In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject, introduced at the beginning in imitation and which recurs in the course of the composition. It is not to be confused with a fuguing tune, a style of song popularized by and limited to early American music and West Gallery music. A fugue has three main sections: an exposition, a development and a final entry that contains the return of the subject in the fugue's tonic key; some fugues have a recapitulation. In the Middle Ages, the term was used to denote any works in canonic style. Since the 17th century, the term fugue has described what is regarded as the most developed procedure of imitative counterpoint. Most fugues open with a short main theme, the subject, which sounds successively in each voice; this is followed by a connecting passage, or episode, developed from heard material. Episodes and entries are alternated until the "final entry" of the subject, by which point the music has returned to the opening key, or tonic, followed by closing material, the coda.
In this sense, a fugue is a style of composition, rather than a fixed structure. The form evolved during the 18th century from several earlier types of contrapuntal compositions, such as imitative ricercars, capriccios and fantasias; the famous fugue composer Johann Sebastian Bach shaped his own works after those of Johann Jakob Froberger, Johann Pachelbel, Girolamo Frescobaldi, Dieterich Buxtehude and others. With the decline of sophisticated styles at the end of the baroque period, the fugue's central role waned giving way as sonata form and the symphony orchestra rose to a dominant position. Composers continued to write and study fugues for various purposes; the English term fugue originated in the 16th century and is derived from the French word fugue or the Italian fuga. This in turn comes from Latin fuga, itself related to both fugere and fugare; the adjectival form is fugal. Variants include fugato. A fugue is written according to certain predefined rules. Further entries of the subject will occur throughout the fugue, repeating the accompanying material at the same time.
The various entries may not be separated by episodes. What follows is a chart displaying a typical fugal outline, an explanation of the processes involved in creating this structure. S = subject. After the statement of the subject, a second voice enters and states the subject with the subject transposed to another key, known as the answer. To make the music run smoothly, it may have to be altered slightly; when the answer is an exact copy of the subject to the new key, with identical intervals to the first statement, it is classified as a real answer. A tonal answer is called for when the subject begins with a prominent dominant note, or where there is a prominent dominant note close to the beginning of the subject. To prevent an undermining of the music's sense of key, this note is transposed up a fourth to the tonic rather than up a fifth to the supertonic. Answers in the subdominant are employed for the same reason. While the answer is being stated, the voice in which the subject was heard continues with new material.
If this new material is reused in statements of the subject, it is called a countersubject. The countersubject is written in invertible counterpoint at the fifteenth; the distinction is made between the use of free counterpoint and regular countersubjects accompanying the fugue subject/answer, because in order for a countersubject to be heard accompanying the subject in more than one instance, it must be capable of sounding above or below the subject, must be conceived, therefore, in invertible counterpoint. In tonal music, invertible contrapuntal lines must be written according to certain rules because several intervallic combinations, while acceptable in one particular orientation, are no longer permissible when inverted. For example, when the note "G" sounds in one voice above the note "C" in lower voice, the interval of a fifth is formed, considered consonant and acceptable; when this interval is inverted, it forms a fourth, considered a dissonance in tonal contrapuntal practice, requires special treatment, or preparation and resolution, if it is to be used.
The countersubject, if sounding at the same time a
A New Day... Live in Las Vegas is the first English-language live album by Canadian singer Celine Dion, released by Columbia Records on 14 June 2004, it includes songs from Dion's Las Vegas residency show, A New Day.... The album features studio recordings of two new tracks: "You and I" and "Ain't Gonna Look the Other Way". A New Day... Live in Las Vegas was certified Silver in the United Kingdom. A New Day... Live in Las Vegas features thirteen live tracks from Dion's successful Las Vegas show, called A New Day... and two unreleased studio tracks: "You and I" and "Ain't Gonna Look the Other Way". It was released with a bonus DVD containing 45-min documentary, called One Year... One Heart. A New Day... Live in Las Vegas includes five live songs which weren't available on Dion's previous albums: "Fever", "I've Got the World on a String", "I Wish", "If I Could" and "What a Wonderful World"; the studio versions of last two songs were included on her next album Miracle. "If I Could" was recorded by Nancy Wilson on her Nancy Now!
