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Fuel cell

A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent into electricity through a pair of redox reactions. Fuel cells are different from most batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemical energy comes from metals and their ions or oxides that are already present in the battery, except in flow batteries. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as oxygen are supplied; the first fuel cells were invented by Sir William Grove in 1838. The first commercial use of fuel cells came more than a century following the invention of the hydrogen–oxygen fuel cell by Francis Thomas Bacon in 1932; the alkaline fuel cell known as the Bacon fuel cell after its inventor, has been used in NASA space programs since the mid-1960s to generate power for satellites and space capsules. Since fuel cells have been used in many other applications. Fuel cells are used for primary and backup power for commercial and residential buildings and in remote or inaccessible areas.

They are used to power fuel cell vehicles, including forklifts, buses, boats and submarines. There are many types of fuel cells, but they all consist of an anode, a cathode, an electrolyte that allows ions positively charged hydrogen ions, to move between the two sides of the fuel cell. At the anode a catalyst causes the fuel to undergo oxidation reactions that generate ions and electrons; the ions move from the anode to the cathode through the electrolyte. At the same time, electrons flow from the anode to the cathode through an external circuit, producing direct current electricity. At the cathode, another catalyst causes ions and oxygen to react, forming water and other products. Fuel cells are classified by the type of electrolyte they use and by the difference in startup time ranging from 1 second for proton exchange membrane fuel cells to 10 minutes for solid oxide fuel cells. A related technology is flow batteries. Individual fuel cells produce small electrical potentials, about 0.7 volts, so cells are "stacked", or placed in series, to create sufficient voltage to meet an application's requirements.

In addition to electricity, fuel cells produce water, heat and, depending on the fuel source small amounts of nitrogen dioxide and other emissions. The energy efficiency of a fuel cell is between 40–60%; the fuel cell market is growing, in 2013 Pike Research estimated that the stationary fuel cell market will reach 50 GW by 2020. The first references to hydrogen fuel cells appeared in 1838. In a letter dated October 1838 but published in the December 1838 edition of The London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Welsh physicist and barrister Sir William Grove wrote about the development of his first crude fuel cells, he used a combination of sheet iron and porcelain plates, a solution of sulphate of copper and dilute acid. In a letter to the same publication written in December 1838 but published in June 1839, German physicist Christian Friedrich Schönbein discussed the first crude fuel cell that he had invented, his letter discussed current generated from oxygen dissolved in water.

Grove sketched his design, in 1842, in the same journal. The fuel cell he made used similar materials to today's phosphoric acid fuel cell. In 1932, English engineer Francis Thomas Bacon developed a 5 kW stationary fuel cell; the alkaline fuel cell known as the Bacon fuel cell after its inventor, is one of the most developed fuel cell technologies, which NASA has used since the mid-1960s. In 1955, W. Thomas Grubb, a chemist working for the General Electric Company, further modified the original fuel cell design by using a sulphonated polystyrene ion-exchange membrane as the electrolyte. Three years another GE chemist, Leonard Niedrach, devised a way of depositing platinum onto the membrane, which served as catalyst for the necessary hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions; this became known as the "Grubb-Niedrach fuel cell". GE went on to develop this technology with NASA and McDonnell Aircraft, leading to its use during Project Gemini; this was the first commercial use of a fuel cell.

In 1959, a team led by Harry Ihrig built a 15 kW fuel cell tractor for Allis-Chalmers, demonstrated across the U. S. at state fairs. This system used potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and compressed hydrogen and oxygen as the reactants. In 1959, Bacon and his colleagues demonstrated a practical five-kilowatt unit capable of powering a welding machine. In the 1960s, Pratt & Whitney licensed Bacon's U. S. patents for use in the U. S. space program to supply drinking water. In 1991, the first hydrogen fuel cell automobile was developed by Roger Billings. UTC Power was the first company to manufacture and commercialize a large, stationary fuel cell system for use as a co-generation power plant in hospitals and large office buildings. In recognition of the fuel cell industry and America's role in fuel cell development, the US Senate recognized 8 October 2015 as National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Day, passing S. RES 217; the date was chosen in recognition of the atomic weight of hydrogen. Fuel cells come in many varieties.

