Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, the force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859, firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, there is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for compression ignition engines and bioethanol or methanol for spark ignition engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, and can be made from fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines, in 1791, John Barber developed a turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine, in 1794 Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, which was the first to use liquid fuel, and built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine, in 1807, Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially, in 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine.
In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine, in 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, in 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gas engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed the first compressed charge, compression ignition engine, in 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the worlds first jet aircraft, at one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery — a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A motor is any machine that produces mechanical power, electric motors are not referred to as Engines, combustion engines are often referred to as motors. In boating an internal combustion engine that is installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives
Moment of inertia
It depends on the bodys mass distribution and the axis chosen, with larger moments requiring more torque to change the bodys rotation. It is a property, the moment of inertia of a composite system is the sum of the moments of inertia of its component subsystems. One of its definitions is the moment of mass with respect to distance from an axis r, I = ∫ Q r 2 d m. For bodies constrained to rotate in a plane, it is sufficient to consider their moment of inertia about a perpendicular to the plane. When a body is rotating, or free to rotate, around an axis, the amount of torque needed to cause any given angular acceleration is proportional to the moment of inertia of the body. Moment of inertia may be expressed in units of kilogram metre squared in SI units, moment of inertia plays the role in rotational kinetics that mass plays in linear kinetics - both characterize the resistance of a body to changes in its motion. The moment of inertia depends on how mass is distributed around an axis of rotation, for a point-like mass, the moment of inertia about some axis is given by mr2, where r is the distance to the axis, and m is the mass.
For an extended body, the moment of inertia is just the sum of all the pieces of mass multiplied by the square of their distances from the axis in question. For an extended body of a shape and uniform density. In 1673 Christiaan Huygens introduced this parameter in his study of the oscillation of a body hanging from a pivot, the term moment of inertia was introduced by Leonhard Euler in his book Theoria motus corporum solidorum seu rigidorum in 1765, and it is incorporated into Eulers second law. Comparison of this frequency to that of a simple pendulum consisting of a single point of mass provides a mathematical formulation for moment of inertia of an extended body. Moment of inertia appears in momentum, kinetic energy, and in Newtons laws of motion for a rigid body as a physical parameter that combines its shape. There is a difference in the way moment of inertia appears in planar. The moment of inertia of a flywheel is used in a machine to resist variations in applied torque to smooth its rotational output.
Moment of inertia I is defined as the ratio of the angular momentum L of a system to its angular velocity ω around a principal axis, if the angular momentum of a system is constant, as the moment of inertia gets smaller, the angular velocity must increase. This occurs when spinning figure skaters pull in their arms or divers curl their bodies into a tuck position during a dive. For a simple pendulum, this yields a formula for the moment of inertia I in terms of the mass m of the pendulum and its distance r from the pivot point as. Thus, moment of inertia depends on both the mass m of a body and its geometry, or shape, as defined by the distance r to the axis of rotation
The Morgan Plus 4 is an automobile which was produced by the Morgan Motor Company from 1950 to 1969. It is a powerful and, in the case of the earlier cars. The Plus 4 was revived in 1985 and filled the gap between the 4/4 and the Plus 8 until 2000, it was revived in 2005. After World War II Morgan had re-introduced their 4/4 model fitted with a 1267 cc Standard engine and this continued in production until 1950 when it was replaced by the larger Plus 4 announced at the 1950 Earls Court Motor Show. The Plus 4 at its introduction was fitted with a 2088 cc engine based on that used in the Standard Vanguard, installed on a strengthened 4/4, hydraulic brakes, at first all drum, were fitted for the first time on a Morgan. In 1953 a higher performance version was announced with the 1991 cc I4 engine as used in the Triumph TR2, the radiator grille was now surrounded by a cowl that blended into the bonnet. Front disc brakes became an option in 1959 and were standardised in 1960, from 1962 the engine was the Triumph TR4 unit, which increased displacement to 2138 cc.
