Theropoda or theropods are a dinosaur suborder, characterized by hollow bones and three-toed limbs. They are classed as a group of saurischian dinosaurs, although a 2017 paper has instead placed them in the proposed clade Ornithoscelida as the closest relatives of the Ornithischia. Theropods were ancestrally carnivorous, although a number of theropod groups evolved to become herbivores, omnivores and insectivores. Theropods first appeared during the Carnian age of the late Triassic period 231.4 million years ago and included the sole large terrestrial carnivores from the Early Jurassic until at least the close of the Cretaceous, about 66 Ma. In the Jurassic, birds evolved from small specialized coelurosaurian theropods, are today represented by about 10,500 living species. Theropods exhibit a wide range of diets, from insectivores to carnivores. Strict carnivory has always been considered the ancestral diet for theropods as a group, a wider variety of diets was considered a characteristic exclusive to the avian theropods.
However, discoveries in the late 20th and early 21st centuries showed that a variety of diets existed in more basal lineages. All early finds of theropod fossils showed them to be carnivorous. Fossilized specimens of early theropods known to scientists in the 19th and early 20th centuries all possessed sharp teeth with serrated edges for cutting flesh, some specimens showed direct evidence of predatory behavior. For example, a Compsognathus longipes fossil was found with a lizard in its stomach, a Velociraptor mongoliensis specimen was found locked in combat with a Protoceratops andrewsi; the first confirmed non-carnivorous fossil theropods found were the therizinosaurs known as segnosaurs. First thought to be prosauropods, these enigmatic dinosaurs were proven to be specialized, herbivorous theropods. Therizinosaurs possessed large abdomens for processing plant food, small heads with beaks and leaf-shaped teeth. Further study of maniraptoran theropods and their relationships showed that therizinosaurs were not the only early members of this group to abandon carnivory.
Several other lineages of early maniraptors show adaptations for an omnivorous diet, including seed-eating and insect-eating. Oviraptorosaurs and advanced troodontids were omnivorous as well, some early theropods appear to have specialized in catching fish. Diet is deduced by the tooth morphology, tooth marks on bones of the prey, gut contents; some theropods, such as Baryonyx, Lourinhanosaurus and birds, are known to use gastroliths, or gizzard-stones. The majority of theropod teeth are blade-like, with serration on the edges, called ziphodont. Others are phyllodont depending on the shape of the tooth or denticles; the morphology of the teeth is distinct enough to tell the major families apart, which indicate different diet strategies. An investigation in July 2015 discovered that what appeared to be "cracks" in their teeth were folds that helped to prevent tooth breakage by strengthening individual serrations as they attacked their prey; the folds helped the teeth stay in place longer as theropods evolved into larger sizes and had more force in their bite.
Mesozoic theropods were very diverse in terms of skin texture and covering. Feathers or feather-like structures are attested in most lineages of theropods.. However, outside the coelurosaurs, feathers may have been confined to the young, smaller species, or limited parts of the animal. Many larger theropods had skin covered in bumpy scales. In some species, these osteoderms; this type of skin is best known in the ceratosaur Carnotaurus, preserved with extensive skin impressions. The coelurosaur lineages most distant from birds had feathers that were short and composed of simple branching filaments. Simple filaments are seen in therizinosaurs, which possessed large, stiffened "quill"-like feathers. More feathered theropods, such as dromaeosaurs retain scales only on the feet; some species may have mixed feathers elsewhere on the body as well. Scansoriopteryx preserved scales near the underside of the tail, Juravenator may have been predominantly scaly with some simple filaments interspersed. On the other hand, some theropods were covered with feathers, such as the troodontid Anchiornis, which had feathers on the feet and toes.