They are made

Brian Quinnett

Brian Ralph Quinnett is a retired American professional basketball player. A 6'8" small forward, Quinnett played three seasons in the National Basketball Association. Upon graduation from Washington State University, Quinnett was selected by the New York Knicks in the second round of the 1989 NBA Draft, he played for the Knicks, had a brief 1991–92 stint with the Dallas Mavericks. His best year as a professional was during the 1990–91 season, appearing in 68 games and averaging 4.7 ppg. After leaving the NBA, Quinnett played in the Continental Basketball Association and overseas for Spain's CB Murcia. College & NBA stats @ basketballreference.com Basketpedya career data

Frances Sally Day

Frances Sally Day was an English miniature portrait painter and photographer who lived in London. Her paintings were displayed annually for twenty years at the Royal Academy of Arts' annual exhibitions, she was the first woman known to photograph Queen Victoria. She was the eldest daughter of Frances Rachel Day and Hamilton Smith Day, a portrait painter and photographer. Frances Sally Day had well over forty portraits and miniatures accepted for Royal Academy exhibitions between 1838 and 1858. One portrait was of Sheikh Ali Bin Nasser “envoy from his Highness the Imaum of Muscat” who had sent a ship full of gifts to the Queen. Another portrait was praised for its “brilliant handling of flesh tones”. In 1840 Day won the Silver Isis Medal of the Royal Society of Arts for a “portrait bust”; until the mid-1850s she gave her address to the Royal Academy as 41 Camden Street, as did her father who had three portraits shown. Her address from 1856 to 1858 was 14 Piccadilly, an address used for the family photography business of Hamilton Smith Day & Son, but she was living elsewhere in 1861, the year when a partnership with three photographer siblings - Louisa,Thomas and Arthur - was dissolved “so far as regards T. Day”.

In 1871 she was living with two sisters, a brother and a nephew, all artists according to the census, at 46 Albemarle Street, the address where her father had died the previous year. Day was active in photography by 1853. In that year she wrote to the leading photographer Henry Fox Talbot reminding him she had asked him to be “so kind to inform her whether a license was necessary for taking Talbotype portraits on paper, if so what are the terms for permission”. There are various surviving photographs of royalty taken by Day in the late 1850s. Records exist of a session at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight on 26 July 1859 when Queen Victoria wrote in her diary, “was photographed in the Lower Terrace by Miss Day and together with Mama and the children”; this was the first time. Some of Day's photographs were sent to royal relatives abroad in the form of cartes de visite, while ten went into a royal photograph album; some were turned into etchings. Margaret Homans suggests that some of Day's photographs of Victoria and Albert together show them with quite a casual "democratic" look and yet the image chosen for public circulation suggests more of a "worshipful wife" role for the Queen where "she gazes up at him intensely".

Frances Sally Day died on 12 January 1892 leaving an estate of about £2500

Evandro (footballer)

Evandro Rodrigues Florêncio is a Brazilian footballer who plays as a midfielder for Luverdense. Born in São Paulo, Evandro represented Esporte Clube Juventude, Associação Portuguesa de Desportos, Grêmio Esportivo Prudente and Grêmio Esportivo Mauaense as a youth, he started his senior professional career in 2016 with Toledo Esporte Clube. An undisputed starter, he contributed with 13 matches in the Paranaense with his side being eliminated in the semifinals. On 21 April 2016, Evandro signed with third-tier club Guarani Futebol Clube. On 16 June 2017, he scored his first goal for the club in a 3–2 defeat against Criciúma Esporte Clube. With his contract expiring at the end of 2017, on 6 December he announced that he would leave the club at the end of the season. On 12 December 2017, Evandro signed with Clube Atlético Bragantino for the 2018 Paulista. In mid December 2018, he joined Botafogo SP for the 2019 Campeonato Paulista; the club announced in April 2019, that he had left the club after not getting his contract extended.

Evandro played 9 games for the club. In June 2019, Evandro joined Luverdense Esporte Clube. Evandro is a cousin of Tchê Tchê, a footballer, they used to live in the same neighbourhood of São Paulo. Evandro at Soccerway

HMS Upholder (P37)

HMS Upholder was a Royal Navy U-class submarine built by Vickers-Armstrong at Barrow-in-Furness. She was laid down on 30 October 1939, launched on 8 July 1940 by Mrs. Doris Thompson, wife of a director of the builders; the submarine was commissioned on 31 October 1940. She was one of four U-class submarines which had two external torpedo tubes at the bows in addition to the 4 internal ones fitted to all boats, they were excluded from the other boats because they interfered with depth-keeping at periscope depth. She was commanded for her entire career by Lieutenant-Commander Malcolm David Wanklyn, became the most successful British submarine of the Second World War. After a working up period, she left for Malta on 10 December 1940 and was attached to the 10th Submarine Flotilla based there, she completed 24 patrols, sinking 93,031 tons of enemy shipping including the Maestrale-class destroyer Libeccio after the Battle of the Duisburg Convoy, two submarines, three troopships, six cargo ships, an auxiliary ship, an auxiliary minesweeper.

