Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber, an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine; the force is applied to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy; the first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto. The term internal combustion engine refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as described.
Firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. In contrast, in external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. ICEs are powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars and boats. An ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. There is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for CI engines and bioethanol or methanol for SI engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines.
In 1791, John Barber developed the gas turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine. In 1794, Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, the first to use liquid fuel, built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine. In 1807, French engineers Nicéphore and Claude Niépce ran a prototype internal combustion engine, using controlled dust explosions, the Pyréolophore; this engine powered a boat on France. The same year, the Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by an electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially. In 1854 in the UK, the Italian inventors Eugenio Barsanti and Felice Matteucci tried to patent "Obtaining motive power by the explosion of gases", although the application did not progress to the granted stage. In 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine. In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine.
In 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, four-cycle engine. In 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gasoline engine. In 1886, Karl Benz began the first commercial production of motor vehicles with the internal combustion engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed compression ignition engine. In 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the world's first jet aircraft. At one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery—a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A "motor" is any machine. Traditionally, electric motors are not referred to as "engines". In boating an internal combustion engine, installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, but the engines that sit on the transom are referred to as motors. Reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives.
Rotary engines of the Wankel design are used in some automobiles and motorcycles. Where high power-to-weight ratios are required, internal combustion engines appear in the form of combustion turbines or Wankel engines. Powered aircraft uses an ICE which may be a reciprocating engine. Airplanes can instead use jet engines and helicopters can instead employ turboshafts. In addition to providing propulsion, airliners may employ a separate ICE as an auxiliary power unit. Wankel engines are fitted to many unmanned aerial vehicles. ICEs drive some of the large electric generators, they are found in the form of combustion turbines in combined cycle power plants with a typical electrical output in the range of 100 MW to 1 GW. The high temperature exhaust is used to superheat water to run a steam turbine. Thus, the efficiency is higher because more energy is extracted from the fuel than what could be extracted by the co
Moment of inertia
The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the angular mass or rotational inertia, of a rigid body is a quantity that determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis. It depends on the body's mass distribution and the axis chosen, with larger moments requiring more torque to change the body's rotation rate, it is an extensive property: for a point mass the moment of inertia is just the mass times the square of the perpendicular distance to the rotation axis. The moment of inertia of a rigid composite system is the sum of the moments of inertia of its component subsystems, its simplest definition is the second moment of mass with respect to distance from an axis. For bodies constrained to rotate in a plane, only their moment of inertia about an axis perpendicular to the plane, a scalar value, matters. For bodies free to rotate in three dimensions, their moments can be described by a symmetric 3 × 3 matrix, with a set of mutually perpendicular principal axes for which this matrix is diagonal and torques around the axes act independently of each other.
When a body is free to rotate around an axis, torque must be applied to change its angular momentum. The amount of torque needed to cause any given angular acceleration is proportional to the moment of inertia of the body. Moment of inertia may be expressed in units of kilogram meter squared in SI units and pound-foot-second squared in imperial or US units. Moment of inertia plays the role in rotational kinetics that mass plays in linear kinetics - both characterize the resistance of a body to changes in its motion; the moment of inertia depends on how mass is distributed around an axis of rotation, will vary depending on the chosen axis. For a point-like mass, the moment of inertia about some axis is given by m r 2, where r is the distance of the point from the axis, m is the mass. For an extended rigid body, the moment of inertia is just the sum of all the small pieces of mass multiplied by the square of their distances from the axis in question. For an extended body of a regular shape and uniform density, this summation sometimes produces a simple expression that depends on the dimensions and total mass of the object.
In 1673 Christiaan Huygens introduced this parameter in his study of the oscillation of a body hanging from a pivot, known as a compound pendulum. The term moment of inertia was introduced by Leonhard Euler in his book Theoria motus corporum solidorum seu rigidorum in 1765, it is incorporated into Euler's second law; the natural frequency of oscillation of a compound pendulum is obtained from the ratio of the torque imposed by gravity on the mass of the pendulum to the resistance to acceleration defined by the moment of inertia. Comparison of this natural frequency to that of a simple pendulum consisting of a single point of mass provides a mathematical formulation for moment of inertia of an extended body. Moment of inertia appears in momentum, kinetic energy, in Newton's laws of motion for a rigid body as a physical parameter that combines its shape and mass. There is an interesting difference in the way moment of inertia appears in planar and spatial movement. Planar movement has a single scalar that defines the moment of inertia, while for spatial movement the same calculations yield a 3 × 3 matrix of moments of inertia, called the inertia matrix or inertia tensor.