Tyrannosaurus was for many decades the largest known best-known to the general public. Since its discovery, however, a number of other giant carnivorous dinosaurs have been described, including Spinosaurus, Carcharodontosaurus, Giganotosaurus; the original Spinosaurus specimens support the idea that Spinosaurus is longer than Tyrannosaurus, showing that Spinosaurus was 3 meters longer than Tyrannosaurus though Tyrannosaurus could still be taller than Spinosaurus. There is still no clear explanation for why these animals grew so much larger than the land predators that came before and after them; the largest extant theropod is the common ostrich, up to 2.74 m tall and weighing between 63.5 and 145.15 kg. The smallest non-avialan theropod known from adult specimens is the troodontid Anchiornis huxleyi, at 110 grams in weight and 34 centimeters in length; when modern birds are included, the bee hummingbird Mellisuga helenae is sm
Katsuyama is a city located in Fukui Prefecture, Japan. As of 31 May 2018, the city has an estimated population of 23,527, with 7,973 households, a population density of 93 persons per km²; the total area of the city was 253.88 square kilometres. Katsuyama was the ninth-best ranking city in a ranking that compared health and sanitation in cities around the world published in April 2007. Katsuyama is located in the Katsuyama Basin of far northern Fukui Prefecture, bordered by Ishikawa Prefecture to the north, surrounded by mountains on all sides; the Kuzuryū River flows through part of the city. Parts of the city are within the borders of Hakusan National Park. Fukui Prefecture Sakai Fukui Ōno Eiheiji Ishikawa Prefecture Kaga Komatsu Hakusan Katsuyama has a Humid climate characterized by warm, wet summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall; the average annual temperature in Katsuyama is 13.5 °C. The average annual rainfall is 2431 mm with September as the wettest month; the temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 26.3 °C, lowest in January, at around 1.5 °C.
Per Japanese census data, the population of Katsuyama has been declining over the past 40 years. Katsuyama is part of ancient Echizen Province. During the Edo period, the area was divided between the holdings of Echizen-Katsuyama Domain, Fukui Domain, Ōno Domain, Gujō Domain. Following the Meiji restoration, it was organised into part of Ōno District in Fukui Prefecture. With the establishment of the modern municipalities system on April 1, 1889, the town of Katsuyama was established, it annexed the village of Inose on April 15, 1931, On September 1,1954, Katsuyama merged with the villages of Arado, Kitago, Shikadani, Heisen-ji and Nomuki to form the city of Katsuyama. Katsuyama has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 16 members; the economy of Katsuyama is agricultural. Katsuyama has nine public elementary schools and thee middle schools operated by the city government, one combined private elementary/middle school; the city has one public high school operated by the Fukui Prefectural Board of Education.
The prefecture operates one special education school. Echizen Railway Katsuyama Eiheiji Line Hota - Hossaka - Hishima - Katsuyama Hokuriku Expressway National Route 416 National Route 265 - Aspen, Colorado, USA, friendship city Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum Katsuyama Castle Heisenji Hakusan Jinja Unshō Ishizuka, voice actor Media related to Katsuyama, Fukui at Wikimedia Commons Katsuyama travel guide from Wikivoyage Katsuyama City official website Katsuyama City official website
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, snakes, lizards and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders combined with that of modern amphibians, is called herpetology; because some reptiles are more related to birds than they are to other reptiles, the traditional groups of "reptiles" listed above do not together constitute a monophyletic grouping or clade. For this reason, many modern scientists prefer to consider the birds part of Reptilia as well, thereby making Reptilia a monophyletic class, including all living Diapsids; the earliest known proto-reptiles originated around 312 million years ago during the Carboniferous period, having evolved from advanced reptiliomorph tetrapods that became adapted to life on dry land. Some early examples include Casineria. In addition to the living reptiles, there are many diverse groups that are now extinct, in some cases due to mass extinction events. In particular, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event wiped out the pterosaurs, plesiosaurs and sauropods, as well as many species of theropods, including troodontids, dromaeosaurids and abelisaurids, along with many Crocodyliformes, squamates.
Modern non-avian reptiles inhabit all the continents except Antarctica, although some birds are found on the periphery of Antarctica. Several living subgroups are recognized: Testudines, 350 species. Reptiles are tetrapod vertebrates, creatures that either have four limbs or, like snakes, are descended from four-limbed ancestors. Unlike amphibians, reptiles do not have an aquatic larval stage. Most reptiles are oviparous, although several species of squamates are viviparous, as were some extinct aquatic clades – the fetus develops within the mother, contained in a placenta rather than an eggshell; as amniotes, reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to reproduction on dry land. Many of the viviparous species feed their fetuses through various forms of placenta analogous to those of mammals, with some providing initial care for their hatchlings. Extant reptiles range in size from a tiny gecko, Sphaerodactylus ariasae, which can grow up to 17 mm to the saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, which can reach 6 m in length and weigh over 1,000 kg.
