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Full Metal Jacket

Full Metal Jacket is a 1987 war film directed, co-written, produced by Stanley Kubrick and starring Matthew Modine, R. Lee Ermey, Vincent D'Onofrio and Adam Baldwin; the screenplay by Kubrick, Michael Herr, Gustav Hasford was based on Hasford's novel The Short-Timers. The storyline follows a platoon of U. S. Marines through their boot camp training in Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island, South Carolina focusing on two privates and Pyle, who struggle under their abusive drill instructor, Gunnery Sergeant Hartman, the experiences of two of the platoon's Marines in Vietnamese cities of Da Nang and Huế during the Tet Offensive of the Vietnam War; the film's title refers to the full metal jacket bullet used by military servicemen. The film was released in the United States on June 26, 1987. Full Metal Jacket received critical acclaim and an Oscar nomination for Best Adapted Screenplay for Kubrick and Hasford. In 2001, the American Film Institute placed it at No. 95 in their "AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills" poll.

During the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War, a group of boot camp recruits arrive at Parris Island. The ruthless drill instructor, employs forceful methods to turn the recruits into combat-ready Marines. Among the recruits is the overweight and dim-witted Leonard Lawrence, whom Hartman nicknames "Gomer Pyle", as well as the wisecracking J. T. Davis, who receives the name "Joker" after interrupting Hartman's speech with an impression of John Wayne. Private Pyle is inept at basic training and is the focus of Hartman's brutality, but he improves after being paired with Joker. However, when Hartman discovers a contraband jelly doughnut in Pyle's unlocked foot locker, he adopts a collective punishment policy: he will punish the entire platoon for every mistake Pyle makes. One night, the recruits haze Pyle with a blanket party. Following this, Pyle seems to reinvent himself as a model recruit, showing particular expertise in marksmanship, though with frightening stress marked by facial expressions, rather than confidence.

This impresses Hartman but worries Joker, who notices Pyle talking to his rifle and believes he may be suffering a mental breakdown. The recruits receive their Military Occupational Specialty assignments. Joker is assigned to Military Journalism, while most of the others – including Pyle – are assigned to Infantry. During the platoon's final night on Parris Island, Joker discovers Pyle in the head loading his rifle and executing drill commands, loudly recites the Rifleman's Creed; the other recruits wake up, including Hartman, who storms in, insults Pyle, orders him to surrender the rifle. Pyle instead shoots Hartman dead and kills himself with a shot in the mouth, while Joker helplessly watches in horror. In January 1968, Joker – now a sergeant – is a war correspondent in Da Nang, South Vietnam for Stars and Stripes with Private First Class Rafterman, a combat photographer. Rafterman wants to go into combat. At the Marine base, Joker is mocked for his lack of the thousand-yard stare, indicating his lack of war experience.

They are interrupted by the start of the Tet Offensive as the North Vietnamese Army unsuccessfully attempts to overrun the base. The following day, the journalism staff is briefed about enemy attacks throughout South Vietnam. Joker is sent to Phu Bai, accompanied by Rafterman, they meet the Lusthog Squad, where Joker is reunited with Cowboy, with whom he had gone through basic training. Joker accompanies the squad during the Battle of Huế, where platoon commander "Touchdown" is killed by the enemy. After the Marines declare the area secure, a team of American news journalists and reporters enters Huế to interview various Marines about their experiences in Vietnam and their opinions about the war. While patrolling Huế, Crazy Earl, the squad leader, is killed by a booby trap, leaving Cowboy in command; the squad becomes lost, Cowboy orders Eightball to scout the area. A Viet Cong sniper wounds Eightball and Doc Jay, the squad Corpsman. Believing that the sniper is drawing the squad into an ambush, Cowboy attempts to radio in tank support to no avail.

The squad's machine gunner, Animal Mother, disobeys Cowboy's orders to retreat and attempts to save his comrades. He discovers there is only one sniper, but Doc Jay and Eightball are killed when Doc Jay attempts to indicate the sniper's location. While radioing for support, Cowboy is killed through the gap of a building. Animal Mother leads an attack on the sniper. Joker discovers the sniper, a teenage girl, attempts to shoot her, but his rifle jams and alerts her to his presence. Rafterman shoots the sniper, mortally wounding her; as the squad converges, the sniper first prays and begs for death, prompting an argument about whether to kill her or leave her to suffer. Animal Mother decides to allow a mercy killing. After some hesitation, Joker shoots her; the Marines congratulate him on his kill as Joker stares into the distance. The Marines march toward their camp, singing the "Mickey Mouse March". Joker states in narration that despite being "in a world of shit", he is glad to be alive and is no longer afraid.