Album in 1988. In 1993 Ray Charles covered it on My World, as well as Regina Belle on her album Passion. Barbra Streisand included the song on her Higher Ground album in 1997; the French edition of A New Day... Live in Las Vegas contains "Contre nature" as a bonus track; the scheduled Live in Las Vegas - A New Day... DVD release date was postponed because of changes and improvements made to the show since the initial filming. A New Day... was re-shot in high-definition during the 17–21 January 2007 week and released on 7 December 2007. The two disc DVD contains more than 5 hours of never-before seen footage, including the concert and three exclusive documentaries. Live performances of "Nature Boy", "At Last", "Fever", "Et je t'aime encore" and "What a Wonderful World" are available only on A New Day... Live in Las Vegas CD, as they were removed from the show at the time of filming the DVD; the album met with positive reviews. AllMusic said that "this live document of the Las Vegas show drives home the point that Celine is one of the most potent entertainers in adult contemporary music".
According to them Dion is "equally as comfortable in high-tempo numbers chock-full of her signature vocal acrobatics as she is in quiet, contemplative moments. It's an ideal souvenir for those who have experienced the magic with their own eyes, and while it's not the most definitive document of Dion's career, it is a stirring testament to her accomplishments as the standard to whom most vocalists aspire". A New Day... Live in Las Vegas has sold 530,000 copies in the United States and was certified Gold by the RIAA, it was certified Silver in the UK. The album reached top ten in many countries, including number one in Greece and Quebec, number two in Canada, number four in Belgium Wallonia, number seven in Belgium Flanders, number nine in France, number ten in the United States. In 2005, A New Day... Live in Las Vegas was nominated for the Félix Award in category Anglophone Album of the Year. A New Day... Live in Las Vegas at Discogs
Bowburn is a village in County Durham, England. It is situated about 3 miles to the south-east of Durham, on the A177, between Coxhoe to the south-east, High Shincliffe to the north-west, it is part of the Cassop-cum-Quarrington parish. A small farming hamlet, named after the shape of the small burn that runs through it, Bowburn's history, like that of many other villages in the region, is linked to coal mining. Several coal mines were sunk in the area during the 19th century but extensive development did not begin until an new Bowburn Colliery began to be sunk in 1906. Bowburn therefore celebrated its 100th anniversary on 23 July 2006; the first "Bowburn Colliery" was a shaft failed to find workable coal. The second Bowburn Colliery was sunk a few years south of there, being one of several sunk in the Quarrington and Coxhoe areas, it was close to the terminus of the Durham Branch of the Clarence Railway. The pit was a small concern, worked first by Robson and Jackson and the West Hetton Coal Company.
It closed in about 1870. The third and most famous Bowburn Colliery was sunk in 1906 by Bell Bros. Ltd. using the 1840 shaft as the ventilation upcast shaft. Its first coal was drawn in 1908, it merged with Tursdale colliery in 1931 and grew to be one of the largest in the Durham coalfield, working six seams and with over 2,500 employees in the 1950s. Meanwhile the village was growing around it. Hardly anything now remains of the colliery complex which closed in July 1967; the main colliery yard is now the site of the Bowburn South Industrial Estate. The day of the annual Durham Miners' Gala used to see large unions of men marching through the village, as Bowburn was en route to Durham for some surrounding pit villages. Local residents have, with the help of the Heritage Lottery Fund, had two of Bowburn’s original miners’ banners restored and a new one produced to be paraded at the Gala. By September 2006, two of the restored banners were on display in Bowburn Community Centre, together with the new one.
This, with another new one designed by Bowburn Junior School pupils, was paraded for the first time at the 2006 Gala. They have paraded at the Miners' Gala every year since then. Other events celebrated the village’s centenary year, including a party and firework display in Bowburn Park 100 years after Gertrude Bell cut the first sod on 23 July 1906 to commence the sinking of the downcast shaft. Following the closure of the colliery and latterly the Cape Minerals Works, Bowburn declined. More the location of the village, near Durham City and close to the A1 junction 61, has meant that the village has become a prime site for new commuter housing and industrial estates. Much of the housing in Bowburn is still low cost in terraces or on post-war council estates; however there has been significant development of owner occupied housing along the eastern edge of the village, on the old secondary school site. From 2004, a village regeneration project began, involving the demolition of some council housing on the northern estate and the building of a mixture of housing association and private housing.