The moment of inertia of a rotating flywheel is used in a machine to resist variations in applied torque to smooth its rotational output. The moment of inertia of an airplane about its longitudinal and vertical axis determines how steering forces on the control surfaces of its wings and tail affect the plane in roll and yaw. Moment of inertia I is defined as the ratio of the net angular momentum L of a system to its angular velocity ω around a principal axis, I = L ω. If the angular momentum of a system is constant as the moment of inertia gets smaller, the angular velocity must increase; this occurs when spinning figure skaters pull in their outstretched arms or divers curl their bodies into a tuck position during a dive, to spin faster. If the shape of the body does not change its moment of inertia appears in Newton's law of motion as the ratio of an applied torque τ on a body to the angular acceleration α around a principal axis, τ = I α. For a simple pendulum, this definition yields a formula for the moment of inertia I in terms of the mass m of the pendulum and its distance r from the pivot point as, I = m r 2.
Thus, moment of inertia depends on both the mass m of a body and its geometry, or shape, as defined by the distance r to the axis of rotation. This simple formula generalizes to define moment of inertia for an arbitrarily shaped body as the sum of all the elemental point masses d m each multiplied by the square of its perpendicular distance
The Morgan Plus 4 is an automobile produced by the Morgan Motor Company. It is a more powerful and, in the case of the earlier cars longer version of the company's previous 4/4 model. Plus 4 production ran from 1950 to 1969, it was revived in 1985 and filled the gap between the 4/4 and the Plus 8 until 2000. It was again revived in 2005. After World War II Morgan re-introduced their 4/4 model fitted with a 1267 cc Standard engine; this continued in production until it was replaced by the larger Plus 4 announced at the 1950 Earl's Court Motor Show. The Plus 4 at its introduction was fitted with a 2088 cc Standard Vanguard engine installed on a strengthened 4/4 chassis with a wheelbase lengthened by 4 in. Hydraulic brakes, at first all drum, were fitted for the first time on a Morgan. In 1953 a higher performance version was announced with the 1991 cc I4 engine as used in the Triumph TR2; the radiator grille was now surrounded by a cowl. Front disc brakes became an option in 1959 and were standardised in 1960.
From 1955 the 1991 cc Triumph TR3 engine was used and from 1962 the engine was the Triumph TR4 unit, which increased displacement to 2138 cc. In 1955 the less powerful 4/4 model re-appeared in phase II form; the 96 in wheelbase of the Plus 4 was adopted by the 4/4 when it reappeared, after which the two models were for most purposes the same length and width. Body styles available were a 2-seat sports, 4 seat sports and more luxurious 2 or 4 seat drophead coupé. In 1963 a fibreglass bodied coupe Morgan +4 + was announced; the bonnet of the Triumph-engined Plus 4 fitted so to the engine that there was no room for an air filter. The Swiss Morgan Importer, Rolf Wehrlin in Aesch/BL, developed a coupé version of the Morgan +4. To make up for the extra weight of the body, the engine was fitted with a Judson supercharger. A racing version, the Plus 4 Super Sports was available from 1962 with a tuned engine and a lightweight body. Chris Lawrence and Richard Shepherd-Barron won the 1601-2000cc GT class at the 1962 24 Hours of Le Mans driving a Plus Four.
The class winning car, chassis number 4840, was registered XRX 1 in 1961 changed to TOK 258 from late 1961 through mid-1964. It was sold by Chris Lawrence to A. Dence in 1964 and the registration was changed to JHX 142B. In 1964 Chris Lawrence and John Sprinzel developed a streamlined aluminum coupe body for racing; the first SLR was fitted to a Triumph TR4 chassis. From February 1966 to November 1966 Morgan produced the two-seater +4 Competition model, of which only 42 were built, it is estimated that only 11 of these still exist today. The Morgan +4 Competition model was 10% more expensive than the standard +4; the Competition model had a low-line steel body, similar to the Morgan "Super Sports" aluminum body, came with a Derrington four branch exhaust manifold, Derrington competition steering wheel, 72-spoke wire wheels, Armstrong select-a-ride electrically adjustable rear shock absorbers, the 2.2-litre twin SU carburetor TR4 engine. Ref: "Morgan First and Last of the Real Sports Cars" by Gregory Houston Bowden, "The Four Wheeled Morgan" Volume 2: The Cowled-Radiator Models by Ken Hill A TR3 engined two seater car was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1958.
