Isma'il Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent, was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Sharing the ambitious outlook of his grandfather, Muhammad Ali Pasha, he modernized Egypt and Sudan during his reign, investing in industrial and economic development and the expansion of the country's boundaries in Africa, his philosophy can be glimpsed at in a statement that he made in 1879: "My country is no longer in Africa. It is therefore natural for us to abandon our former ways and to adopt a new system adapted to our social conditions". In 1867 he secured Ottoman and international recognition for his title of Khedive in preference to Wāli, used by his predecessors in the Ottoman Eyalet of Egypt and Sudan. However, Isma'il's policies placed the Ottoman Khedivate of Egypt and Sudan in severe debt, leading to the sale of the country's shares in the Suez Canal Company to the United Kingdom, his ultimate toppling from power at British hands.
The second of the three sons of Ibrahim Pasha, the grandson of Muhammad Ali, Ismail, of Albanian descent, was born in Cairo at Al Musafir Khana Palace. His mother was third wife of his father, she was a sister of Valide Sultan Pertevniyal. Pertevniyal was a wife of Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire and mother of Abdülaziz I. After receiving a European education in Paris where he attended the École d'état-major, he returned home, on the death of his elder brother became heir to his uncle, Said I, the Wāli and Khedive of Egypt and Sudan. Said, who conceived his own safety to lie in ridding himself as much as possible of the presence of his nephew, employed him in the next few years on missions abroad, notably to the Pope, the Emperor Napoleon III, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. In 1861 he was dispatched at the head of an army of 18,000 to quell an insurrection in Sudan, a mission which he accomplished. After the death of Said, Ismail was proclaimed Khedive on 19 January 1863, though the Ottoman Empire and the other Great Powers recognized him only as Wāli.
Like all Egyptian and Sudanese rulers since his grandfather Muhammad Ali Pasha, he claimed the higher title of Khedive, which the Ottoman Porte had refused to sanction. In 1867, Isma'il succeeded in persuading the Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz to grant a firman recognizing him as Khedive in exchange for an increase in the tribute. Another firman changed the law of succession to direct descent from father to son rather than brother to brother, a further decree in 1873 confirmed the virtual independence of the Khedivate of Egypt from the Porte. Ismail spent heavily—some went to bribes to Constantinople to facilitate his reform projects. Much of the money went for the construction of the Suez Canal. About £46 million went to construct 8,000 miles of irrigation canals to help modernize agriculture, he built over 900 miles railroads, 5,000 miles of telegraph lines, 400 bridges, harbor works in Alexandria, 4,500 schools. The national debt rose from £3 million to about £90 million, in a country with 5 million population and an annual treasury revenue of about £8 million.
Ismail launched vast schemes of internal reform on the scale of his grandfather, remodeling the customs system and the post office, stimulating commercial progress, creating a sugar industry, building the cotton industry, building palaces, entertaining lavishly, maintaining an opera and a theatre. Over one hundred thousand Europeans came to work in Cairo, where he facilitated building an entire new quarter of the city on its western edge modeled on Paris. Alexandria was improved, he launched a vast railroad building project that saw Egypt and Sudan rise from having none to the most railways per habitable kilometer of any nation in the world. Education reform increased the education budget more than tenfold. Traditional primary and secondary schools were expanded and specialized technical and vocational schools were created. Students were once again sent to Europe to study on educational missions, encouraging the formation of a Western-trained elite. A national library was founded in 1871. One of his most significant achievements was to establish an assembly of delegates in November 1866.
Though this was supposed to be a purely advisory body, its members came to have an important influence on governmental affairs. Village headmen dominated the assembly and came to exert increasing political and economic influence over the countryside and the central government; this was shown in 1876, when the assembly persuaded Ismail to reinstate the law that allowed landownership and tax privileges to persons paying six years' land tax in advance. Ismail tried to reduce slave trading and with the advice and financial backing of Yacoub Cattaui extended Egypt's rule in Africa. In 1874 he annexed Darfur, but was prevented from expanding into Ethiopia after his army was defeated by Emperor Yohannes IV, first at Gundat on 16 November 1875, again at Gura in March of the following year. Ismail dreamt of expanding his realm across the entire Nile including its diverse sources, over the whole African coast of the Red Sea. This, together with rumours about rich raw material and fertile soil, led Ismail to expansive policies directed against Ethiopia under the Emperor Yohannes IV.