Matthew Modine as Private/Sergeant J. T. "Joker" Davis, a wise-cracking young recruit. Modine kept a diary on set, adapted into a book in 2005 and an interactive app in 2013. Vincent D'Onofrio as Private Leonard "Gomer Pyle" Lawrence, an overweight and slow-minded recruit, the subject of Hartman's mockery. D'Onofrio heard of the auditions for the film from Modine. Using a rented video camera and dressed in army fatigues, D'Onofrio recorded his audition. Despite Kubrick's saying that Pyle was "the hardest par


Microdrive is a registered trademark for miniature, 1-inch hard disks produced by IBM and Hitachi. These rotational media storage devices were designed to fit in CompactFlash Type II slots; the release of similar drives by other makers led to them being referred to as "microdrives" too. By 2015, Microdrives were viewed as obsolete, having been overtaken by solid-state flash media in read/write performance, storage capacity and price. Prior to the 1-inch Microdrive, a 1.3-inch HDD was developed and launched in 1992 by HP with a capacity of 20 MB. These units weighed about 28 g, with dimensions of 2.0" × 1.44" × 0.414" and were the physically smallest hard drives in the world before the Microdrive. In 1999, IBM launched the first generation 1-inch Microdrive with storage capacities of 170 MB and 340 MB; the physical dimensions of Microdrive were 1.65" × 1.42" × 0.197" and conformed to CompactFlash Type II card standard. A second generation of Microdrive was announced by IBM in 2000 with increased capacities at 512 MB and 1 GB.

Following the merger of IBM and Hitachi HDD business units, Hitachi Global Storage Technologies continued the development and marketing of the Microdrive. In 2003, 2 GB and 4 GB models were announced by Hitachi, followed by 6 GB capacity model in 2005. In 2004, Seagate launched 2.5 and 5 GB hard disk drives in the same small physical form-factor as IBM Microdrive, referred to them as either 1-inch hard drives or CompactFlash hard drives due to the trademark issue. These drives were commonly known as the Seagate ST1. In 2005 Seagate launched an 8 GB model. Seagate sold a standalone consumer product based on these drives with a product known as the Pocket Hard Drive; these devices came in the shape of a hockey puck with an integrated USB 2.0 cable. In 2003-07-16, a Chinese manufacturer called GS Magicstor, Inc. announced it had produced 1-inch hard disk drive with capacity of 2.4GB at the beginning of the year 2003 marketed as an alternative to Microdrive by Hitachi Global Storage Technologies.

It was to be followed by 2.2 and 4.8GB 1-inch HDD, unveiled in 2004 International CES, with 0.8-inch HDD. In 2004-12-28, Hitachi Global Storage Technologies announced it had filed lawsuit against GS Magicstor, Inc. GS Magic, Inc. and Riospring, Inc. for infringement of multiple Hitachi GST's patents relating to hard disk drives, after GS Magic Inc. had started promoting mini-HDD. As of July 2012, there are no known manufacturers of 1-inch form-factor harddisk drives. Hitachi had stopped production of its trademarked Microdrive product. Date of release of large sizes; until 2006, Microdrives had higher capacity than CompactFlash cards. Microdrives allow more write cycles, making them suitable for use as swapspace in embedded applications. Microdrives might be better at handling power loss in the middle of writing. Flash storage always needs to move some old data around while writing, to ensure the flash's finite write life is consumed equally. Data on rotational disks is modified in place, hard drive algorithms at the time were much more advanced than those of flash storage.

As of 2006, Microdrive's capacity advantages were exceeded by CompactFlash cards, USB flash drives. As of 5 July 2015, 512 GB CF cards are available, offering 42 times the storage space of the largest Microdrive. Being mechanical devices they are more sensitive to physical shock and temperature changes than flash memory, though in practice they are robust and manufacturers have added several features to the more recent models to improve reliability. For example, a microdrive will not survive a 4-foot drop onto a hard surface whereas CF cards can survive much higher falls. Microdrives are not as fast as the high-end CompactFlash cards; this may cause problems for photographers. They require some time to spin up when they have been idle, they are not designed to operate at high altitudes, but can be safely used on most commercial aircraft as cabins are pressurized. Only high capacity models are manufactured, as it is not profitable to make low-capacity Microdrives. At the end of 2005 only capacities above 2 GB are manufactured while 256 MB and 512 MB CompactFlash cards were still in production.

