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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Frost

Frost is a thin layer of ice on a solid surface, which forms from water vapor in an above freezing atmosphere coming in contact with a solid surface whose temperature is below freezing, resulting in a phase change from water vapor to ice as the water vapor reaches the freezing point. In temperate climates, it most appears on surfaces near the ground as fragile white crystals; the propagation of crystal formation occurs by the process of nucleation. The ice crystals of frost form as the result of fractal process development; the depth of frost crystals varies depending on the amount of time they have been accumulating, the concentration of the water vapor. Frost crystals may be clear, or white. Types of frost include crystalline frost from deposition of water vapor from air of low humidity, white frost in humid conditions, window frost on glass surfaces, advection frost from cold wind over cold surfaces, black frost without visible ice at low temperatures and low humidity, rime under supercooled wet conditions.

Plants that have evolved in warmer climates suffer damage when the temperature falls low enough to freeze the water in the cells that make up the plant tissue. The tissue damage resulting from this process is known as "frost damage". Farmers in those regions where frost damage is known to affect their crops invest in substantial means to protect their crops from such damage. If a solid surface is chilled below the dew point of the surrounding humid air and the surface itself is colder than freezing, ice will form on it. If the water deposits as a liquid that freezes, it forms a coating that may look glassy, opaque, or crystalline, depending on its type. Depending on context, that process may be called atmospheric icing; the ice it produces differs in some ways from crystalline frost, which consists of spicules of ice that project from the solid surface on which they grow. The main difference between the ice coatings and frost spicules arises from the fact that the crystalline spicules grow directly from desublimation of water vapour from air, desublimation is not a factor in icing of freezing surfaces.

For desublimation to proceed the surface must be below the frost point of the air, meaning that it is sufficiently cold for ice to form without passing through the liquid phase. The air must be humid, but not sufficiently humid to permit the condensation of liquid water, or icing will result instead of desublimation; the size of the crystals depends on the temperature, the amount of water vapor available, how long they have been growing undisturbed. As a rule, except in conditions where supercooled droplets are present in the air, frost will form only if the deposition surface is colder than the surrounding air. For instance frost may be observed around cracks in cold wooden sidewalks when humid air escapes from the warmer ground beneath. Other objects on which frost forms are those with low specific heat or high thermal emissivity, such as blackened metals; the erratic occurrence of frost in adjacent localities is due to differences of elevation, the lower areas becoming colder on calm nights.

Where static air settles above an area of ground in the absence of wind, the absorptivity and specific heat of the ground influence the temperature that the trapped air attains. Hoar frost hoarfrost, radiation frost, or pruina, refers to white ice crystals deposited on the ground or loosely attached to exposed objects, such as wires or leaves, they form on cold, clear nights when conditions are such that heat radiates out to the open air faster than it can be replaced from nearby sources, such as wind or warm objects. Under suitable circumstances, objects cool to below the frost point of the surrounding air, well below the freezing point of water; such freezing may be promoted by effects such as frost pocket. These occur when ground-level radiation losses cool air until it flows downhill and accumulates in pockets of cold air in valleys and hollows. Hoar frost may freeze in such low-lying cold air when the air temperature a few feet above ground is well above freezing; the word hoar comes from an Old English adjective that means "showing signs of old age".

In this context, it refers to the frost that makes bushes look like white hair. Hoar frost may have different names depending on where it forms: Air hoar is a deposit of hoar frost on objects above the surface, such as tree branches, plant stems, wires. Surface hoar refers to fern-like ice crystals directly deposited on snow, ice or frozen surfaces. Crevasse hoar consists of crystals that form in glacial crevasses where water vapour can accumulate under calm weather conditions. Depth hoar refers to faceted crystals that have grown large within cavities beneath the surface of banks of dry snow. Depth hoar crystals grow continuously at the expense of neighbouring smaller crystals, so are visibly stepped and have faceted hollows; when surface hoar covers sloping snowbanks, the layer of frost crystals may create an avalanche risk. Ideal conditions for hoarfrost to form on snow are cold clear nights, with light, cold air currents conveying humidity at the right rate for growth of frost crystals. Wind, too strong or warm destroy