In the 13th century the category of reptile was recognized in Europe as consisting of a miscellany of egg-laying creatures, including "snakes, various fantastic monsters, assorted amphibians, worms", as recorded by Vincent of Beauvais in his Mirror of Nature. In the 18th century, the reptiles were, from the outset of classification, grouped with the amphibians. Linnaeus, working from species-poor Sweden, where the common adder and grass snake are found hunting in water, included all reptiles and amphibians in class "III – Amphibia" in his Systema Naturæ; the terms "reptile" and "amphibian" were interchangeable, "reptile" being preferred by the French. Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti was the first to formally use the term "Reptilia" for an expanded selection of reptiles and amphibians similar to that of Linnaeus. Today, the two groups are still treated under the same heading as herptiles, it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that it became clear that reptiles and amphibians are, in fact, quite different animals, Pierre André Latreille erected the class Batracia for the latter, dividing the tetrapods into the four familiar classes of reptiles, amphibians and mammals.
The British anatomist Thomas Henry Huxley made Latreille's definition popular and, together with Richard Owen, expanded Reptilia to include the various fossil "antediluvian monsters", including dinosaurs and the mammal-like Dicynodon he helped describe. This was not the only possible classification scheme: In the Hunterian lectures delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1863, Huxley grouped the vertebrates into mammals and ichthyoids, he subsequently proposed the names of Ichthyopsida for the latter two groups. In 1866, Haeckel demonstrated that vertebrates could be divided based on their reproductive strategies, that reptiles and mammals were united by the amniotic egg; the terms "Sauropsida" and "Theropsida" were used again in 1916 by E. S. Goodrich to distinguish between lizards and their relatives on the one hand and mammals and their extinct relatives on the other. Goodrich supported this division by the nature of the hearts and blood vessels in each group, other features, such as the structure of the forebrain.
According to Goodrich, both lineages evolved from an earlier stem group, Protosauria in which he included some animals today considered reptile-like amphibians, as well as early reptiles. In 1956, D. M. S. Watson observed that the first two groups diverged early in reptilian history, so he divided Goodrich's Protosauria between them, he reinterpreted Sauropsida and Theropsida to exclude birds and mammals, respectively. Thus his Sauropsida included Procolophonia, Millerosauria, Squamata, Rhynchocephalia
Gualicho is a genus of theropod dinosaur. The type species is Gualicho shinyae. Gualicho lived in what is now northern Patagonia, on what was a South American island continent split off from the supercontinent Gondwana; the fossils were found in the Huincul Formation, dating to the late Cenomanian-early Turonian age of the upper Cretaceous Period, around 93 million years ago. Like the well-known Tyrannosaurus, to which it has been compared, the 6–7 m Gualicho possesses reduced arms and two fingered hands; this finding indicates that carnosaurs may have been subject to the same evolution of limb-reduction as tyrannosaurids and abelisaurids, provided that Gualicho is a carnosaur in the first place. On 13 February 2007, Akiko Shinya, preparator of the Field Museum of Natural History, east of the Ezequiel Ramos Mexía Reservoir at the Rancho Violante, discovered the skeleton of a theropod new to science. In 2016, the specimen was named and described by Sebastián Apesteguía, Nathan D. Smith, Rubén Juárez Valieri and Peter J. Makovicky.
The generic name is derived from a demon of local folklore. The specific name honours Shinya as the animal's discoverer; the holotype, MPCN PV 0001, consists of a partial skeleton lacking the skull. It contains four vertebrae of the back, three vertebrae of the middle tail, ribs, a basket of belly-ribs, the left shoulder girdle, the left forelimb, the right lower arm, the lower ends of both pubic bones, the right thighbone, the lower end of the left thighbone, the upper ends of the right shinbone and calf bone, elements of both metatarsi and three toes of the right foot. Most bones were uncovered in their original anatomical position but much of the skeleton had been destroyed by erosion. Gualicho has been suggested to be synonymous with the megaraptoran Aoniraptor known from Huincul Formation and uncovered at the Violante site in view of similarities in their caudal vertebrae. However, Aoniraptor does not meet the requirements of ICZN Article 8.5.3, meaning it is an invalid nomen nudum. Phylogenetically, Gualicho presents two possibilities.
