Front Range

The Front Range is a mountain range of the Southern Rocky Mountains of North America located in the central portion of the U. S. State of Colorado, southeastern portion of the U. S. State of Wyoming, it is the first mountain range encountered as one goes westbound along the 40th parallel north across the Great Plains of North America. The Front Range runs north-south between Casper and Pueblo, Colorado and rises nearly 10,000 feet above the Great Plains. Longs Peak, Mount Evans, Pikes Peak are its most prominent peaks, visible from the Interstate 25 corridor; the area is a popular destination for mountain biking, hiking and camping during the warmer months and for skiing and snowboarding during winter. Millions of years ago, the present-day Front Range was home to ancient mountain ranges, deserts and oceans; the name "Front Range" is applied to the Front Range Urban Corridor, the populated region of Colorado and Wyoming just east of the mountain range and extending from Cheyenne, Wyoming south to Pueblo, Colorado.

This urban corridor benefits from the weather-moderating effect of the Front Range mountains, which help block prevailing storms. About 1 billion years ago, the earth was producing massive amounts of molten rock that would one day amalgamate, drift together and combine, to form modern continents. In the Colorado region, this molten rock spewed and cooled, forming what we now know as the Precambrian Pikes Peak Granite. Over the next 500 million years, little is known about changes in the sedimentation after the granite was produced. However, at about 500–300 million years ago, the region began to sink and sediments began to deposit in the newly formed accommodation space. Eroded granite produced sand particles that began to form strata, layers of sediment, in the sinking basin. Sedimentation would continue to take place until about 300 million years ago. Around 300 million years ago, the sinking reversed, the sediment-covered granite began to uplift, giving rise to the Ancestral Rocky Mountains.

Over the next 150 million years, during uplift the mountains would continue to erode and cover themselves in their own sediment. Wind, rainwater and ice-melt supplied rivers that carved through the granite mountains and led to their end; the sediment from these mountains lies in the Fountain Formation today. Red Rocks Amphitheatre outside of Denver, Colorado, is set into the Fountain Formation. At 280 million years ago, sea levels were low and present-day Colorado was part of the super-continent Pangaea. Sand deserts covered most of the area spreading as dunes seen in the rock record, known today as the Lyons Sandstone; these dunes appear to be cross-bedded and show various fossil footprints and leaf imprints in many of the strata making up the section. 30 million years the sediment deposition was still taking place with the introduction of the Lykins Formation. This formation can be best attributed to its wavy layers of muddy limestone and signs of stromatolites that thrived in a smelly tidal flat at present-day Colorado.

250 million years ago, the Ancestral Rockies were burying themselves while the shoreline was present during the break-up of Pangaea. This formation began right after Earth's largest extinction 251 million years ago at the Permian–Triassic Boundary. Ninety percent of the planet's marine life was a great deal on land as well. After 100 million years of deposition, a new environment brought rise to a new formation, the sandstone Morrison Formation; the Morrison Formation contains some of the best fossils of the Late Jurassic. It is known for its sauropod tracks and sauropod bones among other dinosaur fossils; as identified by the fossil record, the environment was filled with various types of vegetation such as ferns and Zamites. While this time period boasts many types of plants, grass had not yet evolved; the Dakota Sandstone, deposited 100 million years ago towards Colorado's eastern coast, shows evidence of ferns, dinosaur tracks. Sheets of ripple marks can be seen on some of the strata. Over the next 30 million years, the region was taken over by a deep sea, the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, deposited mass amounts of shale over the area known as the Pierre Shale.

Both the thick section of shale and the marine life fossils found. Colorado drained from being at the bottom of an ocean to land again, giving yield to another fossiliferous rock layer, the Denver Formation. At about 68 million years ago, the Front Range began to rise again due to the Laramide Orogeny in the west; the Denver Formation contained fossils and bones from dinosaurs like Tyrannosaurus rex and Triceratops. While the forests of vegetation and other organisms thrived, their reign would come to an end at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. In an instant, millions of species are obliterated from a meteor impact in Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula. While this extinction led to the demise of the dinosaurs and other organisms, some life did prevail to repopulate the earth as it recovered from this tremendous disaster; the uplifted Front Range continued to erode and, by 40 million years ago, the range was once again buried in its own rubble. 37 million years ago, a great volcanic eruption took place in the Collegiate Range and covered the landscape in molten hot ash that torched and consumed everything across the landscape.