In 1955 the less powerful 4/4 model re-appeared in phase II form, the 96 in wheelbase of the Plus 4 was adopted by the 4/4 when it reappeared in 1955, after which the two cars were for most purposes the same length and width. Also at the 1962 Geneva Motor Show, on display at the official Morgan stand the very unofficial Morgan +4 Ashley Sportiva Coupe developed by the Swiss Morgan Importer. Details are displayed on the Morgan +4 Ashley Coupe Story website, body styles available were a 2 seat sports,4 seat sports and more luxurious 2 or 4 seat drophead coupé. One of the quirks of the Plus 4 was that the engine cowling fitted so closely to the engine that there was no room for an air filter. Some owners stretched cheesecloth over the carburettor as a field-expedient, a racing version, the Plus 4 Super Sports was available from 1962 with tuned engine and lightweight body. Chris Lawrence and Richard Shepherd-Barron won the 1601-2000cc GT class at the 196224 Hours of Le Mans driving a Plus Four, the class winning car, chassis number 4840, was originally registered XRX1 in 1961, changed to TOK258 from late 1961 through mid-1964.
It was sold by Chris Lawrence to A. Dence in 1964, a TR3 engined two seater car was tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1958. It was found to have had a top speed of 100.3 mph, a fuel consumption of 27.1 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £1017 including taxes of £340, Morgan +4+ Morgan Workshop Manual Morgan +4 Ashley Coupe Story
The Nissan 350Z was a two-door, two-seater sports car that was manufactured by Nissan Motors from 2002 to 2009 and marks the fifth generation of Nissans Z-car line. The 350Z entered production in late 2002 and was sold and marketed as a 2003 model, the first year there was only a coupe, as the roadster did not debut until the following year. Initially, the coupe came in base, Performance and Track versions, while the roadster was limited to Enthusiast, the Track trim came with lightweight wheels and Brembo brakes, but its suspension tuning was the same as all other coupes. The Nissan 350Z has been succeeded by the 370Z for the 2009 model year, after the Nissan 300ZX was withdrawn from the U. S. market in 1996, Nissan initially tried to keep the Z name alive by re-creating the 240Z the following year. The car was conceived by Nissans North American design team in their time, and the concept was introduced in a four state Road Show in July 1998 to various car media, dealers. Yutaka Katayama, regarded as the Father of the Z unveiled the Z concept sketch to the public when he received an industry award.
The design, representing a modern vision of the 240Z, did not please the original 240Z designer Yoshihiko Matsuo, the 240Z concept was produced for the Detroit Motor Show for the following August and September. Nissan was unhappy with the first design as they felt the original 200 bhp 2, during a press conference in February 2000, president Carlos Ghosn announced plans to produce the car as he felt the new model would help to assist the companys recovery. The Z Concept was unveiled in Detroit Motor Show two years later, which was similar in shape but with a new front end. The car underwent a redesign and was eventually assigned the VQ35DE engine. Nissan unveiled the 240Z concept car at the 1999 North American International Auto Show, the concept was based primarily on a design sketch by Jerry Hirshberg of Nissans California design studio. In a reference to the original, it was a bright orange two-seater with swept-back styling and it was fully functional car with its 2.4 L 4-cylinder KA24DE engine from the Nissan Altima producing 200 bhp and 180 lb·ft of torque, and not the Z-cars traditional 6-cylinder engine.
It was thought a less than worthy successor to the line, the designers used an original 240Z to provide inspiration and the concept was created in only 12 weeks. Automotive critics described it would be cool but get a new model and this design served the intended purpose of creating interest, in the public and the corporation, for a new Z car. The 350Z is a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive, two-door, two-seat sports car designed by Ajay Panchal of Nissan Design America in San Diego and this program was inspired by the successful reaction to the 1999 240Z concept model. The vehicle has the long-hood short-deck design common to the Z-Car family, interior design has brushed aluminium accents. The main gauge pod is mounted directly to the steering column allowing their movement to coincide with steering wheel adjustments, additional gauges are mounted in a center triple gauge cluster. Touring models are equipped with the Bose sound system get a six CD changer, the 350Zs interior does not have a conventional glove box, but has storage compartments located either behind or between the two seats
Hot rods are typically old, classic American cars with large engines modified for linear speed. The origin of the hot rod is unclear. Some automotive historians say that the term originated with stolen vehicles being refitted with another engine, in the early days of automobile manufacturing there was no identical matching transmission, body frame, and engine numbers. It was possible to change engines and repaint the car or truck and in turn it into a different vehicle. The term hot was equivalent to being stolen, the term rod was equivalent to any motorized vehicle. Another possible origin includes replacement of the camshaft with a new version, roadsters were the cars of choice because they were light, easy to modify, and inexpensive. The term became commonplace in the 1930s or 1940s as the name of a car that had been hopped up by modifying the engine for higher performance, a term common in the early days was gow job. This has fallen into disuse except with historians, the term has broadened to apply to other items that are modified for a particular purpose, such as hot-rodded amplifier.