The cladogram below follows a 2016 analysis by Sebastián Apesteguía, Nathan D. Smith, Rubén Juarez Valieri, Peter J. Makovicky; the cladogram below follows the strict consensus of the twelve most parsimonious trees found by Porfiri et al.'s phylogenetic analysis. Although the results are different, the methodology analysis was identical to that of Apesteguia et al. only differing in the fact that it incorporated Tratayenia and Murusraptor, two megaraptorans not sampled in the analysis of Apesteguia et al. 2016 in paleontology
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago, to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 Mya. The name Carboniferous means "coal-bearing" and derives from the Latin words carbō and ferō, was coined by geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips in 1822. Based on a study of the British rock succession, it was the first of the modern'system' names to be employed, reflects the fact that many coal beds were formed globally during that time; the Carboniferous is treated in North America as two geological periods, the earlier Mississippian and the Pennsylvanian. Terrestrial animal life was well established by the Carboniferous period. Amphibians were the dominant land vertebrates, of which one branch would evolve into amniotes, the first terrestrial vertebrates. Arthropods were very common, many were much larger than those of today. Vast swaths of forest covered the land, which would be laid down and become the coal beds characteristic of the Carboniferous stratigraphy evident today.
The atmospheric content of oxygen reached its highest levels in geological history during the period, 35% compared with 21% today, allowing terrestrial invertebrates to evolve to great size. The half of the period experienced glaciations, low sea level, mountain building as the continents collided to form Pangaea. A minor marine and terrestrial extinction event, the Carboniferous rainforest collapse, occurred at the end of the period, caused by climate change. In the United States the Carboniferous is broken into Mississippian and Pennsylvanian subperiods; the Mississippian is about twice as long as the Pennsylvanian, but due to the large thickness of coal-bearing deposits with Pennsylvanian ages in Europe and North America, the two subperiods were long thought to have been more or less equal in duration. In Europe the Lower Carboniferous sub-system is known as the Dinantian, comprising the Tournaisian and Visean Series, dated at 362.5-332.9 Ma, the Upper Carboniferous sub-system is known as the Silesian, comprising the Namurian and Stephanian Series, dated at 332.9-298.9 Ma.
The Silesian is contemporaneous with the late Mississippian Serpukhovian plus the Pennsylvanian. In Britain the Dinantian is traditionally known as the Carboniferous Limestone, the Namurian as the Millstone Grit, the Westphalian as the Coal Measures and Pennant Sandstone; the International Commission on Stratigraphy faunal stages from youngest to oldest, together with some of their regional subdivisions, are: A global drop in sea level at the end of the Devonian reversed early in the Carboniferous. There was a drop in south polar temperatures; these conditions had little effect in the deep tropics, where lush swamps to become coal, flourished to within 30 degrees of the northernmost glaciers. Mid-Carboniferous, a drop in sea level precipitated a major marine extinction, one that hit crinoids and ammonites hard; this sea level drop and the associated unconformity in North America separate the Mississippian subperiod from the Pennsylvanian subperiod. This happened about 323 million years ago, at the onset of the Permo-Carboniferous Glaciation.
The Carboniferous was a time of active mountain-building as the supercontinent Pangaea came together. The southern continents remained tied together in the supercontinent Gondwana, which collided with North America–Europe along the present line of eastern North America; this continental collision resulted in the Hercynian orogeny in Europe, the Alleghenian orogeny in North America. In the same time frame, much of present eastern Eurasian plate welded itself to Europe along the line of the Ural Mountains. Most of the Mesozoic supercontinent of Pangea was now assembled, although North China, South China continents were still separated from Laurasia; the Late Carboniferous Pangaea was shaped like an "O." There were two major oceans in the Carboniferous—Panthalassa and Paleo-Tethys, inside the "O" in the Carboniferous Pangaea. Other minor oceans were shrinking and closed - Rheic Ocean, the small, shallow Ural Ocean and Proto-Tethys Ocean. Average global temperatures in the Early Carboniferous Period were high: 20 °C.
