Aokigahara known as the Sea of Trees, is a forest on the northwestern flank of Japan's Mount Fuji thriving on 30 square kilometres of hardened lava laid down by the last major eruption of Mount Fuji in 864 CE. The western edge of Aokigahara, where there are several caves that fill with ice in winter, is a popular destination for tourists and school trips. Parts of Aokigahara are dense, the porous lava absorbs sound, helping to provide visitors with a sense of solitude; the forest has a historical reputation as a home to yūrei: ghosts of the dead in Japanese mythology. In recent years, Aokigahara has become internationally known as "the Suicide Forest", one of the world's most prevalent suicide sites, signs at the head of some trails urge suicidal visitors to think of their families and contact a suicide prevention association; the forest floor consists of volcanic rock which can be difficult to penetrate with hand tools. Since the forest is dense, in recent years and tourists trekking through Aokigahara have begun to use plastic tape to mark their paths to avoid getting lost.
Designated trails lead to several tourist attractions such as the Narusawa Ice Cave, Fugaku Wind Cave and Lake Sai Bat Cave which are three larger lava caves near Mount Fuji, the ice cave being frozen year-round. The first kilometer of the forest is littered with tape and other rubbish left by tourists, despite officials' attempts to remove it. After the first kilometer into Aokigahara towards Mount Fuji within the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, the forest is in better condition, with few obvious signs of human presence. Aokigahara has been falsely portrayed as a place. Needles of magnetic compasses will move if placed directly on the lava, aligning with the rock's natural magnetism, which varies in iron content and strength by location. However, a compass behaves; the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force has conducted its ranger courses including navigation training in the forest since 1956. Mammals include the Asian black bear, small Japanese mole, mice, fox, wild rabbit, Japanese mink and Japanese squirrel.
Birds include great tit, willow tit, long-tailed tit, higera, great spotted woodpecker, pygmy woodpecker, bush warbler, Eurasian jay, Japanese white-eye, Japanese thrush, brown-headed thrush, Siberian thrush, Hodgson’s hawk-cuckoo, Japanese grosbeak, lesser cuckoo, black-faced bunting, oriental turtle dove, common cuckoo. There are ground beetles and other insects, including many species of butterflies in the forest interior Argynnis paphia, Chrysozephyrus smaragdinus, Celastrina argiolus, Celastrina sugitanii, Curetis acuta, Favonius jezoensis, Neptis sappho, Parantica sita and Polygonia c-album are found; the forest has a variety of conifers and broadleaf trees and shrubs including: Chamaecyparis obtusa, Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Pinus parviflora, Tsuga sieboldii, Acer distylum, Acer micranthum, Acer sieboldianum, Acer tschonoskii, Betula grossa, Chengiopanax sciadophylloides, Clethra barbinervis, Enkianthus campanulatus, Euonymus macropterus, Ilex pedunculosa, Ilex macropoda, Pieris japonica, Prunus jamasakura, Quercus mongolica var. crispula, Rhododendron dilatatum, Skimmia japonica f. repens, Sorbus commixta and Toxicodendron trichocarpum.
The dominant tree species between 1000 and 1800 metres of altitude is Tsuga diversifolia and from 1800 to 2200 metres is Abies veitchii. Deeper in the forest there are many herbaceous flowering plants including Artemisia princeps, Cirsium nipponicum var. incomptum, Corydalis incisa, Erigeron annuus, Geranium nepalense, Kalimeris pinnatifida, Maianthemum dilatatum, Oplismenus undulatifolius and Reynoutria japonica. There are the myco-heterotrophic Monotropastrum humile, frequent liverworts, many mosses and many ferns; the forest edges have many more species. Aokigahara is sometimes referred to as the most popular site for suicide in Japan. In 2003, 105 bodies were found in the forest, exceeding the previous record of 78 in 2002. In 2010, the police recorded more than 200 people having attempted suicide in the forest, of whom 54 completed the act. Suicides are said to increase during the end of the fiscal year in Japan; as of 2011, the most common means of suicide in the forest were drug overdose.