Kaiyuan, Liaoning

Kaiyuan is a county-level city in the northeast of Liaoning, People's Republic of China, bordering Jilin for a small section to the north. It is under the administration of Tieling City, the centre of which lies 33 kilometres to the southwest. There are 3 subdistricts, 9 towns, 9 townships under the city's administration. Subdistricts: Xincheng Subdistrict, Laocheng Subdistrict, Xingkai Subdistrict Towns: Babao, Kaoshan, Jingouzi, Bakeshu, Weiyuanbao Townships: Chengdong Township, Sanjiazi Township, Songshanbao Township, Majiazhai Township, Lijiatai Township, Shangbadi Manchu Ethnic Township, Xiabadi Manchu Ethnic Township, Huangqizhai Manchu Ethnic Township, Linfeng Manchu Ethnic Township Kaiyuan is situated in northeastern Liaoning in the southeastern part of Tieling City on the eastern bank of the middle reaches of the Liao River, it borders Dongfeng County and Qingyuan Manchu Autonomous County to the east, Tieling County to the south and Changtu counties to the west, Lishu County to the north.

Its administrative area reaches a maximal north-south extent of 86 km and east-west width of 89.4 km. In the east, the land begins to transition to the foothills of the Changbai Mountains, while the west is marked by the Songliao Plain. Kaiyuan has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate, characterised by hot, humid summers and long and windy, but dry winters; the four seasons here are distinctive. A majority of the annual rainfall of 661 mm occurs in August alone; the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −13.4 °C in January to 23.8 °C in July, the annual mean is 6.98 °C. Sheng Shicai, a warlord who ruled Xinjiang from 1933 to 1944. Xiaoshenyang, Chinese actor

Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004

The Education Act 2004 is an Act of the Scottish Parliament that received Royal Assent in 2004. It seeks to redefine the law relating to the provision of special education to children with additional needs by establishing a framework for the policies of inclusion and practicing the "presumption of mainstreaming" in Scottish education; the Act is an attempt to broaden the narrow definition of Special Educational Needs, used to define children with special needs. Under the SEN model, certain children were classified as having special needs, a formal "Record of Needs" was opened and maintained; the opening of an RoN placed a legal obligation on the local authority to meet the needs of the child or young person as defined in the record. Additional support, staffing and places at special schools were dependent on the needs and targets set out in the student's RoN; the new Act defines a system of Additional Support Needs. The Act states that, at some point in their education, all children may require some form of additional support.

The Act says: "A child may require additional support for a variety of reasons. These may include those who are being bullied, are gifted, have experienced a bereavement, or are not attending school as well as those who have behavioural or learning difficulties, mental health problems, or specific disabilities such as deafness or blindness." The Act places a duty on education authorities to establish procedures for identifying and meeting the additional support needs of children and young people. The identified needs must be kept under review and it will be the responsibility of all agencies to help education authorities meet their duties; the act defines such agencies as "including the local authority’s social work services, any health board, any other local authority or other agency specified by Scottish Ministers, such as Careers Scotland or further education colleges." The new structure is intended to make accessing support easier for carers. Where parents believe that their child has additional support needs they are able to request assessments which they believe are necessary.

In situations where there is disagreement, education authorities will be under a duty to provide mediation services and they will be required to have arrangements in place for resolving disputes. The Act is intended to provide support for children with long or short term barriers to learning, including children with severe and complex needs. Where more than one support service is involved in the provision of support for a child, a Co-ordinated Support Plan will be drawn up by the relevant agencies. Education Act 2004 on Education Scotland Text of the Act "Additional Support Needs: a guide to the law by Govan Law Centre". A brief guide to the 2004 Act for schools and young people. Includes additional information, cases and downloads. Scottish Executive: Transitional arrangements consultation paper on the Act Contact a Family Factsheet: Additional Support for Learning Act

Axis naval activity in Australian waters

Although Australia was remote from the main battlefronts, there was considerable Axis naval activity in Australian waters during the Second World War. A total of 54 German and Japanese warships and submarines entered Australian waters between 1940 and 1945 and attacked ships and other targets. Among the best-known attacks are the sinking of HMAS Sydney by a German raider in November 1941, the bombing of Darwin by Japanese naval aircraft in February 1942, the Japanese midget submarine attack on Sydney Harbour in May 1942. In addition, many Allied merchant ships were damaged or sunk off the Australian coast by submarines and mines. Japanese submarines shelled several Australian ports and submarine-based aircraft flew over several Australian capital cities; the Axis threat to Australia developed and until 1942 was limited to sporadic attacks by German armed merchantmen. The level of Axis naval activity peaked in the first half of 1942 when Japanese submarines conducted anti-shipping patrols off Australia's coast, Japanese naval aviation attacked several towns in northern Australia.

