Fulda is a city in Hesse, Germany. In 1990, the town hosted the 30th Hessentag state festival. In 744 Saint Sturm, a disciple of Saint Boniface, founded the Benedictine monastery of Fulda as one of Boniface's outposts in the reorganization of the church in Germany, it served as a base from which missionaries could accompany Charlemagne's armies in their political and military campaigns to conquer and convert pagan Saxony. The initial grant for the abbey was signed by Carloman, Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia, the son of Charles Martel; the support of the Mayors of the Palace, of the early Pippinid and Carolingian rulers, was important to Boniface's success. Fulda received support from many of the leading families of the Carolingian world. Sturm, whose tenure as abbot lasted from 747 until 779, was most related to the Agilolfing dukes of Bavaria. Fulda received large and constant donations from the Etichonids, a leading family in Alsace, from the Conradines, predecessors of the Salian Holy Roman Emperors.

Under Sturm, the donations Fulda received from these and other important families helped in the establishment of daughter-houses near Fulda. After his martyrdom by the Frisians, the relics of Saint Boniface were brought back to Fulda; because of the stature this afforded the monastery, the donations increased, Fulda could establish daughter-houses further away, for example in Hamelin. Meanwhile, Saint Lullus, successor of Boniface as archbishop of Mainz, tried to absorb the abbey into his archbishopric, but failed; this was one reason that he founded Hersfeld Abbey — to limit the attempts of the enlargement of Fulda. Between 790 and 819 the community rebuilt the main monastery church to more fittingly house the relics, they based their new basilica on the original 4th-century Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, using the transept and crypt plan of that great pilgrimage church to frame their own saint as the "Apostle to the Germans"; the crypt of the original abbey church still holds those relics, but the church itself has been subsumed into a Baroque renovation.

A small, 9th-century chapel remains standing within walking distance of the church, as do the foundations of a women's abbey. Rabanus Maurus served as abbot at Fulda from 822 to 842. Prince-abbot Balthasar von Dernbach adopted a policy of counterreformation. In 1571 he called in the Jesuits to found a college, he insisted. Whereas his predecessors had tolerated Protestantism, resulting in most of the citizenry of Fulda and a large portion of the principality's countryside professing Lutheranism, Balthasar ordered his subjects either to return to the Catholic faith or leave his territories; the foundation of the abbey of Fulda and its territory originated with an Imperial grant, the sovereign principality therefore was subject only to the German emperor. Fulda became a bishopric in 1752 and the prince-abbots were given the additional title of prince-bishop; the prince-abbots ruled Fulda and the surrounding region until the bishopric was forcibly dissolved by Napoleon I in 1802. The city went through a baroque building campaign in the 18th century, resulting in the current “Baroque City” status.

This included a remodeling of the Stadtschloss by Johann Dientzenhofer. The city parish church, St. Blasius, was built between 1771–85. In 1764 a porcelain factory was started in Fulda under Prince-Bishop, Prince-Abbot Heinrich von Bibra, but shortly after his death it was closed down in 1789 by his successor, Prince-Bishop, Prince-Abbot Adalbert von Harstall; the city was given to Prince William Frederick of Orange-Nassau in 1803, was annexed to the Grand Duchy of Berg in 1806, in 1809 to the Principality of Frankfurt. After the Congress of Vienna of 1814–15, most of the territory went to the Electorate of Hesse, which Prussia annexed in 1866. Fulda lends its name to the Fulda Gap, a traditional east-west invasion route used by Napoleon I and others. During the Cold War, it was presumed to be an invasion route for any conventional war between NATO and Soviet forces. Downs Barracks in Fulda was the headquarters of the American 14th Armored Cavalry Regiment replaced by the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment.

The cavalry had as many as 3,000 soldiers from the end of World War II until 1993. Not all of those soldiers were in Fulda proper, but scattered over observation posts and in the cities of Bad Kissingen and Bad Hersfeld; the strategic importance of this region, along the border between East and West Germany, led to a large United States and Soviet military presence. Department I Cuno Raabe:1946–1956 Alfred Dregger: 1956–1970 Dr. Wolfgang Hamberger: 1970–1998 Dr. Alois Rhiel: 1998–2003 Gerhard Möller: 2003–2015 Heiko Wingenfeld: 2015–Department II Karl Ehser: 1934 - 1945 Karl Schmitt: 1946 - 1948 Heinrich Gellings: 1948 - 1969 Dr. Wolfgang Hamberger: 1969 - 1970 Dr. Tilman Pünder: 1971 - 1980 Lutz von Pufendorf: 1981 - 1984 Dr. Alois Rhiel: 1984 - 1989 Josef H. Mayer: 1990 - 1995 Oda Scheibelhuber: 1995 - 1999 Bernd Woide: 1999 - 2003 Dr. Wolfgang Dippel: 2004 - 2014 Dag Wehner: 2014 -Source: Fulda station is a transport hub and interchange point between