An entire lush environment was capped in a matter of minutes with 20 feet of resistan


The AN/SPG-59 was an advanced PESA phased array radar developed by the U. S. Navy starting in 1958, it was one of the earliest phased array radars. AN/SPG-59 was intended to offer search and guidance from a single radar system and antenna as part of the Typhon combat system. Paired with the new Typhon missile, the system was to provide wide-area air defense out to about 110 nautical miles from suitable anti-aircraft cruisers. Both the radar and missile proved to be well beyond the state of the art of the era, the project was canceled in December 1963; the Typhon/SPG-59 started as a response to the introduction of sea-skimming anti-ship missiles into service with Soviet Naval Aviation groups. First-generation missile systems like Talos and Terrier used a combination of beam riding and semi-active radar homing that required a special targeting radar to illuminate the target through the entire interception. Typical installations included either two or four such illumination radars, which limited the number of simultaneous interceptions.

Facing volleys of missiles such systems could be overwhelmed. Adding additional radars was possible, but difficult to arrange as the radars were large and required a clear view of the sky, limiting the number of suitable locations; this led to a "specification convergence". That meant that increasing the number of radars would require the missiles to be updated as well; the AN/SPG -59 avoided this problem by acting as illumination radar. This reduced the problem of siting, as there needed to be only one radar on the ship, albeit a large one; the Typhon missiles helped solve this problem, switching from semi-active radar homing, beam riding to tracking by a track-via-missile system. In this system the receiver on the missile is a wide-band receiver, forwards its received signals back to the ship; the ship's on-board computers calculate the interception course and forward it back to the missile from an omni-directional antenna. This is similar to the older command guidance system, but avoids the inaccuracies of that system by locating the receiver on the missile, closer to the target and therefore sees a stronger signal.

Although this system required the missiles to be able to tune in a number of command radio channels, these are much simpler and smaller than radar receivers, allowing a much larger number of channels to be supported. Development of the radar suffered from multiple problems from its start; the phased array radar required a large number of individual broadcaster elements which proved to be unreliable and expensive. Additionally, the power requirements of the system were so huge that only nuclear-powered ships could provide the necessary power to operate the system. Although such ships were under construction, they were politically controversial; the radar was canceled in December 1963, because of mounting technical problems and being over budget. In November 1962 USS Norton Sound was towed to Baltimore, Maryland for installation of the Typhon Weapon Control System, including the AN/SPG-59; the conversion was completed early in 1964, Norton Sound was recommissioned 20 June 1964 to continue tasks in weapons research.

Baltimore was designated homeport for Norton Sound, for several months she operated in Chesapeake Bay, evaluating the Typhon System. Assigned to Port Hueneme, California in July 1965, she arrived there the last day of that month. During a three-month stay at Long Beach Naval Shipyard commencing 15 July 1966, all Typhon equipment was removed following discontinuance of the system

Plesetsk Cosmodrome Site 32

Site 32 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome is a launch complex used by Tsyklon-3 carrier rockets. It consists of a two launch pads, Site 32/1 and Site 32/2, which were used between 1977 and 2009, it has the GRAU index 11P868. Site 32 is, along with Site 35 and Site 41 one of three sites under consideration for the Angara programme. In 1970, the building of a highly-automated launch complex for Tsyklon-3 booster began at Site 32, designed by Omsk Transmash Design Bureau led by Chief Designer Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey; the first launch from Site 32 was conducted from pad 2 on 24 June 1977, with the first from Site 32/1 following on 23 January 1980. The last launch from Site 32/1 occurred on 28 December 2001. Site 32/2 was retired on 30 January 2009, along with the Tsyklon-3. All 122 Tsyklon-3 launches were conducted from the site. 57 launches were recorded as having been from pad 1 and 65 were recorded from pad 2