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Fruit tree propagation

Fruit tree propagation is carried out vegetatively by grafting or budding a desired variety onto a suitable rootstock. Perennial plants can be propagated either by vegetative means. Sexual reproduction begins when a male germ cell from one flower fertilises a female germ cell of the same species, initiating the development of a fruit containing seeds; each seed, when germinated, can grow to become a new specimen tree. However, the new tree inherits characteristics of both its parents, it will not grow true to the variety of either parent from which it came; that is, it will be a fresh individual with an unpredictable combination of characteristics of its own. Although this is desirable in terms of producing novel combinations from the richness of the gene pool of the two parent plants, only will the resulting new fruit tree be directly useful or attractive to the tastes of humankind. Most new plants will have characteristics. Therefore, from the orchard grower or gardener's point of view, it is preferable to propagate fruit cultivars vegetatively in order to ensure reliability.

This involves taking a cutting of wood from a desirable parent tree, grown on to produce a new plant or "clone" of the original. In effect this means that the original Bramley apple tree, for example, was a successful variety grown from a pip, but that every Bramley since has been propagated by taking cuttings of living matter from that tree, or one of its descendants; the simplest method of propagating a tree vegetatively is taking cuttings. A cutting is stuck into soil. Artificial rooting hormones are sometimes used to improve chances of success. If the cutting does not die from rot-inducing fungi or desiccation first, roots grow from the buried portion of the cutting to become a new complete plant. However, although this works well for some plants, for most fruit tree cultivars this method has much too low a success rate to be commercially viable. Root cuttings are not used to propagate fruit trees, although this method is successful with some herbaceous plants. A refinement on rooting is layering.

This is rooting a piece of a wood, still attached to its parent and continues to receive nourishment from it. The new plant is severed only after it has grown roots. Layering is the technique most used for propagation of clonal apple rootstocks; the most common method of propagating fruit trees, suitable for nearly all species, is grafting onto rootstocks. This in essence involves physically joining part of a shoot of a hybrid cultivar onto the roots of a different but related species or cultivar, so that the two parts grow together as one plant; the process of joining the two varieties must ensure maximum contact between the cambium of each, so that they grow together successfully. Grafting is a preferred method because it not only propagates a new plant of the desired hybrid cultivar, it also confers extra advantages as a result of the characteristics of the rootstocks, which are selected for characteristics such as their vigour of growth and soil tolerance, as well as compatibility with the desired variety that will form the aerial part of the plant.

For example, grape rootstocks descended from North American grapes allow European grapes to be grown in areas infested with Phylloxera, a soil-dwelling insect that attacks and kills European grapes when grown on their own roots. Two of the most common grafting techniques are "whip and tongue", carried out in spring as the sap rises, "budding", performed around the end of summer. Cut a slice of bud and bark from the parent tree. Cut a similar sliver off the rootstock, making a little lip at the base to slot the scion into. Join the two together and bind. In time, the scion bud will grow into a shoot. Make a sloping cut in the rootstock with a "tongue" pointing upwards. Make a matching cut in the scion wood with a "tongue" pointing downwards. Join the two, ensuring maximum contact of the vascular cambium layers. Bind with raffia or polythene tape or wind around with a 5mm wide strip of elastic band and seal with grafting wax. One reason for grafting onto rootstocks is that this enables the grower to determine the tree's eventual size.

Another desirable characteristic of rootstocks is environmental adaptability. This may be tolerance to wet/dry soil conditions, acidity/alkalinity of soil or hot/cold air temperature. Apple tree size classes number from one to ten in increasing breadth. A "1" is a dwarf which can be as short as 3 feet with proper pruning. A "10" is the standard sized tree with no dwarfing and will grow to 20 feet tall and wide or more, dependent upon the variety chosen. In general the class range is 10-20% of full size, 20-30%, 30-40% and so forth to size 10, 100% of full size; the Malling series and clones have been standard rootstocks for apples for many years and remain the "workhorses" for the commercial industry in the United States and the UK. However, since most of them are susceptible to disease some Malling rootstocks are being replaced by new breeds, including the Cornell-Geneva series, which has resistance to the major problems preventing quality production of apples utilizing organic

Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway (1990)

The Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway is a Class II regional railroad that provides freight service in the U. S. state of Ohio. It took its name from the former Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway, most of which it bought from the Norfolk and Western Railway in 1990; the W&LE Railroad began standard gauge operations under investor Jay Gould in 1880. Its mainline ran from Wheeling to Zanesville to Cleveland, it ran freight and passenger trains between those cities. Passenger service ended in 1940 just before the start of WW2. In 1949, the Buffalo-Chicago Nickle Plate RR leased the W&LE. In 1964, the Nickle Plate combined with the Norfolk and Western RR. In 1990, the Norfolk and Western Railway, a subsidiary of the Norfolk Southern Railway, sold portions of its lines in Ohio and Pennsylvania, including most of the lines of the former W&LE and the Akron and Youngstown Railroad, as well as a lease on the Pittsburgh and West Virginia Railroad, to the Wheeling Acquisition Corporation; the name was changed to the Wheeling and Lake Erie "Railway" in May, before operations began.

At its formation, trackage rights on Norfolk Southern were extended to the new organization to serve several limestone quarries in the Bellevue, Ohio area, trackage rights with CSX Transportation from Connellsville, Pennsylvania to Hagerstown, this being a remnant of the 1950s Alphabet Route of which the original W&LE was a part. W&LE Ry maintains trackage rights from Wellington to Cleveland on CSX; the only portions of the original W&LE operated by companies other than the current W&LE are the NS line west of Bellevue. The Huron Branch, W&LE's first line between Norwalk and Huron, was acquired by W&LE but was never activated north of the Norwalk city limits and was removed in its entirety. W&LE still serves the Huron Docks using trackage rights on NS's former Nickel Plate Road line from Bellevue and a connecting line to the docks built by the NKP in 1952. A few other small portions of the original W&LE and AC&Y have been abandoned and/or replaced with trackage rights on parallel lines by W&LE.

W&LE has trackage rights to Lima, that used CSX lines from Carey to Upper Sandusky to Lima, but after the lease of the CSX line by RailAmerica's Chicago, Fort Wayne and Eastern Railroad, W&LE now uses trackage rights from its lines at New London to Crestline, Ohio on CSX west on the CF&E to Lima. These trackage rights were a result of the Conrail split. W&LE lines interchange with three major Class I railroads. Many of the major commodities remain the same as in the early days: coal from southeastern Ohio. Branch lines reach as far south as Benwood, West Virginia and as far east as Connellsville, Pennsylvania; the W&LE joins the Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad at Owensdale, Pennsylvania. The W&LE owns 575 miles of track and retains trackage rights on another 265 miles. Media related to Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway at Wikimedia Commons Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway

History of the National Conference League

The National Conference League is the top league in the pyramid of amateur rugby leagues. It was run by the British Amateur Rugby League Association in winter but now forms tier 3 of the RFL's pyramid in summer. While in the early days rugby league had an established structure outside of the professional leagues with county-wide competitions and the like, this soon decayed into local district leagues only featuring teams from one or two towns with no input from the professional game; this saw the number of amateur rugby league clubs reduce to a mere 150 in the early 1970s. Against this background British Amateur Rugby League Association were formed in 1973. One of their first acts was to merge the vast majority of the district leagues into three regional leagues: the Yorkshire League, the Pennine League and the North Western Counties League. For geographical reasons the Hull League, the Cumberland League, the Barrow League and the London League were left as they were; this allowed clubs to play at more appropriate standards as there were more divisions, this factor along with the improved governance of BARLA saw the standard and numbers of clubs rise quickly.

However, while there was a National Cup, the best amateur clubs were still divided between six leagues and thus the desire for an amateur National League arose. Against this background the BARLA National League was formed; the inaugural season was held in 1986-1987. The league received twenty-seven applications including five from the Barrow area alone, more unusually, one from a London club- South London Warriors. In the end the league settled on ten members, all from the northern strongholds of the game; these were four clubs from Yorkshire: Dudley Hill, Milford Marlins and West Hull. These ten clubs were to be the members for each of the first three seasons. Champions: Heworth Champions: Milford Marlins Champions: West Hull The National League soon proved popular and for the 1989/90 season extended the top flight to twelve teams to include Lock Lane and Mayfield. However, this modest expansion wasn't enough and the 1989/90 season saw the addition of a 10-team second division; the ten inaugural members of the second division were as follows: Saddleworth Rangers, Leigh East, British Aerospace, Barrow Island, Knottingley, Dewsbury Celtic, Shaw Cross Sharks and East Leeds.