The Japanese submarine offensive against Australia was renewed in the first half of 1943 but was broken off as the Allies pushed the Japanese onto the defensive. Few Axis naval vessels operated in Australian waters in 1944 and 1945, those that did had only a limited impact. Due to the episodic nature of the Axis attacks and the small number of ships and submarines committed and Japan were not successful in disrupting Australian shipping. While the Allies were forced to deploy substantial assets to defend shipping in Australian waters, this did not have a significant impact on the Australian war effort or American-led operations in the South West Pacific Area; the definition of "Australian waters" used throughout this article is, broadly speaking, the area, designated the Australia Station prior to the outbreak of war. This vast area consisted of the waters around Australia and eastern New Guinea, stretching south to Antarctica. From east to west, it stretched from 170° east in the Pacific Ocean to 80° east in the Indian Ocean, from north to south it stretched from the Equator to the Antarctic.

While the eastern half of New Guinea was an Australian colonial possession during the Second World War and fell within the Australia Station, the Japanese operations in these waters formed part of the New Guinea and Solomon Islands Campaigns and were not directed at Australia. The defence of the Australia Station was the Royal Australian Navy's main concern throughout the war. While RAN ships served outside Australian waters, escort vessels and minesweepers were available to protect shipping in the Australia Station at all times; these escorts were supported by a small number of larger warships, such as cruisers and armed merchant cruisers, for protection against surface raiders. While important military shipping movements were escorted from the start of the war, convoys were not instituted in Australian waters until June 1942; the Australian naval authorities did, close ports to shipping at various times following real or suspected sightings of enemy warships or mines prior to June 1942. The Royal Australian Air Force was responsible for the protection of shipping within the Australia Station.

Throughout the war, RAAF aircraft escorted convoys and conducted reconnaissance and anti-submarine patrols from bases around Australia. The main types of aircraft used for maritime patrol were Avro Ansons, Bristol Beauforts, Consolidated PBY Catalinas and Lockheed Hudsons. Following the outbreak of the Pacific War, RAAF fighter squadrons were stationed to protect key Australian ports and escorted shipping in areas where air attack was feared; the Allied naval forces assigned to the Australia Station were increased following Japan's entry into the war and the beginning of the United States military build-up in Australia. These naval forces were supported by a large increase in the RAAF's maritime patrol force and the arrival of United States Navy patrol aircraft. Following the initial Japanese submarine attacks, a convoy system was instituted between Australian ports, by the end of the war the RAAF and RAN had escorted over 1,100 convoys along the Australian coastline; as the battlefront moved to the north and attacks in Australian waters became less frequent, the number of ships and aircraft assigned to shipping protection duties within the Australia Station was reduced.

In addition to the air and naval forces assigned to protect shipping in Australian waters, fixed defences were constructed to protect the major Australian ports. The Australian Army was responsible for developing and manning coastal defences to protect ports from attacks by enemy surface raiders; these defences consisted of a number of fixed guns defended by anti-aircraft guns and infantry. The Army's coastal defences were expanded as the threat to Australia increased between 1940 and 1942, reached their peak strength in 1944; the Royal Australian Navy was responsible for developing and manning harbour defences in Australia's main ports. These defences consisted of fixed anti-submarine booms and mines supported by small patrol craft, were greatly expanded as the threat to Australia increased; the RAN laid defensive minefields in Australian waters from August 1941. While the naval and air forces available for the protection of shipping in Australian waters were never adequate to defeat a heavy or coordinated attack, they proved sufficient to mount defensive patrols against the sporadic and cautious attacks mounted by the Axis navies during the war.

While German surface raiders operated in the western Indian Ocean in 1939 and early 1940, they did not enter Australian waters until the s

Maryland Route 175

Maryland Route 175 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Maryland. The highway runs 17.01 miles from Little Patuxent Parkway in Columbia east to MD 3 in Millersville. MD 175 is a major highway through the large unincorporated community of Columbia. S. Route 29 next to Columbia Town Center with Interstate 95 and an industrial area on the eastern side of Howard County. MD 175 connects Fort Meade with Jessup and Odenton in western Anne Arundel County, where it links MD 295 and MD 32 with the eastern part of the U. S. Army base. MD 175 was constructed from Ellicott City to Millersville in the late 1920s and early 1930s as part of three routes: MD 531 from MD 103 near Ellicott City to US 1 near Jessup, MD 175 from there to Fort Meade and north to Hanover, MD 180 from Odenton to Millersville; the highway did not extend through Fort Meade. By 1946, MD 175 extended from Ellicott City to Millersville; the highway was widened from Odenton to Millersville in the late 1940s and from Ellicott City to Odenton in the mid-1950s.