However, cooling during the Middle Carboniferous reduced average global temperatures to about 12 °C. Lack of growth rings of fossilized trees suggest a lack of seasons of a tropical climate. Glaciations in Gondwana, triggered by Gondwana's southward movement, continued into the Permian and because of the lack of clear markers and breaks, the deposits of this glacial period are referred to as Permo-Carboniferous in age; the cooling and drying of the climate led to the Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse during the late Carboniferous. Tropical rainforests fragmented and were devastated by climate change. Carboniferous rocks in Europe and eastern North America consist of a repeated sequence of limestone, sandstone and coal beds. In North America, the early Carboniferous is marine
Fukui Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region on Honshū island. The capital is the city of Fukui; the Kitadani Dinosaur Quarry, on the Sugiyama River within the city limits of Katsuyama, has yielded animals such As Fukuiraptor, Nipponosaurus, Fukuivenator and Tambatitanis as well as an unnamed dromaeosaurid. Fukui consisted of the old provinces of Wakasa and Echizen, before the prefecture was formed in 1871. During the Edo period, the daimyō of the region was surnamed Matsudaira, was a descendant of Tokugawa Ieyasu. During World War II, the city was bombed and its palace, surrounded by a moat, was demolished; the Fukui Prefectural government buildings were built on the site. Fukui faces the Sea of Japan, has a western part, a narrow plain between the mountains and the sea, a larger eastern part with wider plains including the capital and most of the population; the province lays within Japan's "Snow country". As of 31 March 2008, 15% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Hakusan National Park.
Nine cities are located in Fukui Prefecture: These are the towns in each district: Sabae is known for producing 90% of Japan's domestically-made glasses. There are several nuclear power plants located along Wakasa Bay in Tsuruga which supply power to the Keihanshin metropolitan region, it has the most of any prefecture. Fukui is one of the less populated prefectures of Japan; as seen in most of Japan, Fukui is facing the problem of decreasing population. Ichijōdani Asakura Family Historic Ruins is one of the most important cultural heritage sites in Japan. Eihei-ji is a serene temple offering education to Buddhist monks. Founded by Dogen Zenji in 1244, Eiheiji is located on a plot of land covering about 33 hectares. Myōtsū-ji's Three-storied Pagoda and Main Hall are National Treasures of Japan. Fukui is home to the oldest standing castle in Japan, it was built in 1576. Many dinosaur fossils have been excavated in Fukui and they can be seen at the Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum. Residents of Fukui Prefecture have Fukui-ben.
Fukui has long been a center for papermaking in Japan. Its Echizen Papermaking Cooperative is a world-famous collection of papermakers making paper in the traditional Echizen style. Fukui is renowned for its clean water and crops, which result in delicious sake and soba noodles. In August 2010 Fukui launched its own dating website entitled Fukui Marriage-Hunting Café in hopes of helping the declining population growth of Japan increase. Couples who meet in the site and continue on to marry receive monetary aid from the government as well as gifts. Vihti, Finland Fukui University Fukui University of Technology Fukui Prefectural University Jin-ai University JR West Hokuriku Line Obama Line Kuzuryu Line Echizen Railway Katsuyama-Eiheiji Line Mikuni-Awara Line Fukui Railway Fukubu Line Hokuriku Expressway Maizuru-Wakasa Expressway Chubu Jukan Expressway Mikata Lake Rainbow Road Mount Hoonji Toll Road Route 8 Route 27 Route 157 Route 158 Route 161 Route 162 Route 303 Route 305 Route 364 Route 365 Route 367 Route 416 Route 417 Route 418 Route 476 Tsuruga Port - Ferry route to Niigata, Tomakomai and International container hub Fukui Port Ichijōdani Asakura Family Historic Ruins Eihei-ji Temple Tōjinbō, a scenic piece of coastline, a notorious spot for suicide.
Echizen crabs are a local delicacy available year-round, though the crabbing season is during the winter. Another traditional sea-side Fukui dish is genge, a small guppy-like fish that when eaten raw as sashimi, gives the body a brief tingling sensation. Awara is a famous onsen in the north of the prefecture. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.