The activity increased in popularity after World War II, particularly in California, many cars were prepared by bootleggers in response to Prohibition to enable them to avoid revenue agents, some police vehicles were modified in response. The first hot rods were old cars, modified to reduce weight, speedster was a common name for the modified car. Wheels and tires were changed for improved traction and handling, Hot rod was sometimes a term used in the 1950s as a derogatory term for any car that did not fit into the mainstream. Hot rodders modifications were considered to improve the appearance as well, engine swaps often involved fitting the Ford flathead engine, or flatty, in a different chassis, the 60 horse in a Jeep was a popular choice in the 40s. In the 1950s, the block was often fitted with crankshafts of up to 4.125 in stroke. In addition, rodders in the 1950s routinely bored them out by 0.1875 in, due to the tendency of blocks to crack as a result of overheating, a perennial problem, in the 50s and 60s, the flatty was supplanted by the early hemi.
By the 1970s, the small-block Chevy was the most common option, and since the 80s, after World War II there were many small military airports throughout the country that were either abandoned or rarely used that allowed hot rodders across the country to race on marked courses. Originally drag racing had tracks as long as one mile or more, as hot rodding became more popular in the 1950s, magazines and associations catering to hot rodders were started. These were led by Honk. and Car Craft, as some hot rodders raced on the street, a need arose for an organization to promote safety, and to provide venues for safe racing. Hot rodders including Wally Parks created the National Hot Rod Association to bring racing off the streets and they created rules based on safety and entertainment, and allowed Hot Rodders of any caliber the ability to race
Luxury vehicle is a marketing term for a vehicle that provides luxury — pleasant or desirable features beyond strict necessity — at increased expense. The term is broad, highly variable and relative and it is a perceptual and subjective attribute that may be comprehended differently by different people, What is a luxury car to some. Therefore, automakers differentiate among their product lines in collusion with the car-buying public, while a high price is the most frequent factor, it is styling and even public opinion which cars had the highest and lowest status associated with them. Every era in history has had a group of car marques and models that have been expensive to purchase, due to their alleged superiority of their design. Aimed at wealthy buyers, such automobiles might be generically termed luxury cars and this term is used for unique vehicles produced during an era when luxury was individualistic consideration, and coachwork could be tailored to an owner like a bespoke suit. Although there is literature about specific marques, there is a lack of systematic.
Luxury vehicle makers may either be stand-alone companies in their own right, such as BMW and Mercedes-Benz, badge engineering is often used for cost savings, for example, the Lincoln vehicles that are based on Ford platforms or Acura models derived from Honda. Though widely used, the term luxury is broad and highly variable and it is a perceptual and subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people, What is a luxury car to some. According to the European Commission, the luxury segment is classified as F-segment. However, the boundaries between the segments are increasingly becoming blurred and diluted as features once exclusive to luxury vehicles become standard equipment on even small cars. ACRISS is a system used by many car rental companies in the US for classifying vehicles. The system includes Luxury and Premium categories, Australia, In Australia, for taxation purposes a luxury car is defined as a passenger car whose value exceeds a certain threshold. France, In France the term voiture de luxe is used, Germany, In Germany the term Upper class is used.
Russia, Russian markets use the term representative class vehicle, the classification varies, for instance Consumer Guide Automotive in the U. S. The premium compact segment is targeted at a market of consumers who found the existing entry-level luxury offerings to be too expensive. By offering a smaller, more fuel-efficient, and less expensive vehicle, premium compacts introduces younger buyers to the luxury marque, in hopes of retaining the coveted customer loyalty. This includes the Acura CSX, Audi A3, Buick Verano, BMW2 Series, BMW i3, Cadillac ELR, Chrysler 200, Lexus CT, Mercedes-Benz CLA-Class, Mercedes-Benz B-Class, Saab 9-2X, and the Volvo V40. Premium compacts compete with well-equipped midsize cars, and with options they overlap much with compact executive cars, Premium compacts may share components with mass market cars from the marques parent company, and/or have less sophisticated platforms compared to upmarket vehicles in the lineup
Although the two are related, custom cars are distinct from hot rods. The extent of this difference has been the subject of debate among customizers and rodders for decades, additionally, a street rod can be considered a custom. A development of hot rodding, the change in name corresponded to the change in the design of the cars being modified, the first hot rods were pre-World War II cars, with running boards and simple fenders over the wheels. Early model cars were modified by removing the running boards and either removing the fenders entirely or replacing them with very light cycle fenders, models usually had fender skirts installed. The firm was started by ex-employees of Howard Dutch Darrin, who had designed, strother MacMinn called the Yankee Doodle Roadster by Coachcraft the “first American custom sports car. Engine swaps were done, the object of which was to put the most powerful engine in the lightest possible frame, initially this involved lowering the rear end as much as possible with the use of lowering blocks on the rear springs.