In 1865 the Ottoman Sublime Porte ceded the Ottoman Province of Habesh (with Massawa and Suakin at the Red Sea as the main cities of that prov
Nazli Sabri was the first Queen of Egypt from 1919 to 1936 as the second wife of King Fuad. Nazli was born on 25 June 1894 into a family of French origin, her father was Abdur Rahim Sabri Pasha, minister of agriculture and governor of Cairo, her mother was Tawfika Khanum Sharif. Nazli had a brother, Sherif Sabri Pasha, a sister, Amina Sabri, she was the maternal granddaughter of Major General Muhammad Sharif Pasha, prime minister and minister of foreign affairs, of Turkish origin. She was a great-granddaughter of the French-born officer Suleiman Pasha. Nazli first went to the Lycée de la Mère-de-Dieu in Cairo, to the Collège Notre-Dame de Sion in Alexandria. Following the death of her mother and her sister were sent to a boardingschool in Paris, for two years. After returning, Nazli was forced to marry Khalil Sabri. However, the marriage ended in divorce after eleven months. After the separation, she stayed at the house of Safiya Zaghloul where she met Zaghloul's nephew Saeed Zaghloul; the Sultan of Egypt, Fuad.
On 12 May 1919, Fuad proposed to her. On 24 May 1919 Nazli married Sultan Fuad I at Cairo, it was the second marriage for both Fuad. She moved to the haramlek in the Abbasiya Palace, she was under pressure from her husband to produce a son, was warned that she would be confined to the haremlek if she did not do so. After the birth of their only son, she was allowed to move into Koubbeh Palace -the official royal residence- with her husband; when Fuad's title was altered to King, she was given the title of Queen. She had four daughters: Fawzia, Faiza and Fathiya. Restricted to the palace throughout most of Fuad's reign, she was permitted to attend opera performances, flower shows, other ladies-only cultural events; as her upbringing had left her remarkably educated and emancipated for an Egyptian woman of the time, she found this prescribed existence backward and stifling. It was said that whenever the royal couple fought, she was slapped by the king and confined to her suite for weeks, it was alleged that she tried to commit suicide by overdosing on aspirin.
Nazli accompanied the king during part of his four-month tour of Europe in 1927, was much fêted in France because of her French ancestry. With the inauguration of Parliament in 1924, she was among the royal attendees at the opening ceremony, seated in a special section of the guest gallery. Following the death of King Fuad in 1936, her son Farouk became the new King of Egypt, she became the Queen Mother, her brother Sherif Sabri Pasha served on the three-member Regency Council, formed during Farouk's minority. In 1946, Nazli went to the United States for treatment for a kidney ailment. In August 1950, King Farouk deprived the Queen Mother, her daughter Princess Fathia of their rights and titles; this was due to latter's marriage, which Nazli supported, but was against Farouk's wishes, to Riyad Ghali Effendi, a Coptic Christian. Nazli converted to Christianity, changing her name to Mary-Elizabeth. In 1955 Nazli purchased, for $63,000, a 28-room mansion in Beverley Hills, where she lived with Fathia, her son-in-law, their two children, led an active social life.
In 1965, Nazli attended the funeral of Farouk, in Rome. Following Fathia's divorce, Nazli moved to a small apartment in Westwood, Los Angeles, where Fathia joined her after temporarily moving to Hawaii. To meet debt demands, in 1975 Nazli sent her principal jewellery to auction at Sothebys, including a magnificent art deco tiara and matching necklace commissioned in 1938 from Van Cleef & Arpels, they sold for $127,500 and $140,000 respectively. However and Fathia still ended up in bankruptcy court. In 1978, Fathia's jewellery was sold to meet debts. In 1976, Nazli sent a request to the President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat, that passports be provided to her and Princess Fathia to give them right of return to Egypt, she settled in the US, due to her painful illness. She died on 29 May 1978 in California. Queen Nazli's art deco necklace reappeared at a Sotheby's sale in December 2015; the Queen ordered the necklace with a matching tiara for her daughter's wedding. The necklace is formed by 600 baguette diamonds arranged in a sunburst motif.