MD 175 was relocated at I-95 around 1970 and as a major highway through the newly constructed community of Columbia in the mid-1970s. The old portion of the highway from Ellicott City to the new highway became MD 108 and MD 104. There are plans to expand MD 175 to a multi-lane divided highway through Fort Meade due to increased activity at the Army post. MD 175 begins just west of its bridges over the Little Patuxent River; the highway continues southwest as Little Patuxent Parkway, the county-maintained six-lane divided highway that forms the main street of Columbia Town Center. MD 175 heads east as a four-lane divided controlled access highway; the highway has a cloverleaf interchange with US 29. MD 175 heads southeast through intersections with Thunder Hill Road, Tamar Drive, Dobbin Road as it passes between the Columbia villages of Oakland Mills to the southwest and Long Reach to the northeast; the state highway expands to six lanes at Dobbin Road and has a partial cloverleaf interchange with Snowden River Parkway that provides access to a park and ride lot serving MTA Maryland commuter buses and a trumpet interchange with Columbia Gateway Drive.

Access from eastbound MD 175 to Columbia Gateway Drive requires using the Snowden River Parkway interchange. MD 175 widens to eight lanes at Columbia Gateway Drive, a width the highway carries through its intersection with the eastern end of MD 108 to the highway's partial cloverleaf interchange with I-95; the highway's name changes from Rouse Parkway to Waterloo Road at the MD 108 junction. MD 175 has six lanes from I-95 to east of its junction with US 1, the site of a tavern called Waterloo and before that Spurrier's Tavern. MD 175 narrows to a two-lane undivided road as it passes between the Maryland Wholesale Produce Distribution Center to the southwest and the Patuxent Institution on the northeast and enters Jessup. East of Dorsey Run Road, which leads to the Jessup Auto Distribution Center, the state highway crosses over CSX's Capital Subdivision and enters Anne Arundel County, where the highway's name changes to Jessup Road. East of the tracks, MD 175 meets the eastern end of unsigned MD 723, which accesses the Jessup station on MARC's Camden Line, which uses the Capital Subdivision tracks.

The highway continues east past the former Maryland House of Correction and has a cloverleaf interchange with MD 295, where the highway's name becomes Annapolis Road. MD 175 temporarily expands to four lanes at its intersection with MD 713, which heads south as Rockenbach Road into Fort Meade and north as Ridge Road toward Hanover; the highway passes through the eastern part of Fort Meade and expands to a four-lane road with a center left-turn lane at Reece Road, which becomes MD 174 on the eastern boundary of the military installation. At the southeastern corner of the fort, MD 175 has a partial cloverleaf interchange with MD 32 and enters Odenton; the highway crosses over Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and meets the southern end of MD 170. MD 175 continues as a four-lane undivided highway to a five-legged roundabout at the eastern end of Odenton where the highway meets Odenton Road, Higgins Drive, Sappington Station Road, unsigned MD 32AA; the highway continues as a two-lane undivided road past Arundel High School and through the village of Gambrills before reaching its eastern terminus at MD 3 west of Millersville.

MD 175 has separate intersections with southbound and northbound MD 3. MD 175 is a part of the National Highway System as an intermodal freight transport connector from I-95 to Dorsey Run Road in Jessup and as a principal arterial from US 29 to I-95 through Columbia; the first section of MD 175 was constructed between 1924 and 1926 as a macadam road from US 1 southeast to the entrance of the Maryland House of Correction east of the B&O Railroad in Jessup. MD 175 was extended as a concrete road east to its modern intersection with MD 713 northeast along what became MD 713 to MD 176 in Hanover in 1929; the easternmost portion of MD 175, MD 180, was constr

Alfred Bader

Alfred Robert Bader, CBE was a Canadian chemist, businessman and collector of fine art. He was considered by the Chemical & Engineering News poll of 1998 to be one of the "Top 75 Distinguished Contributors to the Chemical Enterprise" during C&EN's 75-year history. Alfred Bader was born on April 1924, in Vienna, Austria, his father, Alfred Bader, was of Czech Jewish descent. His grandfather, Moritz Ritter von Bader, had been a civil engineer, who worked on the Suez Canal and was knighted by Emperor Franz Josef for his service as Austrian consul at Ismaïlia, his mother, Elizabeth Countess Serényi, came from an aristocratic Catholic Hungarian family. In spite of adamant opposition from Serényi's family, the couple had married in London and settled in Vienna. Alfred was born only two weeks before his father's death, he was adopted by his father's sister, Gisela Reich, raised as a Jew. His older sister, remained with Countess Serényi and was raised as a Catholic. In June 1938, Bader was forced out of school because Jews were forbidden to attend beyond the age 14.

