Uruguay the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for 4,000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a military stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century, signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain and Argentina and Brazil, it remained subject to foreign influence and intervention throughout the 19th century, with the military playing a recurring role in domestic politics.
A series of economic crises put an end to a democratic period that had begun in the early 20th century, culminating in a 1973 coup, which established a civic-military dictatorship. The military government persecuted leftists and political opponents, resulting in several deaths and numerous instances of torture by the military. Uruguay is today a democratic constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, low perception of corruption, e-government, is first in South America when it comes to press freedom, size of the middle class and prosperity. On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions than any other country, it tops the rank of absence of a unique position within South America. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income and inflows of FDI. Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth and infrastructure.
It is regarded as a high-income country by the UN. Uruguay was ranked the third-best in the world in e-Participation in 2014. Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, soybeans, frozen beef and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguay's electricity comes from renewable energy hydroelectric facilities and wind parks. Uruguay is a founding member of the United Nations, OAS, Mercosur, UNASUR and NAM. Uruguay is regarded as one of the most advanced countries in Latin America, it ranks high on global measures of personal rights and inclusion issues. The Economist named Uruguay "country of the year" in 2013, acknowledging the policy of legalizing the production and consumption of cannabis; the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including "bird-river"; the name could refer to a river snail called uruguá, plentiful in the water. In Spanish colonial times, for some time thereafter and some neighbouring territories were called the Cisplatina and Banda Oriental for a few years the "Eastern Province".
Since its independence, the country has been known as la República Oriental del Uruguay, which means "the eastern republic of the Uruguay ". However, it is translated either as the "Oriental Republic of Uruguay" or the "Eastern Republic of Uruguay"; the documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, a small tribe driven south by the Guarani of Paraguay. It is estimated that there were about 9,000 Charrúa and 6,000 Chaná and Guaraní at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1500s. Fructuoso Rivera - Uruguay's first president – organized the Charruas' genocide; the Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516; the indigenous peoples' fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries. Uruguay became a zone of contention between the Spanish and Portuguese empires.
In 1603, the Spanish began to introduce cattle. The first permanent Spanish settlement was founded in 1624 at Soriano on the Río Negro. In 1669–71, the Portuguese built a fort at Colonia del Sacramento. Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in the early 18th century as a military stronghold in the country, its natural harbor soon developed into a commercial area competing with Río de la Plata's capital, Buenos Aires. Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights for dominance in the Platine region, between British, Spanish and other colonial forces. In 1806 and 1807, the British army attempted to seize Buenos Aires and Montevideo as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Montevideo was occupied by a British force from February to September 1807. In 1811, José Gervasio Artigas, who became Uruguay's national hero, launched a successful revolt against the Spanish authorities, defeating them on 18 May at the Battle of Las Piedras. In 1813, the new government in Buenos Aires convened a constituent assembly where Artigas emerged as a champ
Luis Eduardo Pérez
Luis Eduardo Pérez was the first interim president of Uruguay. Pérez was President of the Senate of Uruguay, it was in that capacity that he acted as interim Head of State, he was President of Uruguay as an interim measure from October 24, 1830 to November 6 of the same year. He died in 1841. History of Uruguay
A military is a heavily-armed, highly-organised force intended for warfare known collectively as armed forces. It is officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform, it may consist of one or more military branches such as an Army, Air Force and in certain countries and Coast Guard. The main task of the military is defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats. Beyond warfare, the military may be employed in additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within the state, including internal security threats, population control, the promotion of a political agenda, emergency services and reconstruction, protecting corporate economic interests, social ceremonies and national honor guards. A nation's military may function as a discrete social subculture, with dedicated infrastructure such as military housing, utilities, hospitals, legal services, food production and banking services.
