SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Fuero

Fuero, Foro or Foru is a Spanish legal term and concept. The word comes from Latin forum, an open space used as market and meeting place; the same Latin root is the origin of the French terms for and foire, the Portuguese terms foro and foral. The Spanish term fuero has a wide range of meanings, depending upon its context, it has meant a compilation of laws a local or regional one. In many of these senses, its equivalent in the medieval England would be the custumal. In the 20th century, Francisco Franco's regime used the term fueros for several of the fundamental laws; the term implied these were not constitutions subject to debate and change by a sovereign people, but orders from the only legitimate source of authority, as in feudal times. Fuero dates back to the feudal era: the lord could concede or acknowledge a fuero to certain groups or communities, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, the military, certain regions that fell under the same monarchy as Castile or Spain, but were not integrated into those countries.

The relations among fueros, other bodies of law, sovereignty is a contentious one that influences government and law in the present day. The king of León, Alfonso V, decreed the Fuero de León, considered the earliest laws governing territorial and local life, as it applied to the entire kingdom, with certain provisions for the city of León; the various Basque provinces generally regarded their fueros as tantamount to a municipal constitution. This view was accepted including President of the United States John Adams, he cited the Biscayan fueros as a precedent for the United States Constitution. This view regards fueros as acknowledging rights. In the contrasting view, fueros were privileges granted by a monarch. In the letter Adams commented on the substantial independence of the hereditary Basque Jauntxo families as the origin for their privileges. In practice, distinct fueros for specific classes, towns, or regions arose out of feudal power politics; some historians believe monarchs were forced to concede some traditions in exchange for the general acknowledgment of his or her authority, that monarchs granted fueros to reward loyal subjection, or the monarch acknowledged distinct legal traditions.

In medieval Castilian law, the king could assign privileges to certain groups. The classic example of such a privileged group was the Roman Catholic Church: the clergy did not pay taxes to the state, enjoyed the income via tithes of local landholding, were not subject to the civil courts. Church-operated ecclesiastical courts tried churchmen for criminal offenses. Another example was the powerful Mesta organization, composed of wealthy sheepherders, who were granted vast grazing rights in Andalusia after that land was "reconquered" by Spanish Christians from the Muslims. Lyle N. McAlister writes in Spain and Portugal in the New World that the Mesta's fuero helped impede the economic development of southern Spain; this resulted in a lack of opportunity, Spaniards emigrated to the New World to escape these constraints. During the Reconquista, the feudal lords granted fueros to some villas and cities, to encourage the colonization of the frontier and of commercial routes; these laws regulated the governance and the penal and civil aspects of the places.

The fueros codified for one place were granted to another, with small changes, instead of crafting a new redaction from scratch. In contemporary Spanish usage, the word fueros most refers to the historic and contemporary fueros or charters of certain regions of the Basque regions; the equivalent for French usage is fors. The whole central and western Pyrenean region was inhabited by the Basques in the early Middle Ages within the Duchy of Vasconia; the Basques and the Pyrenean peoples—as Romance language replaced Basque in many areas by the turn of the first millennium—governed themselves by a native a set of rules, different from Roman and Gothic law but with an ever-increasing imprint of them. Their laws, arising from regional traditions and practices, were kept and transmitted orally; because of this oral tradition, the Basque-language regions preserved their specific laws longer than did those Pyrenean regions that adopted Romance languages. For example, Navarrese law developed along less feudal lines than those of surrounding realms.

The Fors de Bearn are another example of Pyrenean law. Two sayings address this legal idiosyncrasy: "en Navarra hubo antes leyes que reyes," and "en Aragón antes que rey hubo ley," both meaning that law developed and existed before the kings; the force of these principles required monarchs to accommodate to the laws. This situation sometimes strained relations between the monarch and the kingdom if the monarchs were alien to native laws. In 1234 when the first foreign king, the French Theobald I of Champagne arrived in the area, he did not know Navarrese common law, he appointed a commission to write the laws. The accession of French lineages to the throne of Navarre brought a relationship between the king and the kingdom, alien to the Basques; the resulting disagreements were a major factor in the 13th-century uprisings and clashes between different factions and comm

Siege of Khost

During the nine-year Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s and the subsequent Afghan civil war, the town of Khost was besieged for more than eleven years. Its airstrip's 3 km runway served as a base for helicopter operations by Soviet forces, it began soon after the invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet troops, when Afghan guerillas took control of the only land route between Khost and Gardez putting a stop to the Soviet advance. Operation Magistral was an offensive launched to relieve it at the end of 1987; the first convoys reached Khost at the end of December 1987. When the main Soviet force had withdrawn, Mujahideen groups cut off Khost once again, as they had done since 1981. Following the creation of the Commander's Shura, which united the Peshawar Seven and assault was coordinated to capture Khost, an assault which at least according to former special envoy to the Mujahideen Peter Tomsen was more an ISI operation than a Mujahideen one; this fighting was a co-ordinated attack by the forces of Hezb-e Islami of Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, Jalaluddin Haqqani and local Ahmadzai tribes led by Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi.

The Ahmadzai were able to spearhead the assault after Hezb-e Islam and Haqqania suffered setbacks, able to capture the city and negotiate the surrender of the garrison resulting in victory on April 11, 1991. De Ponfilly, Christophe. "Afghanistan Fighting for the Road to Khost". TIME. Retrieved 2008-01-28

AppFabric Caching

AppFabric Caching provides an in-memory, distributed cache platform for Windows Server. Microsoft released it as part of AppFabric. AppFabric Caching stores serialized managed objects in a cache cluster; the cache cluster consists of one or more machines. This pooled memory is presented to cache clients as a single source of caching memory. Objects are accessed using an associated key value. AppFabric Caching features must be installed on each server in the cache cluster. Following installation, the AppFabric Configuration Wizard must be used to join each server to the cache cluster. An external file share or database is required to maintain the cache cluster configuration settings. A set of Windows PowerShell commands for Caching provides administration capabilities on the cache cluster. Note that the code samples in this section are shown in C#. A common task is to create code that puts and removes objects from the cache; these operations target either a named cache. First, create a static DataCache member: Next, create a method.

The properties of the cache can be stored in web.config files. The cache settings can be programmatically configured; the following example shows. The following method shows. In this example, a user identifier is the key for the associated user information object; the code first attempts to get this user information from the cache using the userid key. If that does not succeed, the code retrieves the information with a database query and stores the returned user data in the cache; the next time the same code is run, the user information will be returned from the cache rather than the database. This assumes that the cached data has not been evicted; the following method shows how to update data, in the cache. The following call removes the item from the cache. AppFabric Caching had several beta releases under the code name Velocity. In June 2010, Microsoft released AppFabric Caching as part of AppFabric. For more detailed information, see the history section of the AppFabric page. AppFabric Caching is related to other Microsoft caching technologies.

These technologies share similar features, such as the assembly name and types. However, there are some differences; the table below describes these technologies. AppFabric 1.1 Caching Features AppFabric Class Library Reference Download: Microsoft AppFabric 1.1 for Windows Server Download: Cumulative update package 3 for Microsoft AppFabric 1.1 for Windows Server