Later cars were given a job either adding a dropped front axle or heating front coil springs to make the front end of the car much lower than the rear. Much some hot rods and custom cars swapped the old solid rear axle for an independent rear axle, sometimes the grille of one make of car replaced by another, the 1937 Buick grille was often used on a Ford. In the 1950s and 1960s, the swap of choice was the 1953 De Soto. With the change in design to encase the wheels in fenders and to extend the hood to the full width of the car. In addition, there was tremendous automotive advertising and subsequent public interest in the new models in the 1950s. Hence custom cars came into existence, swapping headlamp rings, bumpers, chrome side strips, and tail lights, as well as frenching and tunnelling head- and taillights. The bodies of the cars were changed by cutting through the metal, removing bits to make the car lower, welding it back together. By this means, chopping made the lower, sectioning made the body thinner from top to bottom.
Channeling was cutting notches in the floorpan where the body touches the frame to lower the whole body, fins were often added from other cars, or made up from sheet steel. In the custom car culture, someone who changed the appearance without substantially improving the performance was looked down upon. More recently, Juxtapoz Magazine, founded by the artist Robert Williams, has covered Kustom Kulture art, Custom cars are distinct from cars in stock condition. Builders may adopt the visual and performance characteristics of some relevant modification styles, there are now several different custom themes, Rat rod, imitates the unfinished and amateur-built appearance of hot rods of the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s Restomod - restored and modernized
Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout
In automotive design, an FWD, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle. Historically, this designation was used regardless of whether the engine was behind the front axle line. Most pre-World War II front engine cars would qualify as front-mid engine, using the front-mid designation and this layout is the most traditional form, and remains a popular, practical design. The engine which takes up a deal of space is packaged in a location passengers. The main deficit is weight distribution — the heaviest component is at one end of the vehicle, car handling is not ideal, but usually predictable. Like the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout and rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout layouts, it places the engine over the drive wheels, improving traction in many applications. As the steered wheels are the wheels, FWD cars are generally considered superior to RWD cars in conditions where there is low traction such as snow, mud.
When hill climbing in low traction conditions RR is considered the best two-wheel-drive layout, the cornering ability of a FWD vehicle is generally better, because the engine is placed over the steered wheels. However, as the wheels have the additional demands of steering, if a vehicle accelerates quickly, less grip is available for cornering. Electronic traction control can avoid wheel-spin but largely negates the benefit of extra power and this was a reason for the adoption of the four-wheel-drive quattro system in the high performance Jensen FF and Audi Quattro road cars. Early cars using the FWD layout include the 1929 Cord L-29,1931 DKW F1, the 1948 Citroën 2CV,1949 Saab 92, in the 1980s, the traction and packaging advantages of this layout caused many compact and mid-sized vehicle makers to adopt it in the US. Most European and Japanese manufacturers switched to front wheel drive for the majority of their cars in the 1960s and 1970s, the last to change being VW, Ford of Europe, Toyota was the last Japanese company to switch in the early 1980s. BMW, focussed on luxury vehicles, however retained the layout in even their smaller cars.
