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Fuerteventura

Fuerteventura is one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean and is part of the North Africa region, politically part of Spain. At 1,660 square kilometres, it is the second largest of the Canary Islands, after Tenerife; as of 2018, Fuerteventura has 113,275 inhabitants. It was declared a biosphere reserve by UNESCO in May 2009, its capital is Puerto del Rosario. The island's name is a compound word formed by the Spanish words for "strong" and "fortune". Traditionally, Fuerteventura's name has been regarded as a reference to the strong winds around the island and the resulting danger to nautical adventurers. However, it might have referred instead to luck or destiny. In 1339 the Mallorcan navigator Angelino Dulcert, in the Planisferio de Angelino Dulcert, referred to the island as "Forte Ventura". Another theory is that the island's name derives from "Fortunatae Insulae", the name by which the Romans knew the Canary Islands; the indigenous name of the island, before its conquest in the 15th century, was Erbania, divided into two regions, from which the name majorero derives.

However, it has been suggested that, at some point, Maxorata was the aboriginal toponym of the entire island. The first settlers of Fuerteventura are believed to have come from North Africa; the word Mahorero or Maho is still used today to describe the people of Fuerteventura and is derived from the ancient word'mahos', a type of goatskin shoe worn by these original inhabitants. They lived in caves and semi-subterranean dwellings, some of which have been excavated, revealing remnants of early tools and pottery. In antiquity, the island was known o.a. as Planaria, in reference to the flatness of most of its terrain. Phoenician settlers landed in Lanzarote. Several Spanish and Portuguese expeditions to the islands were organized around 1340, followed by Moors and European slave traders. At the end of the Iberian conquest, the island was divided into two Guanches kingdoms, one adhering to King Guize and the other to King Ayoze; the territories of these kingdoms were called Jandía respectively. They were separated by a wall.

Some remains have been preserved. The ancient name for the island, Erbania, is derived from this wall's name; the island's conquest began in earnest in 1402, commanded by French knights and crusaders Jean de Béthencourt and Gadifer de la Salle. They arrived with only 63 sailors out of the original 283. After arriving and settling in Lanzarote, the invaders made some first excursions to the neighboring islands. In 1404, Bethencourt and Gadifer founded Betancuria, on the West coast, the first settlement on the island. After numerous difficulties, Gadifer took charge of the invasion, while Bethencourt returned to Spain to seek the recognition and support of the Castilian king. In 1405, de Béthencourt completed his conquest of the island, establishing its capital in Betancuria. In 1424 Pope Martin V, through the Betancuria Brief, edicted the establishment of the Bishopric of Fuerteventura, which encompassed all the Canary Islands save for the island of Lanzarote; the origin of this bishopric is directly related to the events that occurred after the Great Schism, in that the bishop of San Marcial del Rubicón of Lanzarote did not recognize the papacy of Martin V, instead adhered to anti-Pope Benedict XIII.

The Bishopric of Fuerteventura was based in the Parish of Santa María de Betancuria, bestowing upon the latter the status of Grant Cathedral. After the reabsorbtion of the Diocese of San Marcial del Rubicón by the papacy of Pope of Martin V, the Bishopric of Fuerteventura was abolished in 1431, only seven years after it was created; the first census recorded a population of some 1,200 inhabitants. The population increased thereafter. In 1476 the territory became the Señorío Territorial de Fuerteventura, subjected to the Catholic Monarchs. In years, the island was invaded by the Spanish and the English. Over time, the island endured numerous pirate raids. A Berber-led expedition invaded in 1593. Various castles were built along the coastline; the population was moved inland as a second protective measure. Because of the raids, a first Captain General was dispatched to Fuerteventura, accompanied by a number of Sergeant Majors, to defend the island in the name of the Crown. At that time Betancuria became the religious capital of the island.

Two major pirate attacks took place within a month of each other. Two separate bands of English privateers attempted to loot the town of Tuineje; these attacks were however averted by the local population and the island's militia. This successful repelling of the invaders is celebrated at a re-enactment that takes place in Gran Tarajal every year in October; the island's garrison was instated in 1708. Its colonel assumed the title of Governor at Arms, a hereditary, lifelong appointment which has remained in the Sánchez-Dumpiérrez family. In time, this family garnered power over the other islands through alliances with the family of Arias de Saavedra and the Lady of Fuerteventura. During the same year the Assistant Parish of La Oliva and Pájara was created, to become operational in 1711. On December 17, 1790 the Assistant Parish of Tuineje was created, which became a new parish division on June 23, 1792 under the bishop Tavira, with lands including part of th

Heikru Hidongba

"Heikru Hidongba" is a socio-religious ceremony performed every year at the moat of the Sagolband Bijoy Govinda Leikai, Imphal on the 11th day of the Manipuri Calendar month Langban with elements of religious and other traditional belief of creation. "Heikru Hidongba" is one of the several socio-religious ceremony performed to bring peace and prosperity to the community, started during the reign of Maharaja Irengba in 984 A. D. With the passage of time and through the reign of several kings, many changes took places in the religious life of the Meiteis; the culmination was attained during the time of Maharaja Bhagychandra. During this time Meidingu Nongpok Leirikhomba uncleto the King Bhagychandra tried hard to preserve the tradition and to effect an adjustment between the old and the new. In 1779, Heikru Hidongba was performed at the moat of Bijoy Govinda with the Shri Shri Bijoy Govindaji from the royal palace coming with customary rites and rituals after the completion of which it was installed in the new temple dedicated by Nongpok Leirikhomba at Sagolband Bijoy Govinda Leikai.