In broad usage, the terms "armed forces" and "military" are treated as synonymous, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. There are various forms of irregular military forces; the profession of soldiering as part of a military is older than recorded history itself. Some of the most enduring images of classical antiquity portray the power and feats of its military leaders; the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC was one of the defining points of Pharaoh Ramses II's reign, his monuments commemorate it in bas-relief. A thousand years the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might that he had himself buried with an army of terracotta soldiers; the Romans paid considerable attention to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings on the subject, as well as a large number of lavishly carved triumphal arches and victory columns.
Issue: Possibly cognate with Thousand, cf. Latin and Romance language root word "mil-")The first recorded use of the word military in English, spelled militarie, was in 1582, it comes from the Latin militaris through French, but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- – going in a body or mass. The word is now identified as denoting someone, skilled in use of weapons, or engaged in military service, or in warfare; as a noun, the military refers to a country's armed forces, or sometimes, more to the senior officers who command them. In general, it refers to the physicality of armed forces, their personnel and the physical area which they occupy; as an adjective, military referred only to soldiers and soldiering, but it soon broadened to apply to land forces in general, anything to do with their profession. The names of both the Royal Military Academy and United States Military Academy reflect this. However, at about the time of the Napoleonic Wars,'military' began to be used in reference to armed forces as a whole, in the 21st century expressions like'military service','military intelligence', and'military history' encompass naval and air force aspects.
As such, it now connotes any activity performed by armed force personnel. Military history is considered to be the history of all conflicts, not just the history of the state militaries, it differs somewhat from the history of war, with military history focusing on the people and institutions of war-making, while the history of war focuses on the evolution of war itself in the face of changing technology and geography. Military history has a number of facets. One main facet is to learn from past accomplishments and mistakes, so as to more wage war in the future. Another is to create a sense of military tradition, used to create cohesive military forces. Still, another may be to learn to prevent wars more effectively. Human knowledge about the military is based on both recorded and oral history of military conflicts, their participating armies and navies and, more air forces. There are two types of military history, although all texts have elements of both: descriptive history, that serves to chronicle conflicts without offering any statements about the causes, nature of conduct, the ending, effects of a conflict.
Despite the growing importance of military technology, military activity depends above all on people. For example, in 2000 the British Army declared: "Man is still the first weapon of war." The military organization is characterized by a strict hierarchy divided by military rank, with ranks grouped as officers, non-commissioned officers, personnel at the lowest rank. While senior officers make strategic decisions, subordinated military personnel fulfil them. Although rank titles vary by military branch and country, the rank hierarchy is common to all state armed forces worldwide. In addition to their rank, personnel occupy one of many trade roles, which are grouped according to
Battle of Sarandí
The Battle of Sarandí was fought on October 12 of 1825, in the vicinity of the Arroyo Sarandí in Uruguay, between troops of the Banda Oriental and the Empire of Brazil. It resulted in a decisive victory for the Orientals; the Banda Oriental was occupied by the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves in 1820 under the name of Cisplatine Province, was incorporated as a Brazilian Province in 1822 when Brazil became independent from Portugal. The Orientals resumed their efforts to get rid of foreign occupation, after the landing of the Thirty-Three Orientals engaged the Brazilian forces in a series of actions which included the siege of Montevideo, led by Manuel Oribe and that of Colonia del Sacramento; the Battle of Rincón resulted in a victory for the Oriental forces, represented a major setback for the Brazilian forces besieged at Montevideo, as Brazilian casualties were high, which included about 8,000 horses captured by the Orientals. As soon as the news were known, in Montevideo a force of around 1,000 Brazilian soldiers under Colonel Bento Manuel Ribeiro, was organized, with intention to a Brazilian army of similar strength, in the field, led by General Bento Gonçalves da Silva.
