupe fitted Pirelli Cinturato 165HR14 tyres except the 1600HF which fitted 175HR14 Michelin XAS. Series ICoupé: 1965–67. Equipped with a 1,216 cc 818.100 engine