This expansion was to prove successful with Leigh East becoming the first non-founder members to win the league in the 1990/91 season. Division 1 Champions: Dudley Hill Relegated: Milford Marlins and Lock Lane Division 2 Champions:Saddleworth Rangers Also promoted: Leigh East Elected to league for next season: Greetland Allrounders and Beverley Division 1 Champions: Leigh East Relegated: West Hull Resign from league: Pilkington Recs Division 2 Champions: Barrow Island Also promoted: Askam Resign from league: Knottingley and British Aerospace Elected to league for next season: Moldgreen, Walney Central and Oulton Raiders Division 1 Champions: Wigan St Patrick's Relegated: Barrow Island and Mayfield Division 2 Champions: West Hull Also promoted: Dewsbury Celtic Division 1 Champions: Saddleworth Rangers Division 2 Champions: Mayfield In 1993 the RFL wanted to contract the professional ranks from 35 to 32 teams. However, their initial plan to place the excluded teams in the Alliance faced a legal challenge so they needed an alternative competition to place them in.

The RFL thus proposed a league to bridge the gap between the professional and amateur leagues to feature the three demoted semi-pro clubs plus Hemel Hempstead and eight BARLA clubs. However, BARLA wanted all National League clubs to be in any such league and since the RFL were in a tough legal position they were prepared to compromise with BARLA and thus the three division National Conference League was born. Other concessions made were an increase in the BARLA representation in the Challenge Cup from a mere 2 clubs to 64 and allowing the National Conference League champions to apply to replace the bottom team in the pro leagues. However, the latter concession soon disappeared as the pro leagues moved to summer and the National Conference League did not want to move, furthermore Woolston Rovers' application to replace Highfield was voted out; the National Conference League soon expanded all divisions to 14 teams, though on occasions it has struggled to reach full complement of members, lost all the remaining semi-pro clubs within three seasons.

Due to the switch of the pro game to summer the National Conference League came to be seen as a BARLA league, despite being temporarily expelled from BARLA in 2002, with only three National Conference League teams joining National League Three, intended as a league to bridge the gap between the pro and amateur games. However, this was to change in 2008 when the National Conference League decided they did not like the path BARLA was taking and downgraded the league's BARLA membership from full to associate. In 2009 the National Conference League introduced a summer competition for clubs wanting to play year round as a test for a more permanent switch to summer, to come in 2012. Premier Division From pro leagues: Chorley Borough, Blackpool Gladiators and Nottingham City From Rugby League Alliance: Hemel Hempstead Stags From National League Division 1: Dudley Hill, West Hull, Leigh Miners Welfare, Wigan St Patrick's, Woolston Rov

Monica (Monica's Gang)

Monica is the main protagonist and title character Monica's Gang franchise. She was created in 1963 by Mauricio de Sousa based the character on his own daughter, named Monica; the character made her first appearance in the Jimmy Five comic strips as a support character, but with her popularity she became the main character years later. Since her introduction the character has appeared in numerous comics published since 1970, as well animated shows and several forms of merchandise. In 2007, Monica became a Goodwill Ambassador for UNICEF. Monica was based on Mauricio de Sousa's daughter in childhood; the reason for her creation was due to a complaint of the lack of female characters in Mauricio comics. At that time, newspaper strips of Blu and Jimmy Five were produced; when Monica made her first appearance was in a strip of Jimmy Five in 1963, first as a secondary rival of main character. However Monica went on to appear with more emphasis over the years taking the main character position of Jimmy Five.

In the first strips, Monica appeared as a 4-year-old little girl, she had an aggressive behavior and kind of bully, she used to wear shoes and had an angry face. But Mauricio improved her visual over the years giving to Monica a cute and friendly appearance and making her more naive and kind; however her characteristic of beating the boys with her rabbit was maintained, only reversing the roles making the boys act as antagonists to Monica creating plans to defeat her. Since 1970 she has been considered the main character among all comics created by Mauricio de Sousa, hence the title, "Monica's Gang". Monica's hair is influenced by a haircut her older daughter Mariângela gave her once when she was a kid; the real life Monica graduated in industrial design at Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie in São Paulo and works as executive director at her father's company. Monica is a 7-year-old and decisive girl, who does not tolerate impertinence, but at the same time, has her moments of femininity, she lives with her parents, has a little dog called Ditto, does not let go of her blue stuffed rabbit called Samson.