It could accelerate from 0-60 mph in 9.7 seconds. A fuel consumption of 27.1 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £1017 including taxes of £340. In the film The War of the Roses, Barbara Rose buys her husband a 1960 +4. After their marriage sours, she destroys the Morgan by crushing it under her GMC Jimmy. Morgan +4+ Morgan Workshop Manual
The Nissan 350Z is a two-door, two-seater sports car, manufactured by Nissan Motors from 2002 to 2009 and marks the fifth generation of Nissan's Z-car line. The 350Z was sold and marketed as a 2003 model; the first year there was only a coupe. The coupe came in Base, Performance and Track versions, while the Roadster was limited to Enthusiast and Touring trim levels; the Track trim came with lightweight wheels and Brembo brakes, but its suspension tuning was the same as all other coupes. The Nissan 350Z has been succeeded by the 370Z since the 2009 model year. After the Nissan 300ZX was withdrawn from the U. S. market in 1996, Nissan tried to keep the Z name alive by re-creating the 240Z the following year. The car was conceived by Nissan's North American design team in their free time, the concept was introduced in a four state Road Show in July 1998 to various car media and employees. Yutaka Katayama, regarded as the "Father of the Z" unveiled the Z concept sketch to the public when he received a motor industry award.
The design, representing a modern vision of the 240Z, did not please the original 240Z designer Yoshihiko Matsuo, who compared it to the Bluebird and Leopard. The 240Z concept was produced for the Detroit Motor Show for September. Nissan was unhappy with the first design as they felt the original 200 bhp 2.4 L engine known as the KA24DE, going to be assigned made the car feel underpowered, they felt the car was considered too "retro" or too "backward" resembling a futuristic 240Z. During a press conference in February 2000, president Carlos Ghosn announced plans to produce the car as he felt the new model would help to assist the company's recovery; the Z Concept was unveiled in Detroit Motor Show two years, similar in body shape but with a new front end. The car underwent a minor redesign and was assigned the VQ35DE engine, hence becoming known as the 350Z. Nissan unveiled the 240Z concept car at the 1999 North American International Auto Show later at the Los Angeles Auto Expo; the concept was based on a design sketch by Manny Baker of Nissan's California design studio.
In a reference to the original, it was a bright orange two-seater with swept-back styling. It was functional car with its 2.4 L 4-cylinder KA24DE engine from the Nissan Altima producing 200 bhp and 180 lb⋅ft of torque, not the Z-car's traditional 6-cylinder engine. It was thought a less than worthy successor to the line; the designers used an original 240Z to provide inspiration and the concept was created in only 12 weeks. Automotive critics described "it would be cool but get a new model." This design served the intended purpose of creating interest, in the public and the corporation, for a new Z car. The 350Z is a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive, two-door, two-seat sports car designed by Diane Allen of Nissan Design America in San Diego, California in 2000; this program was inspired by the successful reaction to the 1998 240Z concept model. The vehicle has the long-hood short-deck design common to the Z-Car family. External design highlights include: sloping fastback style arched roof line, unique brushed aluminium door handles, high waistline, bulging fenders that are pushed out to the corners of the vehicle.
Interior design has brushed aluminium accents. The main gauge pod is mounted directly to the steering column allowing their movement to coincide with steering wheel adjustments. Additional gauges are mounted in a center triple gauge cluster. Touring models are equipped with the Bose sound system get a six CD changer and 8-inch Bose sub mounted behind the driver's seat; the 350Z's interior does not have a conventional glove box, but has storage compartments located behind and between the two seats. Released on July 2002 in Japan at reorganized Nissan Japanese dealerships called Nissan Blue Stage, August 20, 2002 in the U. S. the 350Z coupé was available in 5 trim packages:'350Z','Enthusiast','Performance','Touring', and'Track' editions. In Europe, only the'Track' trim was available, although it was badged and marketed as'350Z'; the Base model was only available with cloth seats. It did not include cruise control, nor heated seats; the Enthusiast model came with traction control, a VLSD, cruise control.