Juan Antonio Lavalleja was in Durazno with Oriental troops, after becoming aware of these news, tried to prevent both Brazilian forces joining in a single army. With a major effort Lavalleja was able to muster a force of similar strength, faced the Brazilian army at the tips of the Arroyo Sarandí, in an area located on the present-day Florida Department, on October 12, 1825. On the morning of the 12th, after arriving to the vicinity of Sarandí creek, Lavalleja was informed that the enemy was a league away. Lavalleja formed his troops in a battle line facing south, occupying the heights overlooking the road to Paso de Polanco del Yí; the forces under Fructuoso Rivera were placed to the left of Lavalleja’s, supporting their flank the Sarandí creek. The reserves were located behind the centre. Meanwhile, the Imperial troops had reached Sarandi del Yí, believing that Rivera was on the right bank of the Sarandí creek were surprised to see them the other side. After crossing the stream and reaching higher ground, the Brazilians realized that the whole of the Oriental force was formed in the line of battle.
Bento Manuel Ribeiro realized the advantage of the Oriental formation, rather than attacking realigned his forces. The manoeuver of the Brazilian Army put Lavalleja off balance, forcing him to change his front from the south to the west, but speed with which the maneuver was carried out caused confusion in the line, leaving Zufriategui in the center and Manuel Oribe at the right. At 8 in the morning the action began; the Oriental artillery began opening fire. Rivera charged on Bento Gonçalves, while in the center Oribe was charged by the Imperial forces of Alvaro de Alencastre whose disciplined troops penetrated the front and reached the Oriental reserves. Realizing the danger, Lavalleja charged with the reserve forces against the Brazilians and divided their formation in two; the Oriental right wing charged against the Brazilian left wing, trying to support the Brazilian centre. As a result, Alencastre’s forces were flanked by Rivera’s troops and by the Oriental reserves, which were in pursuit of the scattered troops under Gonçalves Bentos.
This allowed Oribe to reorganize its forces and counterattack. The confusion of the Brazilian troops was huge and caused its dispersion, as they found themselves charged by the Oriental cavalry, who forced the Imperial troops to leave the battlefield and relentlessly pursued the enemy; the Orientals organised the Congress of Florida and requested reunification with the United Provinces of the River Plate. The General Congress which gathered in the city of Buenos Aires approved on October 24 a law that reunited the Banda Oriental to the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata. Regardless, the Brazilian army retained the northeast of the country, allowing it to keep in touch with its metropolis. For this reason, the Orientals took action to regain control of this area, culminating in the capture of the Fortress of Santa Teresa on 31 December 1825. From on the Brazilian forces held only the besieged cities of Colonia and Montevideo; the small town close to the battlefield is called Sarandí Grande. Scheina,Robert L.
Latin America's Wars, Volume I: The Age of the Caudillo, 1791-1899, Potomac Books Inc. 2003, ISBN 1574884492 Donato, Hernâni. Dicionário das Batalhas Brasileiras. Instituicao Brasileira de Difusao Cultural, 1996. ISBN 8534800340
José Gervasio Artigas
José Gervasio Artigas Arnal was a national hero of Uruguay, sometimes called "the father of Uruguayan nationhood". Artigas was born in Montevideo on June 19, 1764, his grandparents were from Zaragoza, Buenos Tenerife. His grandparents fought in the War of the Spanish Succession and moved to the Americas to escape from poverty, settling in Buenos Aires in 1716. Artigas was the son of Martín José Artigas and Francisca Antonia Arnal, who came from a wealthy family, his parents enrolled him in the Colegio de San Bernardino, to pursue religious studies, but Artigas refused to submit to the school's strict discipline. Before he left the school, he developed a strong friendship with Fernando Otorgues, who would work with him in years. At the age of 12, he worked on his family's farms, his contact with the customs and perspectives of gauchos and Indians made a great impression on him. Once he had come of age, he distanced himself from his parents and became involved in cattle smuggling; this made him a wanted man with the government in Montevideo.