This rabbit, which she loves so dearly, is a weapon against boys. Jimmy Five and Smudge, who are always teasing her and calling her roly-poly and shorty, she is described as possessing powerful strength, which she uses to beat up boys who tease her or to defend herself and her friends. She is known by the other characters as the "ruler of the street", she is at odds with Jimmy Five, but backs him up whenever he gets into trouble. Monica's best friend is Maggy. Monica's very shy to date boys, she causes trouble when she tries to talk or impress them, her buckteeth are her trademark, but the main reason for people to call her toothy. Dona Luísa – Monica's mother. Works as a designer for pieces of furniture. Seu Souza – Monica's father, he is based on Mauricio de Sousa himself, although the surnames are different. He works in a business company. Samson – Monica's blue rabbit toy, he is not only Monica's favorite toy but the "weapon" that she uses on whoever calls her by names she doesn't like. Samson is a constant victim of Smudge or other boys who love to tie his ears in knots.

He didn't have a name, "Samson" was suggested by Roberta Carpi, in 1983. It was based on a yellow toy rabbit stuffed with straw that the real Monica had when she was 2 years old. In the first strips Samson was yellow, but was changed to blue to match the new rabbit plush that Mauricio's daughter won in place of the old one in a TV show in her 7 years. In the first comic strips that appeared was used as a weapon to beat and scare the boys of the neighborhood. In a strip from the same time it was revealed that the reason boys were afraid of the rabbit was because Monica carried a brick inside him to beat them, but this idea was dropped over time when Monica went on to demonstrate super strength. In some old stories is revealed that inside him lives an elf-like imp; the character has a female pink counterpart called Dalila, who appears in comics and is used more in marketing. The real-life Samson was exposed in 2013 in a museum in honor of Monica's 50th birthday. Ditto – Ditto is Monica's pet, he was a gift from Smudge, who did not remember to bring one to Monica's party.

Ditto looks so much like her that the boys decided to buy it with the initial purpose of mocking her as soon as they saw the pooch on a pet shop window. However, their plan backfired, as both Ditto and Monica got along and now stick together. Among the pets of Monica's Gang, Ditto is the most active, he is sometimes portrayed as having super strength, which leads him or Monica to get into troublesome situations. Monica is one of the main protagonists of the spin-off Monica Teen, published since 2008 by MSP and Panini Comics. In this Japanese-style comic-manga Monica and her friends are now 15 years old and go to school at Limoeiro High; the first edition shows a drastic change in Monica and her friends since childhood when they were 7 years old. Monica is brave and no longer tormented by the boys in Limoeiro though she is still strong and temperamental. On the other hand, her buckteeth and hair stay the same, she develops a pas

Sarah Green (anthropologist)

Sarah Francesca Green is a Professor of social and cultural anthropology at the University of Helsinki. She is a specialist on borders, spatial relations and sexuality, information and communications technologies, she has lived in Greece, the UK, USA, Italy and lives in Helsinki, Finland. In September 2016, Green was awarded a European Research Council Advanced Grant to develop new research in the Mediterranean region; the project is called Crosslocations. She was awarded an Academy of Finland Project, called Transit and Travel, which concerns the Mediterranean, though its focus is different. Sarah Green was born in Suffolk, she grew up in Athens, where she first attended school. Following the move of her family to the UK, she continued school there. After a short period at the University of Texas at Austin, she moved back to the UK and became an undergraduate at the University of Cambridge to study the Archaeology and Anthropology Tripos. After another short period in the USA, she began doctoral studies at Cambridge in 1988, obtained her PhD in Social Anthropology in 1992.

Her professional career began as a Research Fellow and an Affiliated Lecturer at the University of Cambridge, from where she moved to Manchester University in 1995. In 2006, she was appointed as a Professor of Anthropology at the University of Manchester, where she served as the Head of Social Anthropology. Green has held visiting appointments in other UK Universities, as well as in Finland. Although the subject matter of her research varies Green’s major conceptual interest lies in the notion of location. For Green such locating practices are inextricably linked to political conditions, as well as social and epistemological elements, her research themes include: the politics of sexuality in London. A considerable portion of her research work was undertaken in the context of interdisciplinary research teams. Early on in her career Green participated in Archaeomedes I and II, which were EU funded projects exploring environmental perceptions and policy making. From 2004 onwards she has been involved in various research activities as a co-ordinator within the ESRC Centre for Research in Socio-Cultural Change.