26 May 1919 – 15 March 1922: Her Gloriness The Sultana 15 March 1922 – 20 January 1938: Her Majesty The Queen 20 January 1938 – 8 August 1950: Her Majesty The Queen Mother House of Muhammad Ali: Former Grand Mistress Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Virtues, Supreme Class Iran: Dame Grand Cordon of the Order of Aftab In 2007, Queen Nazli was played by Egyptian actress Wafaa Amer in the Drama "El-malek Farouk". In 2008, Rawia Rashed published a book about Queen Nazli, titled Nazli, Malika Fi El Manfa. Based on this book, an Egyptian TV series provided an account for the life of Queen Nazli, Queen in Exile, starring Egyptian actress Nadia Al Jundi in 2010. عودة، تيسير ، « اَلمَملَكَة اَلمَصريَة » ، چاپ دمنهور، سال 1959 Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed.. "The Royal House of Egypt". Burke's Royal Families of the World. Volume II: Africa & the Middle East. London: Burke's Peerage. Pp. 20–37. ISBN 978-0-85011-029-6. OCLC 18496936. Egyptian Royalty by Ahmed S. Kame
Abdeen Palace is a historic Cairo palace, one of the official residences and the principal workplace of the President of Egypt, located above Qasr el-Nil Street in eastern Downtown Cairo, Egypt. Built on the site of a small mansion owned by Abidin Bey, Abdeen Palace, named after him, is considered one of the most sumptuous palaces in the world in terms of its adornments and large number of clocks scattered in the parlors and wings, most of which are decorated with pure gold. Built by Khedive Ismail, to become the official government headquarters instead of the Citadel of Cairo, this palace was used as well for official events and ceremonies. Construction started in 1863 and continued for 10 years and the palace was inaugurated in 1874. Erected on an area of 24 feddans, the palace was designed by the French architect Léon Rousseau along with a large number of Egyptian, Italian and Turkish decorators. However, the palace’s garden was added in 1921 by Sultan Fuad I on an area of 20 feddans; the cost of building the palace reached 700,000 Egyptian pounds in addition to 2 million pounds for its furnishing.
Between four palaces, King Fuad spent more than 18 million French francs with just one Parisian furniture manufacturer Linke & Cie. More money was spent on the palace’s alteration and maintenance by consecutive rulers; the palace has 500 suites. The palace today is a museum, located in the Old Cairo district of Abdeen; the upper floors are reserved for visiting foreign dignitaries. The lower floors contain the Silver Museum, the Arms Museum, the Royal Family Museum, the Presidential Gifts Museum. A new museum, the Historical Documents Museum, was opened in January 2005. Among other documents, it contains the Imperial Ottoman firman, or decree, which established the rule of Muhammad Ali and his family, a certificate for the Order of the Iron Crown, from the short-lived South American Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia. Abdeen Palace Incident of 1942 Egypt's Royal Archives: 1922-52 historical Abdeen Palace: Archives housed in the palace
Egyptian revolution of 1952
The Egyptian coup d'état of 1952 known as the 1952 Coup d'état or July 23 revolution, began on July 23, 1952, by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser. The coup was aimed at overthrowing King Farouk. However, the movement had more political ambitions, soon moved to abolish the constitutional monarchy and aristocracy of Egypt and Sudan, establish a republic, end the British occupation of the country, secure the independence of Sudan; the revolutionary government adopted a staunchly nationalist, anti-imperialist agenda, which came to be expressed chiefly through Arab nationalism, international non-alignment. The coup d'état was faced with immediate threats from Western imperial powers the United Kingdom, which had occupied Egypt since 1882, France, both of whom were wary of rising nationalist sentiment in territories under their control throughout the Arab world, Africa; the ongoing state of war with Israel posed a serious challenge, as the Free Officers increased Egypt's strong support of the Palestinians.