A reward was put out for his death. Things changed with the opening of the Anglo-Spanish War, the threat of a British attack upon the viceroyalty; the viceroy Antonio de Olaguer y Feliú negotiated a pardon with his family, on the condition that he joined the Corps of Blandengues with a hundred men, to form a battalion. Thus, he began his military career at age 33, with the rank of lieutenant; the attack came in 1806, when William Beresford invaded Buenos Aires, in the first British invasions of the Río de la Plata. Although Artigas's unit was tasked with patrolling the frontier with Brazil, he requested to take part in the military expedition that Santiago de Liniers launched from Montevideo to drive the British out of Buenos Aires, his request was granted, the British were defeated. After the liberation of Buenos Aires, he was tasked with returning to Montevideo and informing the governor Pascual Ruiz Huidobro of the result of the battle. A second British attack aimed to capture Montevideo, captured in the Battle of Montevideo.
Artigas was taken prisoner. He began a guerrilla war against the invaders; the British tried to capture Buenos Aires a second time, but were defeated by the local armies, returned Montevideo to Spanish control as part of the terms of capitulation. Artigas was promoted to captain in 1809; the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the outbreak of the Peninsular War in Spain, along with the capture of King Ferdinand VII, generated political turbulence all across the Spanish Empire. The absence of the king from the throne and the new ideas of the Enlightenment sparked the Spanish American wars of independence, between patriots and royalists. Artigas, who thought that the gauchos were not treated well, supported the new ideas. Buenos Aires deposed the viceroy in 1810, during the May Revolution, replacing him with the Primera Junta. Mariano Moreno, secretary of war, wrote at the Operations plan that Artigas would be a decisive ally against the royalists in Montevideo, called him for an interview. However, by the time Artigas arrived in Buenos Aires, Moreno had left the government.
He received little help. He was promoted to colonel and received some weapons, money and 150 men little to organize a rebellion at the Banda Oriental; this was the last time. Spain declared Buenos Aires a rogue city, appointed Montevideo as the new capital, with Francisco Javier de Elío as the new viceroy; the city had financial problems, the measures taken by Elío to maintain the royalist armies were unpopular in the countryside. This allowed Artigas to channel the popular discontent against the colonial authorities. A hundred men met near the Asencio stream and made the cry of Asencio, a pronunciamiento against the viceroy, they captured many villages in the Banda Oriental, such as Mercedes, Santo Domingo, Maldonado, Paso del Rey, Santa Teresa and San José. They captured Gualeguay, Gualeguaychú and Arroyo de la China, at the west of the Uruguay river. Elío sent some soldiers to kill Artigas, he sent Manuel Villagrán, a relative of Artigas, to offer him the pardon and appoint him general and military leader of the Banda Oriental if he gave up the rebellion.
Artigas considered the offer an insult, sent Villagrán prisoner to Buenos Aires. Montevideo was soon surrounded by Artigas's forces. A Montevidean army tried to stop the patriots at the Battle of Las Piedras, but they were defeated, the city was put to siege. José Rondeau, commanding forces from Buenos Aires, joined the siege. Artigas wanted to attack the city right away, but Rondeau thought that there would be less loss of lives by establishing a blockade and waiting for the city to surrender. However, the besiegers did not consider the naval forces of Montevideo, who kept the city supplied and enabled them to endure the blockade. On the verge of defeat, Elío allied himself with Brazilian forces, requesting their intervention in the conflict. Dom Diogo de Sousa entered into the Banda Oriental; this added to the Argentinian defeat of Manuel Belgrano at the Paraguay campaign, the defeat of Juan José Castelli at the First Upper Peru campaign and the Montevidean naval blockade of Buenos Aires. Fearing a complete defeat, Buenos Air
Jorge Pacheco Areco
Jorge Pacheco Areco was a Uruguayan politician and member of the Colorado Party. He served as President of Uruguay from December 6, 1967 to March 1, 1972. Pacheco joined the Colorado Party in the late 1950s, was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1962. In the government of President Óscar Gestido in 1967, Pacheco served as Vice President of Uruguay, a post, revived when he took office, having been in abeyance for several years. Pacheco was the sixth person to hold the office of Vice President of Uruguay; the office dates from 1934. Jorge Pacheco vice president, succeeded to the presidency in December 1967 after the elected president Óscar Gestido died after a few months in office, he implemented price and wage freezes in an attempt to control inflation, enforced a state of emergency in June 1968 to stem the resulting labour disputes. His administration fought the National Liberation Movement, an urban guerrilla group known as the Tupamaros, which had formed in 1963; the government, with Parliament's approval, imposed emergency measures from June 1968 to March 1969.