White-winged parakeet

The white-winged parakeet called the canary-winged parakeet, is a small parrot native to the Amazon River basin from southeast Colombia to the River's mouth in Brazil. Caged birds have been released and the birds have established self-sustaining populations in Lima, the Los Angeles, San Francisco and Miami, Florida areas of the United States, in Puerto Rico. Although feral birds are showing some recent declines as nesters in the United States, they seem to be doing well in their native habitat; the white-winged parakeet is 22 cm in length, is green in color. It has a trailing yellow edge on its folded wings, its most distinguished characteristic is the white wing patches most noticed when the bird is in flight. It is related to the yellow-chevroned parakeet, the two have been considered conspecific. In captivity, these are charming birds that have a close relationship with their human handlers, they enjoy spending time in physical contact with their owners riding around on shoulders or nesting in hair.

They can have loud calls when not within sight of their "flock", but are quiet otherwise. They enjoy a myriad of challenges, they are a adaptable species of bird and are less picky than others about their available food options. They are adept whistlers; the white-winged parakeet feeds on fruit and seeds in its native habitat, feral populations have adapted to take in blossoms and nectar. Feral birds will come to bird feeders. Wild birds use disturbed forest and forest clearings around settlements, it uses deep tropical forest. In captivity, a pelleted or seed diet are acceptable, supplemented with fresh fruits and vegetables and freshly sprouted seeds; the white-winged parakeet finds a hole in a tree to nest in. It may take over termite tunnels and excavate them for their own purposes. Clutches consist of three to five white eggs, which hatch after about 26 days of incubation. Young fledge between six and seven weeks of age, are weaned at around nine weeks. After raising its young, all birds will form rather large communal roosts until the next breeding season.

"National Geographic" Field Guide to the Birds of North America ISBN 0-7922-6877-6 Handbook of the Birds of the World Vol 4, Josep del Hoyo editor, ISBN 84-87334-22-9 "National Audubon Society" The Sibley Guide to Birds, by David Allen Sibley, ISBN 0-679-45122-6 History of Canary-winged Parakeets in the United States B. versicolurus-"White-winged Parakeet" photo gallery VIREO Photo-High Res.


Ranebennuru is the city Municipal Council and is a town in Haveri district in Karnataka, India. It is situated 300 kilometres northwest of the capital of Karnataka. Other nearby cities include Bengaluru. Ranebennuru is at the geographical center of Karnataka. 14.62°N 75.62°E / 14.62. It has an average elevation of 605 metres. One of Karnataka's most important rivers – the Tungabhadra – flows along the southern border of Ranebennur taluk. Another river, the Kumadvathi, which originates from Madagh Masur Lake flows from Hirekerur taluk, enters Ranebennur taluk, joins the Tungabhadra river; the nearest airport is at 108 km from Ranebennur. From there one can reach Mumbai by flight; the nearest international airport is 300 km away, in Bengaluru. Ranebennur is connected with most of the metros like Mumbai and Chennai through regular trains. Being situated on National Highway NH4, the city enjoys good bus services, it is 5 hour drive from Bengaluru. Most buses travelling between North Karnataka and South Karnataka pass through Ranebennur.

As of 2011 India census, Ranebennur has a population of 106,365. Males constitute 50.7% of the population and females 49.3%. Ranebennur has a literacy rate of 60.98%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. Male literacy is 60.16% and female literacy is 61.8%. In Ranebennur, 10.8% of the population is under 6 years of age. The bulk of the population is engaged in related activities. Cotton and jowar are well suited to the semi-arid climate. Coconut, maize, betel leaves, tomatoes are the other crops grown here. Much of the agricultural output is dependent on the southwest monsoon and hence gets challenging at times; the Upper Tunga project, if completed, will be a boon for the farmers in this region. Sericulture is growing in popularity among the farmers. Mulberry plants are grown and silkworm larvae are fed cut-up mulberry leaves; this is hence well suited to this region. Ranebennur is home to a rich commodity market. Commodities like cotton yarn, cotton seed, oil seeds, red chilli, betel nut, betel leaf are traded.

Ranebennur has a seed multiplication industry. Several seed companies are operating in the city. Ranebennur is known for its wholesale cloth market and all type of wholesale business. Sarees is a vast market at Ranebennur. Sha Sukhraj Mithalal Sarees and M/S Manohar Textiles on MG road is one of the biggest and oldest merchant of sarees and has a vast collection. Just when the village started expanding this store was established around the late twentieth century. Neheru Market is one of the oldest market place, here we can see lot of groceries,wholesale,stationary shops. Gondkar Radio & ENGG Co,located at M. G Road is one of the oldest consumer electronics & home appliances Ranebennur city Government website