These two issues conflated four years after the coup when Egypt was invaded by Britain and Israel in the Suez Crisis of 1956. Despite enormous military losses, the war was seen as a political victory for Egypt as it left the Suez Canal in uncontested Egyptian control for the first time since 1875, erasing what was seen as a mark of national humiliation; this strengthened the appeal of the revolution in other African countries. Wholesale agrarian reform, huge industrialisation programmes were initiated in the first decade and half of the coup, leading to an unprecedented period of infrastructure building, urbanisation. By the 1960s, Arab socialism had become a dominant theme, transforming Egypt into a centrally planned economy. Official fear of a Western-sponsored counter-revolution, domestic religious extremism, potential communist infiltration, the conflict with Israel were all cited as reasons compelling severe and longstanding restrictions on political opposition, the prohibition of a multi-party system.
These restrictions on political activity would remain in place until the presidency of Anwar Sadat from 1970 onwards, during which many of the policies of the revolution were scaled back or reversed. The early successes of the coup encouraged numerous other nationalist movements in other Arab, African countries, such as Algeria, Kenya, where there were anti-colonial rebellions against European empires, it inspired the toppling of existing pro-Western monarchies and governments in the region and the continent. The revolution is commemorated each year on July 23. In 1882, British forces intervened in Egypt during the Anglo-Egyptian War. In 1888 at the Convention of Constantinople, Britain won the right to protect the Suez Canal with military force, giving Britain a base to dominate Egyptian politics. Though nominally still an Ottoman vassal, Egypt became a British protectorate. After World War I, Britain placed a reliable member of Muhammad Ali's dynasty on the throne and declared Egypt a protectorate.
During World War II, Egypt was a major Allied base for the North African campaign. After the war, British policy continued to focus on control of the Suez Canal, vital for imperial trade. However, during World War II, Egyptian nationalists within the armed forces gained influence; the 1948 Arab–Israeli War humiliated these nationalists, who blamed the British-backed king, King Farouk. The loss of the 1948 war with Israel led to the Free Officers' accusations of corruption towards the King and his court and the promotion of that feeling among the Egyptian people; the Free Officers Movement was formed by a group of reform-minded officers which, backed by the Soviet Union and the United States, coalesced around a young officer named Gamal Abdel Nasser. They used an army general, Muhammad Naguib, as its head to show their seriousness and attract more army followers. In the warning that General Naguib conveyed to King Farouk on 26 July upon the king's abdication, he provided a summary of the reasons for the Coup: In view of what the country has suffered in the recent past, the complete vacuity prevailing in all corners as a result of your bad behavior, your toying with the constitution, your disdain for the wants of the people, no one rests assured of life and honor.
Egypt's reputation among the peoples of the world has been debased as a result of your excesses in these areas to the extent that traitors and bribe-takers find protection beneath your shadow in addition to security, excessive wealth, many extravagances at the expense of the hungry and impoverished people. You manifested this during and after the Palestine War in the corrupt arms scandals and your open interference in the courts to try to falsify the facts of the case, thus shaking faith in justice. Therefore, the army, representing the power of the people, has empowered me to demand that Your Majesty abdicate the throne to His Highness Crown Prince Ahmed Fuad, provided that this is accomplished at the fixed time of 12 o'clock noon today, that you depart the country before 6 o'clock in the evening of the same day; the army places upon Your Majesty the burden of everything that may result from your failure to abdicate according to the wishes of the people. The Egyptian monarchy was seen as both corrupt and pro-British, with its lavish lifestyle that seemed provocative to the free officers movement who lived in poverty.
Its policies completed the image of the Egyptian government being a puppet-
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil El-Sisi is an Egyptian politician, the sixth and current President of Egypt, in office since 2014. Starting February 10, 2019, Sisi began serving a one-year term as Chairperson of the African Union. Sisi was born in Cairo and after joining the military, held a post in Saudi Arabia before enrolling in the Egyptian Army's Command and Staff College. In 1992, Sisi trained at the Joint Services Command and Staff College at Watchfield, Oxfordshire, in the United Kingdom, in 2006 trained at the United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Sisi served as a mechanized infantry commander and as director of military intelligence. After the Egyptian revolution of 2011 and election of Mohamed Morsi to the Egyptian presidency, Sisi was appointed Minister of Defence by Morsi on 12 August 2012, replacing the Mubarak-era Hussein Tantawi; as Minister of Defence, Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces, Sisi was involved in the military coup that removed Morsi from office on July 3, 2013, in response to June 2013 Egyptian protests, called a revolution by its proponents.