In recent years, local officials have stopped publicizing the numbers in an attempt to decrease Aokigahara's association with suicide. The rate of suicide has led officials to place a sign at the forest's entry urging suicidal visitors to seek help and not take their own lives. Annual body searches have been conducted by police and journalists since 1970; the site's popularity has been attributed to Seichō Matsumoto's 1961 novel Nami no Tō. However, the history of suicide in Aokigahara predates the novel's publication, the place has long been associated with death. Aokigahara has been referred to in several media including anime and manga, video games and music, it was the subject of a BBC Radio 4 production in which four poets traveled to Aokigahara to write and record poetry in the forest. The poets authored a bilingual anthology of the poems and short writings on Aokigahara titled Sea of Trees: Poetic Gateways to Aokigahara. An American playwright of Japanese ancestry
Fuji is a city in eastern Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Fuji is the third largest city in terms of population in Shizuoka Prefecture, trailing Hamamatsu and Shizuoka; as of March 2018, the city had an estimated population of 246,190 and a population density of 1,005 persons per square kilometer. The total area was 244.95 square kilometers. Located on the banks of the Fuji River, most of the city of Fuji enjoys good views of Mount Fuji, part of whose summit is within the city borders; the city is bordered to the south by Suruga Bay on the Pacific Ocean. The area enjoys a warm maritime climate with mild, cool winters. Shizuoka Prefecture Shimizu-ku, Shizuoka Fujinomiya Numazu Susono Gotemba Nagaizumi In the Edo period, the Tōkaidō passed through the area, now Fuji, with a post station at Yoshiwara-juku. During the Edo period, the area was tenryō territory under direct control of the Tokugawa shogunate. During the cadastral reform of the early Meiji period in 1889, the area was reorganized into the town of Yoshiwara and the villages of Shimada Denbō, Motoyoshiwara, Yoshinaga, Harada, Ōbuchi, Tagoura and Takaoka within Fuji District.
Kajima became the town of Fuji on August 1, 1929. Neighboring Takaoka was elevated to town status on January 1, 1933. Shimada merged into Yoshiwara in 1940, Denbō in 1941, Imaizumi in 1942. Yoshiwara was elevated to city status on April 1, 1948, the city expanded through annexation of Motoyoshiwara, Sudo and Harada villages in 1955 and Ōbuchi in 1956. Tagoura and Iwamatsu merged with Fuji to form the city of Fuji on March 31, 1954; the city expanded through annexation of neighboring Ukijima and San area from Hara, Suntō District in 1956. On November 1, 1966, Fuji and Yoshiwara merged with Takaoka to form the new city of Fuji, which attained the status of a Special City on April 1, 2001 with greater autonomy from the central government. On November 1, 2008, the town of Fujikawa was merged with Fuji. Fuji is one of the major industrial centers of Shizuoka Prefecture, the city has hosted numerous paper factories including Nippon Paper Industries and Oji Paper Company since the Meiji period. Other industries include food processing and transportation equipment.
Automobile parts manufacturer. Agriculture in the area is concentrated on horticulture. Tokoha University - Fuji campus Fuji Rehabilitation Institute Fuji has 27 elementary schools, 16 public and one private middle schools and two public and one private high school. In addition, the city has one special education school and one international school, a Brazilian primary school JR Central - Tōkaidō Shinkansen Shin-Fuji JR Central - Tōkaidō Main Line Higashi-Tagonoura - Yoshiwara - Fuji - Fujikawa JR Central - Minobu Line Fuji Station - Yunoki - Tatebori - Iriyamase - Fujine Gakunan Railway Line Yoshiwara - Jatco-mae - Yoshiwara-honchō - Hon-Yoshiwara - Gakunan-Harada - Hina - Gakunan-Fujioka - Sudo - Kamiya - Gakunan-Enoo Tōmei Expressway Nishi-Fuji Road Japan National Route 1 Japan National Route 139 Japan National Route 469 Tagonoura Port The Bishamonten Festival is one of the three big Daruma festivals in Japan; the Yoshiwara Gion Festival is held on the second Sunday of June. The Fuji Festival is held on the fourth Saturday of July.