There are four different arrangements for this layout, depending on the location of the engine. The earliest such arrangement was not technically FWD, but rather mid-engine, the engine was mounted longitudinally behind the wheels, with the transmission ahead of the engine and differential at the very front of the car. With the engine so far back, the distribution of such cars as the Cord L-29 was not ideal. The 1934 Citroën Traction Avant solved the weight issue by placing the transmission at the front of the car with the differential between it and the engine. Combined with the low slung unibody design, this resulted in handling which was remarkable for the era
A grand tourer is a performance and luxury automobile capable of high speed and long-distance driving. The most common format is a two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement, the grand touring concept is eurocentric, the definition implies material differences in performance at speed and amenities between elite automobiles and those of ordinary motorists. In post-war United States, the Interstate Highway System and wide availability of powerful Straight-six, European GTs did find success penetrating the American personal luxury car market, notably the Mercedes-Benz SL-Class. Grand touring car design evolved from vintage and pre-World War II fast touring cars, italy developed the first gran turismo cars. The small, light-weight and aerodynamic coupé, named the Berlinetta, independent carrozzeria provided light and flexible fabric coachwork for powerful short-wheelbase fast-touring chassis by manufacturers such as Alfa Romeo. Later, Carrozzeria Touring of Milan would pioneer sophisticated Superleggera aluminium bodywork, the additional comfort of an enclosed cabin was beneficial for the Mille Miglia road-race held in Italys often wintry north.
An improved and supercharged version, the 6C1750 GTC Gran Turismo Compressore, from the basic Fiat 508 Balilla touring chassis came the SIATA and Fiat aerodynamic gran turismo-style Berlinetta Mille Miglias of 1933 and 1935. The first recognised motor race for gran turismo cars was the 1949 Coppa Inter-Europa held at Monza, the Fiat based 1100 cc four-cylinder Cisitaila was no match on the race track for Ferraris new hand-built 2000 cc V12, and Ferrari dominated, taking the first three places. An 1100 cc class was created, but not in time to save Cisitalias business fortunes—the companys bankrupt owner Piero Dusio had already decamped to Argentina. The Maserati A61500 won the 1500 cc class at the 1949 Coppa-Europa and it was driven by Franco Bordoni, former fighter ace of the Regia Aeronautica who had debuted as a pilota da corsa at the 1949 Mille Miglia. The body of the A61500 was an elegant two-door fast-back coupe body, the first car constructed in Ferraris name, the V12125 S, a racing sports car, debuted in 1947 at the Piacenza racing circuit.
The Ferrari 166 Inter S coupé model won the 1949 Coppa Inter-Europa, regulations stipulated body form and dimensions but did not at this time specify a minimum production quantity. The car was driven by Bruno Sterzi, and is recognized as the first Ferrari gran turismo, Ferraris response for the new Gran Tursimo championship was the road/race Ferrari 212. All versions came with the standard Ferrari five-speed non-synchromesh gearbox and hydraulic drum brakes, all 1951 Ferraris shared a double tube frame chassis design evolved from the 166. Double-wishbone front suspension with leaf spring, and live rear axle with semi-elliptic leaf springs. Even more impressive than the new Ferrari in 1951 was the debut of Lancias Aurelia B20 GT. Lancia had begun production in 1950 of their technically advanced Aurelia sedan, at the 1951 Turin Motor Show, the Pinin Farina-bodied Gran Tursimo B20 Coupé version was unveiled to an enthusiastic motoring public. In the B20 are elements of the Cistalia of 1947, coupés which Pinin undertook on a 6C Alfa Romeo and Maserati in 1948, in addition the B20 had a shorter wheelbase and a higher rear axle ratio, making it a 100 mph car
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year 1886 is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change.
Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and auto maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include transportation, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre.
In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested from 1895, and is the formal name for cars in British English. Autocar is a variant that is attested from 1895
Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren
When it was developed, German manufacturer Mercedes-Benz owned 40 percent of the McLaren Group. SLR stands for Sport Leicht Rennsport, homage to the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR which served as the McLarens inspiration, both coupé and roadster versions were offered. The SLR McLaren was succeeded by the Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG, the car was presented as Tomorrow Silver Arrow in a clear reference to the Silver Arrows of the golden age of Mercedes in competition during the fifties. Later that year, during the Frankfurt Motorshow it was presented the roadster version, wanting to bring the concept to production, Mercedes joined with their Formula One partner, McLaren, thus creating the Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren. The Mercedes-Benz SLR McLaren saw a run of over six years. On 4 April 2008, Mercedes announced it would discontinue the SLR, the last of the coupés rolled off the production line at the end of 2009 and the roadster version was dropped in early 2010. The SLR features Sensotronic Brake Control, a type of brake-by-wire system, the brake discs are carbon-ceramic and provide better stopping power and fade resistance than steel discs when operating under ideal working temperature.