Wanklyn was awarded the Victoria Cross for a patrol in her in 1941, which included an attack on a well-defended convoy on 24 May 1941 in which Upholder sank the 17,879 GRT Italian troop ship SS Conte Rosso. On 28 July 1941 she damaged the Italian cruiser Giuseppe Garibaldi. On 18 September 1941 she sank two troopships within hours of each other: the sister ships MS Neptunia and MS Oceania. Upholder damaged the Italian light cruiser Giuseppe Garibaldi, the German freighter Duisburg, the French tanker Capitaine Damiani, the Italian freighters Dandolo and Sirio and destroyed the wreck of the German freighter Arta grounded after the battle of Tarigo convoy. Upholder was lost with all hands on her 25th patrol, to have been her last before she returned to England, she became overdue on 14 April. On 12 April she was ordered, with HMS Urge and HMS Thrasher to form a patrol line to intercept a convoy, but it is not known whether she received the signal; the most explanation for her loss is that after being spotted by a reconnaissance seaplane, she fell victim to depth charges dropped by the Italian Orsa-class torpedo boat Pegaso northeast of Tripoli on 14 April 1942 in the position 34°47′N 15°55′E, although no debris was seen on the surface.

The attack was 100 miles northeast from Wanklyn's patrol area and he may have changed position to find more targets. It is possible that the submarine was sunk by a mine on 11 April 1942 near Tripoli, when a submarine was reported close to a minefield. A third and less theory came from an alleged air and surface attack on a submarine contact by German aircraft and the escort of a convoy on 14 April off Misrata, but no official Axis record of this action was found after the end of World War II. A more recent research carried out by Italian naval specialist Francesco Mattesini points to a German aerial patrol supporting the same convoy, comprising two Dornier Do 17 and two Messerschmitt Bf 110 aircraft, that attacked an underwater contact with bombs two hours before the Pegaso incident; the author asserts that the seaplane crew was unsure if the target they pinpointed to Pegaso was a submarine or a school of dolphins. Mattesini admits the possibility that Pegaso could have finished off the submarine damaged by the German aircraft.

When, on 22 August 1942, the Admiralty announced her loss, the communiqué carried with it an unusual tribute to Wanklyn and his men: "It is proper for Their Lordships to draw distinction between different services rendered in the course of naval duty, but they take this opportunity of singling out those of HMS Upholder, under the command of Lt. Cdr. David Wanklyn, for special mention, she was long employed against enemy communications in the Central Mediterranean, she became noted for the uniformly high quality of her services in that arduous and dangerous duty. Such was the standard of skill and daring set by Lt. Cdr. Wanklyn and the officers and men under him that they and their ship became an inspiration not only to their own flotilla, but to the Fleet of which it was a part and to Malta, where for so long HMS Upholder was based; the ship and her company are gone, but the example and inspiration remain." In all, Upholder was credited with having sunk 97,000 tons of enemy shipping, in addition to three U-boats and one destroyer.

Quoted by Admiral of the Fleet, The Lord Fieldhouse GCB, GCE during the Falklands War: "I can do no better than repeat the unique message following the sinking of HMS Upholder on April 14th 1942:'The ship and her company are gone but the example and inspiration remain'" Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. Hutchinson, Robert. Jane's Submarines: War Beneath the Waves from 1776 to the Present Day. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-710558-8. OCLC 53783010

1981–82 Manchester United F.C. season

The 1981–82 season was Manchester United's 80th season in the Football League, their 7th consecutive season in the top division of English football. It was their first season under the management of Ron Atkinson, appointed in the summer to replace Dave Sexton. In early October, he brought midfielder Bryan Robson to Old Trafford from his former club West Bromwich Albion for a British record fee of £1.5million. He signed fellow Albion midfielder Remi Moses for £500,000. After leading the league during the first half of the season, United finished the season third in the league and qualified for the UEFA Cup, while the league title went to Liverpool and Ipswich Town finished second. Late in the season came the debut of teenage forward Norman Whiteside, who at just 17 was selected for the Northern Ireland squad at the FIFA World Cup, he scored for United on the last day of the league season in only his second senior appearance for the club. Pld = Matches played.