Pacheco ran for a second term in November 1971. Since Uruguay's constitution does not allow for re-election, a referendum for constitutional reform was submitted to allow Pacheco to run for a second term in 1971, but it did not pass. After leaving office, Bordaberry appointed him ambassador to Spain. On, President Aparicio Méndez appointed him ambassador to Switzerland and the United States, he returned to Uruguay in 1982, to fight the all-party primaries of 1982, the first step towards democratization after the democratic interruption of June 1973. The "Batllismo" faction of the Colorado Party led by Julio María Sanguinetti won the primaries. With this victory, the hegemony of Pacheco's faction in the party came to an end, at least, for several years. Jorge Pacheco stood once again as presidential candidate for the Unión Colorada y Batllista in the November 1984 elections, selecting his former Deputy Defence Secretary and Secretary to the President Carlos Pirán as his running-mate. Although the Colorado Party won the elections, he lost to Sanguinetti 3 to 1 within the party.
Pacheco supported the new Colorado administration, the UCB was represented in the cabinet. Sanguinetti designated Pacheco to be once again ambassador, this time to Paraguay. Returning from Paraguay, he accepted once again the Unión Colorada y Batllista nomination for the 1989 elections. Representative Pablo Millor was selected as his running-mate, representing an up-and-coming faction within the UCB. Pacheco once again lost, both internally to Jorge Batlle of the Batllismo faction, the Colorado Party to the National Party. Pacheco was part of the coalition government set up by President Luis Alberto Lacalle. Due to this, his former VP candidate Pablo Millor split from his faction, taking with him close to half of the Pachequismo's elected representatives, creating a new, independent sector within the Colorados called "Cruzada 94"; the UCB was the last faction to remain in Lacalle's government, apart from the President's Herrerismo. With his health in a quite frail state, Pacheco run once again for President, in elections in November 1994.
This time his running-mate was outgoing Industry Minister Eduardo Ache. Pacheco's election result was poor, but his marginal result was significant for the Colorado Party to narrowly defeat the National Party and electing once again Julio María Sanguinetti to the presidency. After the 1994 elections, Pacheco retired from active politics, only would make any public appearance, he died on July 29, 1998, being buried with Presidential honours at the Central Cemetery of Montevideo. Pacheco was born in a family with strong political ties, his father, Manuel Pacheco, was politician. He was a distant relative of César and Lorenzo Batlle Pacheco, his maternal grandfather, Ricardo Areco, was an important politician at the beginning of the 20th century. His son, Jorge Pacheco Klein exercised a political career as a Colorado Party deputy. Politics of Uruguay Colorado Party Fructuoso Rivera#Later legacy List_of_political_families#Uruguay List of Uruguayan Ambassadors to the United States Tupamaro National Liberation Movement
Banda Oriental, or more Banda Oriental del Uruguay, was the name of the South American territories east of the Uruguay River and north of Río de la Plata that comprise the modern nation of Uruguay. It was the easternmost territory of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. After decades of disputes over the territories, the 1777 First Treaty of San Ildefonso settled the division between the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire: the southern part was to be held by the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and the northern territories by the Portuguese Capitania de São Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul; the Banda Oriental was not a separate administrative unit until the de facto creation of the Provincia Oriental by José Gervasio Artigas in 1813 and the subsequent decree of the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata of 7 March 1814, which formally established the Gobernación Intendencia Oriental del Río de la Plata, making it a constituent part of the United Provinces of South America.