On December 10, 1938, he was sent from Austria to England as part of the Kindertransport to escape Nazi persecution. His adoptive mother remained in Austria, died in 1942 in Theresienstadt. While in England, Bader attended the East Hove Senior School for Boys, Brighton Technical College. In 1940 he was sent to a Canadian internment camp for European refugees. While in the camp, Bader passed his junior and senior matriculation, taking exams from McGill University. A Montreal sponsor, Martin Wolff, welcomed him into a Canadian Jewish family in late 1941 and encouraged him to study further. After being rejected by McGill, which had a Jewish "quota" and by the University of Toronto, where the chemistry department was doing sensitive war work, Bader was accepted by Queen's University, in Kingston, Ontario, he received his B. Sc. in Engineering Chemistry in 1945, followed by a B. A. in History in 1946. During the summers, he worked for the Murphy Paint Company in Montreal, formulating paints and varnishes to order.

He completed his M. S. in Chemistry in 1947, doing considerable work on the oxidation of linoleic acids and isomeric tetrahydroxystearic acids. His work with Arthur F. McKay, a "superb experimentalist" who supervised Bader's laboratory work in experimental chemistry, convinced Bader to focus on the field of synthetic organic chemistry. Bader went on to study at Harvard University, with the support of the Abbott fellowship, he received an M. A. in Chemistry in 1949 and a Ph. D. in Organic Chemistry in 1950. At Harvard, he studied with famed organic chemist Louis Fieser, working on the rearrangement of quinones and the development of intermediates in the Hooker oxidation process. Engineering Chemistry BS, Queen's University History BA, Queen's University Chemistry MSc, Queen's University Chemistry MA, Harvard University Chemistry PhD, Harvard University While working for the Murphy Paint Company in Montreal, Bader was offered financial support to do graduate work, on the condition that he return to work at the company.

By the time he finished his Ph. D. at Harvard, Murphy Paint had been acquired by Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. In January 1950, Bader began work as a research chemist at Pittsburgh Plate Glass, his appointment to the Milwaukee, Wisconsin research facilities broke an unwritten rule against the hiring of Jews and African Americans. While at PPG Bader did significant work in noncatalytic transesterification and in the development of monomers, including systematic studies of alkenylphenols, unsaturated phenols, phenolic resins; this work led to a number of patents. The patent for Bader's method of creating diphenolic acid was sold by PPG to Johnson Wax for $1M. Bader remained with PPG until 1954. During this time, Bader became aware of the need for a small reliable company dedicated to providing quality research chemicals. At that time Kodak was their only supplier, the large company seemed to show insufficient consideration for small and independent researchers. Bader himself had experienced this as a graduate student, when he ordered one of the compounds he needed from the Kodak catalog.

He had to make it himself due to its infrequent availability. In 1951, while still working at PPG, Bader co-founded the Aldrich Chemical Company with Jack Eisendrath, a lawyer. Jack Eisendrath was the first company president. Although Bader held the title of Chief Chemist, most chemicals were not produced in-house. Bader bought interesting compounds from a variety of sources in the United States and Europe and listed them in his catalog; the company operated out of a garage where the chemicals were stored and packaged for mailing. The first product sent out by Aldrich was Methylnitronitrosoguanidine, which Bader had learned to produce at Queen's. By 1954 Bader and his first wife, Helen "Danny" Daniels, bought Eisendrath out of Aldrich, becoming "sole and equal owners of the company." Alfred Bader became the company president, leaving PPG. Reliable chemicals were essential for research chemists of all kinds, they saved time and work in preparation, the availability of standardized key reagents and starting materials contributed to the reproducibility of experimental results.

The Aldrich Chemical Company catalog grew to contain nearly 50,000 substances, described by the Chemical Heritage Foundation as "a huge library of rare chemicals" in addition to thousands of those most used. The company's "Big Red" annual catalog was used as a reference work because of the extensive physical data and structural in