The Performance model came with bigger 18-inch wheels, front air dam, rear spoiler, optional Brembo brakes, VDC instead of Traction Control. Touring was made more of the luxury model, it had power, heated seats, VDC, a VLSD, xenon headlamps, optional Brembos, 18-inch wheels, optional GPS. The Track model included Brembo brakes, front air dam, rear spoiler, traction control, cloth seats, 18-inch wheels, VLSD, optional GPS. In 2004 Nissan introduced the 350Z Roadster with an electrically retractable soft-top roof. In the U. S. market the car was available in two trim packages, while in Europe, the same versions as the coupé were offered. Nissan added the Grand Touring trim to the Roadster trim packages for 2005. In 2005 Nissan launched a 35th Anniversary edition, with a revised exterior and interior. Early 2005 model-year 35th anniversary edition models were equipped with the original VQ35DE with 287HP/274TQ and automatic transmission. In January 2005, Nissan introduced the 35th Anniversary 6-speed manual models and Track models, which included the updated VQ35DE 300HP/260TQ Rev-up engine and new updated CD009 man
Hot rods are old, classic or modern American cars with large engines modified for faster speed. The origin of the term "hot rod" is unclear. For example, some claim. Other origin stories include replacing the engine's camshaft or "rod" with a higher performance version. Hot rods were favorites for greasers The term has broadened to apply to other items that are modified for a particular purpose, such as "hot-rodded amplifier". There are various theories about the origin of the term "hot rod"; the common theme is that "hot" related to "hotting up" a car, which means modifying it for greater performance. One theory is that "rod" means roadster, a lightweight 2-door car, used as the basis for early hot rods. Another theory is that "rod" refers to camshaft, a part of the engine, upgraded in order to increase power output. In the early days, a car modified for increased performance was called a "gow job"; this term morphed into the hot rod in the early to middle 1950s. The term "hot rod" has had various uses in relation to performance cars.
For example, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment in its vehicle emissions regulations, refers to a hot rod as any motorized vehicle that has a replacement engine differing from the factory original. The predecessors to the hotrod were the modified cars used in the Prohibition era by bootleggers to evade revenue agents and other law enforcement. Hot rods first appeared in the late 1930s in southern California, where people raced modified cars on dry lake beds northeast of Los Angeles, under the rules of the Southern California Timing Association, among other groups; this gained popularity after World War II in California, because many returning soldiers had received technical training. The first hot rods were old cars, modified to reduce weight. Engine swaps involved fitting the Ford flathead V8 engine into a different car, for example the common practice in the 1940s of installing the "60 horse" version into a Jeep chassis. Typical modifications were removal of convertible tops, bumpers, and/or fenders.
Wheels and tires were changed for improved handling. Hot rods built before 1945 used'35 Ford wire-spoke wheels. After World War II, many small military airports throughout the country were either abandoned or used, allowing hot rodders across the country to race on marked courses. Drag racing had tracks as long as 1 mi or more, included up to four lanes of racing simultaneously; as some hot rodders raced on the street, a need arose for an organization to promote safety, to provide venues for safe racing. The National Hot Rod Association was founded in 1951, to take drag racing off the streets and into controlled environments. In the'50s and'60s, the Ford flathead. Many hot rods would upgrade the brakes from mechanical to hydraulic and headlights from bulb to sealed-beam. A typical mid-1950s to early 1960s custom Deuce was fenderless and steeply chopped, powered by a Ford or Mercury flathead, with an Edelbrock intake manifold and Collins magneto, Halibrand quick-change differential. Front suspension hairpins were adapted from sprint cars, such as the Kurtis Krafts.
As hot rodding became more popular and associations catering to hot rodders were started, such as the magazine Hot Rod, founded in 1948. As automobiles offered by the major automakers began increasing performance, the lure of hot rods began to wane. With the advent of the muscle car, it was now possible to purchase a high-performance car straight from the showroom; however the 1973 Oil Crisis caused car manufacturers to focus on fuel efficiency over performance, which led to a resurgence of interest in hot rodding. As the focus shifted away from racing, the modified cars became known as "street rods"; the National Street Rod Association began hosting events. By the 1970s, the 350 cu in small-block Chevy V8 was the most common choice of engine for hot rods. Another popular engine choice is the Ford Windsor engine. During the 1980s, many car manufacturers were reducing the displacements of their engines, thus making it harder for hot rod builders to obtain large displacement engines. Instead, engine builders had to modify the smaller engines to obtain larger displacement.