In the next year it was decided subsequently to have the Heikru Hidongba festival every year on the 11th day of the month of Langban in Manipuri Calendar. There is a historical background to the moat, it was once known as "Tubi Irel". Once Meidingu Nongpok Leirikhomba was is jail of the King of Moirang in fetters from where he was freed by the plans of the daughter of Khelei Nungnang Telheiba. Too happy at that, the moat was named Moirang Leima Thangapat, the moat of the Moirang Leima by which name it was known. In a twin boat sanctified by the presence of the deity amidst chanting of Sankirtana and music, Arti is offered. Tengmaileppa, Hinao Shaba, Chang Shaba and Naomang Shaba are the main participants of the race who will put on Ningkham and Shamjim, traditional components of the formal dress of such festivities; some more ornament are there. Along with this the King will be present along with the Vishnu. If the King could not be present, in that case Vishnu will occupy the seat where the traditional royal seat is laid out.

In keeping with customary traditional, one day before the festival of Heikru Hidongba the Kingand the Vishnu are offered ritual invitation. In the evening boat race practise is done; the leaders of the race boat, in the early morning of the Heikru Hidongba festival flakes of silver and gold put in anganthak tengnou shaba will be offered to Bijoy Govinda. A garland of 108 heikru interspersed with the stem of Hup and another garland of 108 rice which the peeling is done by hand will be first offered to Bijoy Govinda and afterwards placed at the hull of the boat. Before the boat race starts Bijoy Govinda will have a pleasure of the panoramic scene; the two leaders of the boat after due offerings to God will start the race. Though the two appear to be festivity of similar nature, there are lots of differences between the two; as Heikru Hidongba is performed with necessary rituals on the appointed day enjoined by the religious and customary sanctions it point to the difference between the two. Heikru Hidongba is combination of the three words, namely Heirku+ Hi+Tongba to complete the word Heikru Hidongba.

And it is not performed at any other place than at the moat of Bijoy Govinda. Heikru Hidongba published by Bijoy Govinda Sevayet Committee, Imphal

Masters Rugby League

Masters Rugby League is a derivative of rugby league for a wide age range of older, semi-retired and non-competitive players and officials. Masters Rugby League started in Brisbane Australia and New Zealand in 1992 and has since grown in popularity, spreading to Australia and more to the United Kingdom & Canada The Masters of Rugby League New Zealand states, "Masters Rugby League is the game for a lifetime, for semi-retired players and officials"; the Masters derivative of rugby league aimed to extend the playing, officiating, life of people. In 2008, in the United Kingdom the Rugby Football League noted that there were only 2,000 registered club players aged 30 or over; this illustrates how the physical nature of competitive rugby league lends itself to being a young person's sport. Masters Rugby League started in New Zealand in 1992. Masters Rugby League in New Zealand has seen a growth in the number of teams since as clubs became more aware of this grade. SPARC's Push Play campaign, promoting the benefits of physical activity has had an impact.

Masters of Rugby League Australia Inc. was a spinoff from the International Masters Tournament, held at the Western Weekender Stadium, home of St Mary's Rugby League Club in Sydney in October 2004. Malcolm Duncan and Graeme Killeen, both associated with the Penrith Junior League became the President and Secretary respectively. With assistance from St Marys Leagues, keen referees from Penrith and others, Masters Rugby League grew. Masters of Rugby League Australia Inc. was established as a non-profit sporting organisation, with objectives increase access to the game for eligible participants and to promote the playing of rugby league in an environment of sportsmanship and goodwill. Participants must have retired from competitive rugby. Rugby league's Laws of the Game apply except for amendments made by the governing bodies. There are slight differences between those adopted in New Zealand and the United Kingdom and the rules operated in Australia but the general modifications are the same and aim to reduce the physicality of the game, with "Rough and over vigorous play" not being condoned, to reduce the amount of running, for example the defence must only retreat 5 metres at the play-the-ball and there is no running from dummy half.

Masters players are divided by age, this being signified through the use of different coloured shorts. Physical contact is restricted or removed in both attack and defence for individual players based on these colours; the younger players can tackle if older players are involved in the tackle it may be completed by a two-handed hold or by a touch. Masters Rugby League The Australian Rugby League's Masters Rules Masters of Rugby League New Zealand Rules Rugby League's International Laws of the Game