Mercedes-Benz claims these discs are fade resistant to 1,200 °C, the front discs are internally vented and 370 mm diameter eight-piston calipers are used. Rear discs are 360 mm in diameter with four-piston calipers, during wet conditions the calipers automatically skim the surface of the discs to keep them dry. To improve braking performance an automatic air brake deploys at a 65 degree angle at high speed, the SLR features active aerodynamics, there is a spoiler mounted on the rear integral air brake flap. The spoiler increases downforce depending on its angle of elevation, the SLR sports a 232 kg hand-built 5,439 cc, all-aluminium, SOHC, V8 engine. The cylinders are angled at 90 degrees with three valves per cylinder and lubricated via a dry sump system, the compression ratio is 8.8,1 and the bore and stroke is 97 mm ×92 mm. The Lysholm-type twin-screw supercharger rotates at 23,000 rpm and produces 0.9 bar of boost, the compressed air is cooled via two intercoolers. The engine generates a power of 626 PS at 6,500 rpm.
McLaren took the concept car designed by Mercedes and moved the engine 1 metre behind the front bumper. They optimised the design of the centre firewall, the SLR uses AMG SPEEDSHIFT R five-speed automatic transmission with three manual modes. For durability Mercedes selected a five-speed transmission rather than their seven-speed gearbox which was more complex, the car uses carbon fibre reinforced plastics construction in an attempt to keep the weight low. Despite CFRP materials the total weight is 1,750 kg
Infiniti G-series (Q40/Q60)
The Infiniti G-series is a line of compact executive/entry-level luxury sports car produced by the Infiniti division of Nissan for the 1990–1996 and 1998–present model years. The first two generations of the Infiniti G were sedans based on the Nissan Primera, beginning with its third generation, the Infiniti G have been rebadged versions of the Nissan Skyline line of sedans and coupes that were exported to the United States and Canada. The current incarnation is the generation which introduced the hardtop coupe convertible. In May 2013, Infiniti announced a new naming convention beginning with the 2014 model year, all cars are designated by the letter Q. The Infiniti G was to have been replaced by the Infiniti Q50 and it was a rebadged version of the Nissan Primera sedan, primarily designed for the European market. Two generations of the G20 exist in the United States, the HP10, built from 1990 to 1996, all G20s were front-wheel drive and were built in Oppama, Japan. The exterior and interior designs of the P10 were styled by Mamoru Aoki in 1988, the G20 was first unveiled to Infiniti dealers at the 1989 New York International Auto Show, with the first series production example being assembled on July 10,1990.
The final 1996 G20 was rolled off the line on July 19,1996. The P10 featured the first application of Nissans multi-link front suspension in a front-wheel-drive car and it came standard with a 5-speed manual transmission. The G20 was powered by the SR20DE Inline 4-cylinder and it was a transversely mounted dual overhead cam naturally aspirated reciprocating internal combustion engine. Displacement was 2.0 litre with a square and this engine was shared with the US-spec Nissan Sentra/Nissan 200SX SE-R, Nissan NX2000, and a host of non-US Nissan vehicles. The particular version used in the G20 produced 140 hp crank in the US at first and these engines were fairly high-revving with a redline of 7500 rpm for 1991 through 1996 models,6950 rpm for the 1999 model, and 6750 rpm for 2000-2002 models. There were three variants of the SR20DE used in the G20. The first, used from July 1990 to December 1993, was the highport, in which the injectors, in January 1994, due to tightening emissions restrictions, Nissan switched to a lowport design, in which the injectors and fuel rail switched places with the intake plenum.
This design featured a milder intake camshaft and this design was used from 1994 to 1996 and again in 1998. The G20 featured either a 5-speed manual transmission or an optional 4-speed automatic, stock manual transmissions are typically usable up to approximately 250 whp, while stock automatic transmissions can only handle about 155 whp. Most front wheel drive transmissions from other SR-powered cars can be used with few modifications, the stock transmission as well as other SR20 transmissions are often upgraded with various modifications in order to handle more power. Common manual transmission modifications include cryo treating, shot peening, transmission case welding, aftermarket limited slip differential, aftermarket axles, common automatic transmission modifications include built valve bodies, aftermarket torque converters, automatic transmission fluid coolers, additional ATF filters, and aftermarket TCUs