While current production V8s tended to be the most frequent candidates, this applied to others. In the mid-1980s, as stock engine sizes diminished, rodders discovered the 215 cu in aluminum-block Buick or Oldsmobile V8 could be modified for greater displacement, with wrecking yard parts; this trend was not limited to American cars. There is still a vibrant hot rod culture worldwide in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Sweden; the hot rod community has now been subdivided into two main groups: hot rodders. There is a contemporary movement of traditional hot rod builders, car clubs and artists who have returned to the roots of hot rodding as a lifestyle; this includes a new breed of traditional hot rod builders and styles, as well as classic style car clubs. Events like GreaseOrama feature the greaser lifestyle. Magazines like Ol' Skool Rodz and Gals, Rat-Rods and Rust Queens cover events and people. Author Tom Wolfe was
A luxury vehicle is intended to provide passengers with increased comfort, a higher level of equipment and increased perception of quality than regular cars for an increased price. The term is subjective and can be based on either the qualities of the car itself or the brand image of its manufacturer. Luxury brands are considered to have a higher status than premium brands, however there is no fixed differentiation between the two. Traditionally, luxury cars have been large vehicles, however contemporary luxury cars range in size from compact cars to large sedans and SUVs; some car manufacturers market their luxury models using the same marque as the rest of their models. Other manufacturers market their luxury models separately under a different marque, for example Lexus and Bentley. A luxury car is sold under a mainstream marque and is re-branded under a specific luxury marque. For mass-produced luxury cars, sharing of platforms or components with other models is common, as per modern automotive industry practice.
Several car classification schemes which include a luxury category, such as: Australia: Since the year 2000, the Federal Government's luxury car tax applies to new vehicles over a certain purchase price, with higher thresholds applying for cars considered as fuel efficient. As of 2019, the thresholds were AU$66,000 for normal cars and AU$76,000 for fuel efficient cars. Europe: Luxury cars are classified as F-segment vehicles in the European Commission classification scheme. France: The term "voiture de luxe" is used for luxury cars. Germany: The term German: Oberklasse is used for luxury cars. Russia: The term (автомобиль представительского класса is used for luxury cars. Rental cars: The ACRISS Car Classification Code is a system used by many car rental companies to define equivalent vehicles across brands; this system includes "Luxury" and "Luxury Elite" categories. The criteria for a vehicle to be considered "luxury" is not published; the premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars.
It became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples include the Alfa Romeo Giulietta, Audi A3, Buick Verano, BMW 1 Series, Lexus CT 200h, Infiniti Q30, Mercedes-Benz A-Class, Mercedes-Benz B-Class, Volvo C30, Volvo V40, BMW i3. Premium compacts compete with well-equipped mid-size cars, optioned premium compact cars can have pricing and features that operlaps with compact executive cars. A compact executive car is a premium car smaller than an executive car. In European classification, compact executive cars are part of the D-segment. In North American terms, close equivalents are "compact premium car", "compact luxury car", "entry-level luxury car" and "near-luxury car". Executive car is a British term for an automobile larger than a large family car. In official use, the term is adopted by Euro NCAP, a European organization founded to test for car safety.
It is a passenger car classification defined by the European Commission. The next category of luxury cars is known in Great Britain as a luxury saloon or luxury limousine, is known in the United States as a full-size luxury sedan or large luxury sedan, it is the equivalent of the European German Oberklasse segment. Many of these luxury saloons are the flagship for the marque and therefore include the newest automotive technology. Several models are available in long-wheelbase versions, which provide additional rear legroom and a higher level of standard features. Examples of luxury saloons / full-size luxury sedans include the BMW 7 Series, Cadillac CT6 Genesis G90, Mercedes-Benz S-Class, Lexus LS, Porsche Panamera. Luxury cars costing over US$100,000 can be considered as "ultra-luxury cars". Examples include Maybach 57 and Bentley Arnage. Exotic cars which are targeted towards performance rather than luxury are not classified as ultra-luxury cars when their cost is greater than US$100,000. Several entry-level models from low-volume luxury car manufacturers, such as the Bentley Continental GT and the Rolls-Royce Ghost have been described as "entry-opulent" cars.
Many ultra-luxury cars are produced by brands with a long history of manufacturing luxury cars. The history of a brand and the exclusivity of a particular model can result in price premiums compared to luxury cars with similar features from less prestigious manufacturers. V12 engines are common in ultra-luxury cars. Long before the luxury SUV segment became popular in the 1990s, the vehicle in this segment was the 1966 Jeep Super Wagoneer, marketed at the time as a station wagon, it was the first off-road SUV to offer a V8 engine, automatic transmission, luxury car trim and equipment. Standard equipment included bucket seating, a center console, air conditioning, seven-position tilt steering wheel, a vinyl roof and gold colored trim panels on the body sides and tailgate. By the late 1970s, optional equipment included an electric sunroof, The 1978 Jeep Wagoneer Limited was the spiritual successor to the Super Wagoneer and was the first four-wheel drive car to use leather upholstery. Another precursor to the luxury SUV is the Range Rover, released in 1970.