As part of the regeneration project, the park was upgraded, with new football fields, an outdoor gym and an excellent children’s play area, as well as significant improvements to such community facilities as Bowburn Community Centre and the DJ Evans Youth Club. A local community partnership has met monthly since the start of the regeneration project, welcomes all residents interested in contributing to the improvement of the village and surrounding area. A village newsletter, Bowburn Interchange, is produced by a local community group, Bowburn Village Celebration, delivered by volunteers throughout the village four times a year. One of Bowburn's claims to fame was its parish church, Christ the King, built between 1963 and 1978, it had a detached spire described locally as'The Rocket' standing alongside the main church building, which featured a spiked dome roof which led some to call it "The Pineapple Church". The church ceased to be used for public worship due to its poor condition and was demolished in June 2007, while the adjacent spire fell over due to gales on 3 October 2009.
In May 2008 construction of a new church building began on the site, completed in Autumn 2008. Bowburn has its own Junior and Infant & Nursery schools. A new single-site Primary School is planned to be built and opened by September 2019. Secondary pupils attend a number of schools outside the village. Since the closure of the village’s own secondary school, most pupils attended Durham Johnston Comprehensive School, in Durham City. Changes to admissions rules since however, mean that they attend a variety of schools; the designated school for those living north of the A1 motorway is now Belmont Community School. Dick Witham, professional footballer Website about/for Bowburn Bowburn Local History Society Bowburn Interchange
The Pied Piper is a 1942 film in which an Englishman on vacation in France is caught up in the German invasion of that country, finds himself taking an ever-growing group of children to safety. It stars Roddy McDowall and Anne Baxter; the film was adapted by Nunnally Johnson from the novel of the same name by Nevil Shute. It was directed by Irving Pichel, it was nominated for Academy Awards for Best Actor in a Leading Role, Best Cinematography, Black-and-White and Best Picture. Monty Woolley as Howard Roddy McDowall as Ronnie Cavanaugh Anne Baxter as Nicole Rougeron Otto Preminger as Major Diessen J. Carrol Naish as Aristide Rougeron Lester Matthews as Mr. Cavanaugh Jill Esmond as Mrs. Cavanaugh Ferike Boros as Madame Peggy Ann Garner as Sheila Cavanaugh Merrill Rodin as Willem Maurice Tauzin as Pierre Fleurette Zama as Rose The Pied Piper on IMDb
The pointinini is a type of shoe popular in Côte d'Ivoire. They are shoes whose characteristic is that the front part pointed and is bent, available in all the colors and various materials; this fashion developed in Côte d'Ivoire and was exported with Coupé-Décalé and the concept of the "farot" incarnated by JetSet. Ivorian singer Abou Nidal sings about it in "La chaussure qui parle"; the pointinini is a key component of the "Afrodesign" or modern "Afrostyle". The pointinini is a true phenomenon of style in Africa; the pointinini was not invented by Abou Nidal but finds its origins in the centre of Africa in the Democratic Republic of Congo, via the science of sapeology. Abou Nidal " pourquoi mes chaussures parlent" La "chaussure qui parle" d'Abou Nidal en vidéo
The 106th Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment of the New York Army National Guard that traces its history to the 10th New York National Guard. During World War II, the 106th served in the Pacific Theater and acted both independently and as parts of larger divisions. During World War I, the 23rd New York National Guard became the 106th Infantry; this first 106th Infantry was a different unit than the 106th that served in World War II. The 27th Infantry Division was organized in November 1917 into a typical infantry "square division" of the US Army National Guard, it had two infantry brigades, along with an artillery brigade, a machine-gun brigade, a headquarters detachment. During the reorganization, the 23rd New York was converted into the 106th Infantry Regiment under the command of COL Franklin W. Ward, it was assigned to the 53rd Infantry Brigade alongside the 105th Infantry Regiment; when the regiment arrived in France, it had an operational strength of 3,003 officers and enlisted men, it was moved into the front lines on 25 June 1918.