He dissolved the Egyptian Constitution of 2012 and proposed, along with leading opposition and religious figures, a new political road map, which included the voting for a new constitution, new parliamentary and presidential elections. Morsi was replaced by Adly Mansour, who appointed a new cabinet; the interim government cracked down on the Muslim Brotherhood and its Islamist supporters in the months that followed, on certain liberal opponents of the post-Morsi administration. On 14 August 2013, police carried out the August 2013 Rabaa massacre, killing hundreds of civilians and wounding thousands, leading to international criticism. On 26 March 2014, in response to calls from supporters to run for presidency, Sisi retired from his military career, announcing that he would run as a candidate in the 2014 presidential election; the election, held between 26 and 28 May, featured one sole opponent, Hamdeen Sabahi, saw 47% participation by eligible voters, resulted in Sisi winning in a landslide victory with more than 97% of the vote.
Sisi was sworn into office as President of Egypt on 8 June 2014. Sisi's government has given the Egyptian military unchecked power, some media reports have labeled him a dictator and a strongman, comparing him to Egypt's former dictators. In the 2018 presidential election, Sisi faced only nominal opposition after the military arrest of Sami Anan and his enforced disappearance afterwards, threats made to Ahmed Shafik with old corruption charges and sex tape, the withdrawal of Khaled Ali and Mohamed Anwar El-Sadat due to the overwhelming obstacles and violations made by the elections committee. Sisi was born in Old Cairo on 19 November 1954, to parents Said Hussein Khalili al-Sisi and Soad Mohamed, he grew up in Gamaleya, near al-Azhar Mosque, in a quarter where Muslims and Christians resided and in which he recalled how, during his childhood, he heard church bells and watched Jews flock to the synagogue unhindered. Sisi would enroll in the Egyptian Military Academy, upon graduating he held various command positions in the Egyptian Armed Forces and served as Egypt's military attaché in Riyadh.
In 1987 he attended Staff College. In 1992 he continued his military career by enrolling in the British Command and Staff College, in 2006 enrolled in the United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Sisi was the youngest member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, serving as the director of military intelligence and reconnaissance department, he was chosen to replace Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and serve as the commander-in-chief and Minister of Defence and Military Production on 12 August 2012. Sisi's family originated from Monufia Governorate, he is the second of eight siblings. His father, a conservative but not radical Muslim, had a wooden antiques shop for tourists in the historic bazaar of Khan el-Khalili, he and his siblings studied at the nearby library at al-Azhar University. Unlike his brothers – one of whom is a senior judge, another a civil servant – el-Sisi went to a local army-run secondary school, where concurrently his relationship with his maternal cousin Entissar Amer started to develop.
They were married upon Sisi's graduation from the Egyptian Military Academy in 1977. He attended the following courses: General Command and Staff Course, Egyptian Command and Staff College, 1987, he became Commander of the Northern Military Region-Alexandria in 2008 and Director of Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance. El-Sisi was the youngest member of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces of Egypt. While a member of the Supreme Council, he made controversial statements regarding allegations that Egyptian soldiers had subjected detained female demonstrators to forced virginity tests, he is reported to have told Egypt's state-owned newspaper that "the virginity-test procedure was done to protect the gi
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Mohamed Naguib was the first President of Egypt, serving from the declaration of the Republic on 18 June 1953 to 14 November 1954. Along with Gamal Abdel Nasser, he was the primary leader of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, which ended the rule of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in Egypt and Sudan. On 19 February 1901, Naguib was born as Mohamed Naguib Yousef Qotp Elkashlan in Khartoum, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Naguib's father was Youssef Naguib. Sudan was united with Egypt under British occupation at the time. Naguib was the eldest of nine children. Naguib's father was a notable officer of the Egyptian Army. Naguib's mother was a Sudanese Arab, his family name, "Elkashlan," was popular in Egypt at that time. Naguib came from a long line of army officers, where his father and uncles all served in the Egyptian Army. Through Naguib was one of the Egyptian officers who had distinguished himself in the war with Israel and had been described by the Egyptian press as a war hero; the Free Officers, led by Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser were young members of the military – all under thirty-five and all from peasant or lower-middle-class backgrounds.