It was the first road-going vehicle to have a permanent four-wheel drive system, split
A custom car is a passenger vehicle, either altered to improve its performance by altering or replacing the engine and transmission. A desire among some automotive enthusiasts in the United States is to push "styling and performance a step beyond the showroom floor - to craft an automobile of one's own." A custom car in British according to Collins English Dictionary is built to the buyer's own specifications. Although the two are related, custom cars are distinct from hot rods; the extent of this difference has been the subject of debate among customizers and rodders for decades. Additionally, a street rod can be considered a custom. Custom cars are not to be confused with coachbuilt automobiles rolling chassis fitted with luxury bodywork by specialty body builders. A development of hot rodding, the change in name corresponded to the change in the design of the cars being modified; the first hot rods were pre-World War II cars, with running boards and simple fenders over the wheels. Early model cars were modified by removing the running boards and either removing the fenders or replacing them with light cycle fenders.
Models had fender skirts installed. The "gow job" morphed into the hot rod in the early to middle 1950s. Typical of builds from before World War II were 1935 Ford wire wheels. Many cars were "hopped up" with engine modifications such as adding additional carburetors, high compression heads, dual exhausts. Engine swaps were done, with the objective of placing the most powerful engine in the lightest possible frame and body combination; the suspension was altered by lowering the rear end as much as possible using lowering blocks on the rear springs. Cars were given a rake job by either adding a dropped front axle or heating front coil springs to make the front end of the car much lower than the rear. Postwar, most rods would change from mechanical to hydraulic brakes and from bulb to sealed-beam headlights; the mid-1950s and early 1960s custom Deuce was fenderless and steeply chopped, all Ford. Reproduction spindles, brake drums, backing based on the 1937s remain available today. Aftermarket flatty heads were available from Barney Navarro, Vic Edelbrock, Offenhauser.
The first intake manifold. Front suspension hairpins were adapted from sprint cars, such as the Kurtis Krafts; the first Jimmy supercharger on a V8 may have been by Navarro in 1950. Much rods and customs swapped the old solid rear axle for an independent rear from Jaguar. Sometimes the grille of one make of car replaced another. In the 1950s and 1960s, the grille swap of choice was the 1953 DeSoto; the original hot rods were plainly painted like the Model A Fords from which they had been built up, only begun to take on colors, fancy orange-yellow flamed hoods or "candy-like" deep acrylic finishes in the various colors. With the change in automobile design to encase the wheels in fenders and to extend the hood to the full width of the car, the former practices were no longer possible. In addition, tremendous automotive advertising raised public interest in the new models in the 1950s. Thus, custom cars came into existence, swapping headlamp rings, bumpers, chrome side strips, taillights as well as frenching and tunnelling head- and taillights.
The bodies of the cars were changed by cutting through the sheet metal, removing bits to make the car lower, welding it back together, adding lead to make the resulting form smooth has since replaced lead. Chopping made the roof lower. Channeling was cutting notches in the floorpan where the body touches the frame to lower the whole body. Fins were added from other cars, or made up from sheet steel. In the custom car culture, someone who changed the appearance without substantially improving the performance was looked down upon. Juxtapoz Magazine, founded by the artist Robert Williams, has covered Kustom Kulture art. Certain linguistic conventions are followed among rodders and customizers: The model year is given in full, except when it might be confused, so a 1934 model is a'34, while a 2005 might be an'05 or not. A'32 is a Deuce and most a roadster, unless coupé is specified, always a Ford, now on A frame rails. A 1955, 1956, or 1957 is a Chevrolet. A 1955, 1956, or 1957 Chevrolet is called a Tri-Five.
A 3- or 5-window is a Ford, unless specified. A flatty is a flathead V8. A hemi is always a 426. See baby hemi. A 392 is an early hemi. A 331 or 354 is known to be an hemi, but referred to as such A 270 "Jimmy" was a 270 cubic inch GMC truck engine used to replace a smaller displacement Chevrolet six cylinder. Units are dropped, unless they are unclear, so a 426 cubic inch displacement engine is referred to as a 426, a 5-liter displacement engine is a 5.0, a 600 cubic feet per minute carburetor is a 600. Engin