The Karigane Festival is held on the first Saturday of October. The Fuji Shibazakura Festival Yoji Totsuka - scientist Mitsuru Sugaya - manga artist Makoto Oishi - professional soccer player Yoshikatsu Kawaguchi - professional soccer player Takuro Kikuoka - professional soccer player Daigo Kobayashi - professional soccer player Shuji Kondo - professional wrestler Yukihiko Sato - professional soccer player Hiroyuki Shirai - professional soccer player Tatsuya Tsuruta - professional soccer player - Oceanside, United States. Official website Media related to Fuji, Shizuoka at Wikimedia Commons
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Ministry of the Environment (Japan)
The Ministry of the Environment is a Cabinet-level ministry of the government of Japan responsible for global environmental conservation, pollution control, nature conservation. The ministry was formed in 2001 from the sub-cabinet level Environmental Agency established in 1971; the Minister of the Environment is a member of the Cabinet of Japan and is chosen by the Prime Minister from among members of the Diet. In March 2006, the then-Minister of the Environment Yuriko Koike, created a furoshiki cloth to promote its use in the modern world. In August 2011, the Cabinet of Japan approved a plan to establish a new energy watchdog under the Environment Ministry, the Nuclear Regulation Authority was founded on September 19, 2012; the Ministry of the Environment began advocating the Cool Biz campaign in summer 2005 as a means to help reduce electric consumption by limiting use of air conditioning and allowing the wearing of less formal officewear. This idea was proposed by then-Minister of the Environment Yuriko Koike under Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi.
Following the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami in March 2011, the shut down of many nuclear power plants for safety reasons lead to energy shortages. To conserve energy, the government recommended setting air conditioners at 28 degrees Celsius, switching off computers not in use, called for shifting work hours to the morning and taking more summer vacation than usual; the government launched a Super Cool Biz campaign to encourage workers to wear outfits appropriate for the office yet cool enough to endure the summer heat. Polo shirts and trainers are allowed, while jeans and sandals are acceptable under certain circumstances. June 1 marked the start of the Environment Ministry's campaign, with full-page newspaper ads and photos of ministry workers smiling rather self-consciously at their desks wearing polo shirts and colorful Okinawa kariyushi shirts; the campaign was repeated in 2012 and 2013. Environmental issues in Japan Official website
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur
Shikine-jima is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea. The island is administered by Tōkyō and located 160 kilometres south of Tōkyō and 36 kilometres south of Shimoda Shizuoka Prefecture, it is one of the Izu Seven Islands group of the seven northern islands of the Izu archipelago. The island is the smaller inhabited component of the village of Niijima, which contains the larger, neighboring island of Niijima and the smaller, uninhabited Jinaitō, it is part of the Ōshima Subprefecture of Tokyo Metropolis. As of 2009, the island's population was 600. Shikinejima is within the boundaries of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. Shikine-jima has an irregular and indented coastline with many small bays; the interior of the island is of low elevation, rising to 99 m above sea level at Kanbiki and to 109 metres, near Suminoi, the highest elevation on the island. Shikinejima is 3 km long by 2.5 km wide. Signs of geothermal activity can be found along the southern coast; the legend that Niijima and Shikinejima were one island, were separated by a giant tsunami during the 1703 Genroku earthquake has no basis in geology.
The history of human settlement on Shikine-jima dates to prehistoric times, archaeologists have found number remains from the Jōmon period on the island. With plentiful water and seafood from the warm Kuroshio Current, there is a continuous record of habitation on the island from the Heian period through the Edo period. Convict boats on their way to or from Hachijō-jima spotted at Shikine-jima waiting for favorable winds. In the Meiji period, the island was base for commercial salt production. In the modern period, tourism based on sports fishing, hot spring resorts, water sports dominates the economy. Access to Shikine-jima is by ferry from Takeshiba Sanbashi Pier in Tokyo, operated by Tokai Kisen. Ferries leave from Shimoda Shizuoka Prefecture. A village operated ferry makes several daily crossings between Niijima and Shikinejima; the crossing is 10 minutes. The island has one elementary school, Shikinejima Elementary School and one junior high school, Shikinejima Junior High School. High school students either travel by ferry, daily, to Niijima to attend Niijima High School or attend a boarding school elsewhere.
List of islands of Japan Izu Islands Entry at Oceandots.com at the Wayback Machine Shikinejima homepage, in Japanese Secret Japan's description of Shikinejima ShikineJima experience Tokai Kisen Ferry, in Japanese Trip to ShikineJima Recreation in Shikinejima