Since 2006, she has been developing an international research network dedicated to exploring both conceptually and empirically issues related to borders and bordering practices on the eastern periphery of Europe. EastBordNet was funded by COST in 2008 and Green acted as the PI and Chair of the Action. A range of themes related to border research have been explored and a fresh conceptual approach towards the study of borders has been developed; the network included 27 countries and over 280 scholars by the time it held its second international conference in Berlin. The network continues, though it is no longer funded by COST. A new book series entitled Rethinking Borders is about to be launched by the Manchester University Press, with Green as series editor. In 2011, she was invited to be the Executive Program Director of the American Anthropological Association, the biggest international conference in the field of anthropology and was hosted in Montreal. 2013 Borderwork: a visual journey through periphery frontier regions.

With Lena Malm. Helsinki: Jasilti. 2005 Notes from the Balkans: Locating Marginality and Ambiguity on the Greek-Albanian Border. Princeton, N. J. and Oxford: Princeton University Press. Winner of the Douglass award for best contribution to Europeanist Anthropology 2006. Has been translated into Polish and Greek 1997 Urban Amazons: Lesbian Feminism and Beyond in the Gender and Identity Battles of London. London: Macmillan

Eric Shogren

Eric Shogren is a Russian-American businessman, the founder of New York Pizza and Kuzina chains. He was educated at the Blake School in Minneapolis. In 1992, Eric Shogren arrived in Novosibirsk to his brother Brad, who studied here in one of the educational institutions of this city. In Novosibirsk, he was surprised by its cheapness, he decided to sell hockey pucks from Russia to USA. His brother Brad introduced Eric Shogren to a Novosibirsk businessman, Eric created a business with this person, they started exporting cars from America to Russia. In 1993, he opened the first supermarket in Novosibirsk; the new store sold products of the SuperValu and enjoyed great popularity among the residents of the city. But It stopped working. After the closure of the Novosibirsk supermarket, Eric Shogren returned to USA, where he met his future wife, she came from Novosibirsk to America to get an education, they got in 1995 moved to Novosibirsk, where in 1996 founded The New York Pizza company. The New York Pizza opened in other Russian cities.

After the founding of New York Pizza, Erik Shogren continued to create other restaurants in Novosibirsk: New York Coffee, New York Diner and New York Times grill-bar, where rock-n-roll and blues musicians performed.. In 2000, Eric Shogren and a banker Igor Kim opened the Klassika Restaurant in Novosibirsk, the idea of its creation belonged to the Novosibirsk restaurateur Denis Ivanov. Half of the restaurant belonged to Kim, the other half was owned by Shogren. In 2003, Eric Shogren sold his share of the restaurant to Igor Kim. In 2004, Shogren created the Siberian Farmer project. In 2005, his new company leased an area of 21 hectares in the Kochenyovsky District, he planned to rent 900 hectares for 49 years for forage crops breeding. But this project failed.. In 2008, Novosibirsk workers of NYP held rallies to protest against delay wage. In February 2009, the company employees organized a picket in the city, Eric Shogren arrived at the picketers, he said that the company wants to return money to people and that debts are being paid to many former employees.

In April 2009, Shogren and the company's top manager Evgenia Golovkova were detained, but they were released on bail after 48 hours. In August 2009, Eric Shogren organized a press conference, he told reporters that bankruptcy trustee Vladimir Klopov attempted to raider the NYP pizzeria located in Akademgorodok on Morskoy Prospect. Shogren expressed the opinion that because of the raider seizure, the company lost one NYP in Pervomaysky Square of Novosibirsk and one pizzeria in Barnaul. In 2010, a criminal case was opened against Evgenia Golovkova, they were accused of fraud. The prosecution stated that Shogren and Golovkova in 2006 persuaded their employee, Anna Sidevich, to issue a loan of one million rubles in the Bank of Moscow, promising to return her money. In 2014, the Zheleznodorozhny District Court of Novosibirsk dismissed the criminal case against Eric Shogren and Evgenia Golovkova; the state prosecution asked to appoint Shogren and Golovkova five and a half years of probation, after which it expressed a request for their release "due to the expiration of the statute of limitations".

Businessmen do not admit their guilt. Despite the fact that many NYP establishments were closed, Eric Shogren kept his business. In 2015, Kuzina and New York Pizza chains was opened in Moscow. In 2016, Eric Shogren bought Baker's Wife Confectionery in Minneapolis. In 2017, the building of the former Baker's Wife was occupied by Kuzina. In 2019, Shogren bought Wuollet's Bakery. Siberian pizza chain shows way to Russia. Reuters. Die Zeit. Pizza für Sibirien. Тайна Эрика Шогрена. Сиб.фм «В России всё меняется быстрее — это поразительно». НГС.НОВОСТИ