Before the arrival of the Spanish and the Portuguese, several tribes of indigenous people were living in this area as nomads. The principal ones were the Chanás, the Guayanas and the Guaraníes. Juan Díaz de Solís discovered this territory in 1516. During the conquest of the Río de la Plata area by the "Adelantados", the main concern was to reach the interior in search of precious metals, so this region remained ignored; the first ephemeral Spanish attempts to start populated centres in this territory happened between 1527 and 1577. These were the Fortín de San Lázaro and the Puerto de San Salvador by Sebastián Gaboto, the Real de San Juan and the Real de San Gabriel y Ciudad de San Salvador by Juan Ortiz de Zárate. In 1542 the Crown of Castile established the Viceroyalty of Peru, a colonial administrative district that contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima; the Banda Oriental was therefore under the administration of the Viceroyalty of Peru from 1542 up to 1776.
Although the Treaty of Tordesillas limited the Portuguese colonies to the east of the 46th meridian, in practice, the Portuguese were free to advance in most of the territory, not colonized by the Spanish, which included most of the Banda Oriental. In the early 17th century the territory was called Banda Charrúa Otra Banda, Banda Oriental; the name was extended to encompass Entre Ríos, to describe the territories in those latitudes that lead to the Mar del Nord. The area north of the Banda Oriental was the territory called by the Guaraní word Mbiaza or Ibiazá, rendered in Spanish as La Vera. In 1618, during the governance of Hernando Arias de Saavedra, the Banda Oriental was integrated into the Spanish colonial Governorate of the Río de la Plata. Following the recommendation of the King of Spain, Hernandarias introduced a large amount of cattle in the Banda Oriental, an act which has played a decisive role in the future of the economy of the area. Starting around 1626, fathers of the Franciscan order attempted to establish reductions south of Río Negro.
Some of them were short-lived missions like the San Francisco de los Olivares de los Charrúas, the San Antonio de los Chanáes and the San Juan de Céspedes. In contrast, the one of Santo Domingo Soriano, founded with Charrúas and Chanáes in Entre Ríos, Argentina, in 1664, was moved on the Isle of Vizcaíno, on the mouth of Río Negro and in 1718 it was moved again at its present location in the modern Soriano Department. Another notable development came from the reductions of the Compañía de Jesús further north the Uruguay River, where indigenous Guaraníes and Tapes were being kidnapped from the missions by the bandeirantes to be used as slaves in the coffee plantations of São Paulo. To prevent this, in 1631, father Antonio Ruiz de Montoya migrated with 12,000 Guaraníes further east, in the modern State of Paraná of Brazil, while in 1636, father Nicolás del Techo migrated with another 12,000 Tapes towards the modern Rio Grande do Sul, which constituted the north part of the Banda Oriental of the times.
Although Spain claimed the territory of the Banda Oriental, based on the Treaty of Tordesillas, it did not belong to the Spanish Crown during the 17th century. The Portuguese, being able to advance without resistance in the sparsely populated territory, founded the city Colonia del Sacramento on the banks of Rio de la Plata, across from Buenos Aires, in 1680. Apart from being seen as an evidence that the Portuguese intended to occupy all of the territory, this port in the mouth of the Uruguay River permitted the Portuguese ships to carry out illegal trade evading Spanish taxation. Spain took the city twice, in 1681 and in 1705, but had to give it back by the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713; the following years saw an expansion of the Portuguese settlements around Colonia del Sacramento, until 1723, when Field Marshal Manuel de Freitas da Fonseca of Portugal built the Montevieu fort. As a reaction, on 22 January 1724 a Spanish expedition was sent from Buenos Aires, organized by the Governor of Río de la Plata, Bruno Mauricio de Zabala, who forced the Portuguese to abandon the location and founded and fortified Montevideo.
The Spanish started populating the city with six families moving in from Buenos Aires and soon thereafter by families arriving from the Canary Islands who were called by the locals "guanches", "guanchos" or "canarios". In this way Montev