The regiment relieved elements of the British 6th Division along the East Poperinghe Line in Belgium, where it remained with the other elements of the 27th Division. On 31 August 1918, the Ypres-Lys Offensive began, the 106th Regiment was engaged in the reconnaissance efforts prior to the main battle. Alongside the 53rd Brigade and the rest of the 27th Division, the 106th attacked German position in the Second Somme Offensive from 24 September to 21 October 1918; this offensive proved to be the decisive action. The desperate fighting is demonstrated by the actions of LTC J. Leslie Kincaid, the Judge Advocate of the Division Staff. From 25–28 September, LTC Kincaid took command of a leaderless battalion of the 106th Infantry and managed to hold off an enemy counterattack by organizing every man in the battalion including runners, signalmen, etc. in the defense. He was awarded the British Distinguished Service Order. On 21 October 1918, the entire division was relieved from front line duty, returned to the US on 19 March 1919.
The regiment was mustered out, was recast as the 186th Field Artillery Regiment. By the end of its combat action in World War I, the 106th Infantry Regiment suffered 1,955 casualties including 1,496 wounded, 376 killed, 83 who died of their wounds. A new 106th Infantry was called up into federal service on 15 October 1940, being a re-designation of the 10th Infantry Regiment of the New York National Guard, having no lineal relationship with the World War I 106th; the regiment was made up of recruits from Upstate New York, divided into 12 companies, with 4 companies per battalion. Companies A, B, C, D were recruited from Albany. Companies E and F came from Binghamton. Companies F, G, I, K were recruited from Walton, Oneonta and Oneida and Companies L and M were filled with soldiers from Utica. Additional Regimental troops were drawn from Catskill and Rome; the regiment moved to Alabama on 23 October. Due to the restructuring of the United States Army in the early 1940s, the Square Division concept gave way to the Triangular division concept, the 108th Infantry Regiment was released from the 27th Infantry Division's command and was sent to the 40th Infantry Division, the 106th was itself sent to Hawaii independent of the rest of the division on 10 March 1942.
It was attached to the V Amphibious Corps on 14 December 1943. The 2nd Battalion, occupied Majuro Atoll on February 1, 1944 against no resistance, remained there until it was sent to Oahu for training on 5 March 1944; the 1st and 3rd Battalions were sent to capture the island of Eniwetok on 19 February 1944. 1-106 made a beach assault against weak Japanese resistance, but became bogged down inland where enemy resistance increased in intensity. 3-106, alongside the 22nd Marine Regiment, arrived to reinforce 1-106 and the island was secured on 21 February. The regiment consolidated its three battalions in Hawaii on 13 April 1944, landed on Saipan on 20 June 1944, five days after the initial invasion. Here the 106th Infantry Regiment rejoined the rest of its parent unit, the 27th Infantry Division, fighting on Saipan; the 106th fought along rough jungle terrain at the base of Mount Tapotchau, which they dubbed "Purple Heart Ridge" and "Death Valley." After many of the Japanese strongpoints had been subdued, the defenders launched a second last ditch Banzai charge, which the 106th was active in defeating.
After departing the island on 4 September 1944, the 106th enjoyed some R&R on Espiritu Santo. The regiment departed Espirtu Santo for Okinawa on 20 March 1945, participated alongside the XXIV Corps general attack on the island. From 11 April to 16 April, the 106th was under the control of the 96th Infantry Division but was returned to the 27th Division's command for the attack on Rotation Ridge. Working together with the 105th Infantry Regiment, they fought to capture a hill called The Pinnacle, a tall spire of rock, where the Japanese had prepared an intricate defense; the last action of the 106th Infantry's World War II chronicle occurred when 1-106 repelled a Banzai charge west of the Pinnacle on 22 April 1945. Following the relief of the division, 2-106 was sent to occupy the island of Ie Shima; when the war ended, the 106th arrived in Japan for occupation duty on 12 September 1945. It was inactivated on 31 December 1945