Nasser's goal was to end the British domination of Egypt and Sudan. Knowing that officers of such youth would not be taken he asked General Naguib to assume leadership of the movement. While this proved successful in strengthening the Free Officers, it would cause great friction between the two men. Many today argue that his position on the top was a figurehead leader to the revolutionary Free Officers Movement to lend credibility to the group. On 23 July 1952, the Free Officers commenced the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 with a coup d'état to depose King Farouk. Naguib was appointed, first as Commander-in-Chief of Army, in order to keep the armed forces behind the junior officers' coup. Naguib was not a member of the executive committee of the Free Officers and he first learned of the coup several hours after it had began at about 1 am on the night of 23 July when he was awoken by a phone call telling him the coup had began. In Egyptian culture, age is respected and as a 51 year old, Naguib commanded more respect than did Nasser, 34 years old.
Nagiub's avuncular and jovial personality was felt to make him seem a reassuring figure to the Egyptian people, instead of Nasser and the other Free Officers who were unknown to the public before the coup. In the same way, the Free Officers chose to rule at first via Aly Maher Pasha, a politician well known for his anti-British views who had served as prime minister before. Naguib's most important role during the coup occurred during a meeting which started at 10 pm on 24 July, when met a British diplomat, John Hamilton. Hamilton assured him that Britain wanted to see the end of King Farouk, but the Churchill government viewed the coup as an internal Egyptian matter; the prospect of British intervention on behalf of King Farouk was the biggest worry for the Free Officers and Hamilton's message to Naguib caused enormous relief. On the morning of 26 July 1952, Maher arrived at the Ras El Tin Palace where Farouk as staying to present him with an ultimatum drafted by Naguib telling the king he must abdicate and leave Egypt by 6pm the next day or else the Egyptian troops outside of the Ras El Tin palace would storm the palace and execute the king.
Farouk argreed to these terms and the next day in the present of Maher and the American ambassador Jefferson Caffery boarded the royal yacht El Mahrousa to leave Egypt. Naguib arrived late at the dock and according to Caffery was angry about missing Farouk's departure. In September, Naguib was appointed Prime Minister of Egypt and a member of the Royal Regent Council, with Nasser serving in the background as Minister of the Interior; the succession of Fuad II was designed to deny the British a pretext for intervention, allowing the revolutionaries to maintain that they were opposed only to the corrupt regime of Farouk, not to the monarchy itself. However, after consolidating their power, they moved to implement their long-held plans for abolishing the monarchy and the aristocracy. Ali Maher's government resigned on 17 September 1952 and Naguib was appointed Prime Minister. On 18 June 1953 11 months after the revolution, Naguib declared the end of the Egyptian and Sudanese monarchy and the establishment of the Republic of Egypt.
With the declaration of the Republic, Naguib was sworn in as its President. In late 1953, Nasser accused Naguib of supporting the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood and of harbouring dictatorial ambitions. A brief power struggle broke out between Naguib and Nasser of Egypt. Nasser won the struggle and managed to force Naguib to resign from the presidency of Egypt in November 1954. Following his resignation, Naguib was isolated by President Nasser in a suburban Cairo villa owned by Zienab Al-Wakil, wife of Mustafa El-Nahas, former Prime Minister of Egypt. Naguib was released from his isolation in 1972 by President Anwar Sadat. On 28 August 1984, Naguib died from liver cirrhosis in Egypt, he was 83. Naguib had a military funeral, attended by President Hosni Mubarak. In 1984, his memoirs were published under the title; the book was reprinted several times and was translated into English under the title The Fate of Egypt. A station of the Cairo Metro is named in his honour. A major road in the Al Amarat District of Khartoum is named after him.