Lower capacities are still available second hand on eBay but these are the same price as CF cards of the same size. Unlike flash storage, Microdrives require power when no data is being transferred to or read from them, just to keep the disk spinning in order to maintain quick access; as a result, many devices such as the iPod mini leave the drive switched off for most of the time while periodically starting it up to fetch data from it to fill the device's buffer. Microdrives will switch off after idling for more than a few seconds to counter this problem; this effect would be problematic if an operating system is being run from the drive. Since they are thicker than flash-based CF cards, Microdrives require a Type II slot. Many newer compact cameras only have a Type I slot due to the increasing popularity of flash-based cards, so Microdrives have limited popularity outside of the professional photography market. Certain bus-powered CF card

Barbary lion

The Barbary lion was a Panthera leo leo population in North Africa, regionally extinct today. This population occurred in Barbary Coastal regions of Maghreb from the Atlas Mountains to Egypt and was eradicated following the spreading of firearms and bounties for shooting lions. A comprehensive review of hunting and sighting records revealed that small groups of lions may have survived in Algeria until the early 1960s, in Morocco until the mid-1960s; until 2017, the Barbary lion was considered a distinct lion subspecies. Results of morphological and genetic analyses of lion samples from North Africa showed that the Barbary lion does not differ from lion samples collected in West and northern parts of Central Africa, it falls into the same phylogeographic group as the Asiatic lion. The Barbary lion was called "North African lion", "Berber lion", "Atlas lion", "Egyptian lion". Barbary lion zoological specimens range in colour from light to dark tawny. Male lion skins have light manes, dark manes or long manes.

Head-to-tail length of stuffed males in zoological collections varies from 2.35 to 2.8 m, of females around 2.5 m. Skull size varied from 30.85 to 37.23 cm. Some manes extended under the belly to the elbows; the mane hair was 8 to 22 cm long. In 19th century hunter accounts, the Barbary lion was claimed to be the largest lion, with a weight of wild males ranging from 270 to 300 kg. Yet, the accuracy of such data measured in the field is questionable. Captive Barbary lions were much smaller but kept under so poor conditions that they might not have attained their full potential size and weight; the colour and size of lions' manes was long thought to be a sufficiently distinct morphological characteristic to accord a subspecific status to lion populations. Mane development varies with age and between individuals from different regions, is therefore not a sufficient characteristic for subspecific identification; the size of manes is not regarded as evidence for Barbary lions' ancestry. Instead, results of mitochondrial DNA research support the genetic distinctness of Barbary lions in a unique haplotype found in museum specimens, thought to be of Barbary lion descent.

The presence of this haplotype is considered a reliable molecular marker to identify captive Barbary lions. Barbary lions may have developed long-haired manes, because of lower temperatures in the Atlas Mountains than in other African regions in winter. Results of a long-term study on lions in Serengeti National Park indicate that ambient temperature and the level of testosterone influence the colour and size of lion manes. Felis leo was the scientific name proposed by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 for a lion type specimen from Constantine, Algeria. Following Linnaeus's description, several lion zoological specimens from North Africa were described and proposed as subspecies in the 19th century: Felis leo barbaricus described by the Austrian zoologist Johann Nepomuk Meyer in 1826 was a lion skin from the Barbary Coast. Felis leo nubicus described by Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville in 1843 was a male lion from Nubia, sent by Antoine Clot from Cairo to Paris and died in the Ménagerie du Jardin des Plantes in 1841.

In the 20th century, there has been much debate and controversy among zoologists on lion classification and validity of proposed subspecies: In 1939, Glover Morrill Allen considered F. l. barbaricus and nubicus synonymous with F. l. leo. Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the lion to the genus Panthera, when he wrote about the Asiatic lion. In 1951, John Ellerman and Terence Morrison-Scott recognized only two lion subspecies in the Palearctic realm, namely the African lion Panthera leo leo and the Asiatic lion P. l. persica. Some authors considered. In 2005, P. l. barbarica and somaliensis were subsumed under P. l. leo. In 2016, IUCN Red List assessors used P. l. leo for all lion populations in Africa. In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the Cat Specialist Group subsumed the lion populations in North and Central Africa and Asia to P. l. leo. Results of a phylogeographic analysis using samples from African and Asiatic lions was published in 2006. One of the African samples was a vertebra from the National Museum of Natural History that originated in the Nubian part of Sudan.

In terms of mitochondrial DNA, it grouped with lion skull samples from the Central African Republic and the northern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. While the historical Barbary lion was morphologically distinct, its genetic uniqueness remained questionable. In a comprehensive study about the evolution of lions, 357 samples of wild and captive lions from Africa and India were examined. Results showed that four captive lions from Morocco did not exhibit any unique genetic characteristic, but shared mitochondrial haplotypes with lion samples from West and Central Africa, they were all part of a major mtDNA grouping that included Asiatic lion samples. Results provided evidence for the hypothesis that this group developed in East Africa, about 118,000 years ago traveled north and west in the first wave of lion expansion, it broke up within Africa, in West Asia. African lions constitute a single population that interbred during several waves of migration since the Late Pleistocene. Historical accounts indicate that in Egypt lions occurred in the Sinai Peninsula, along the Nile, in the Eastern and Western Deserts, in the region of Wadi El Natrun and along the maritime coast of the Mediterranean.

In the 14th century BC, Thutmose IV hunted lions in the hills near Memphis. The growth of civilizations along the

Korean dragon

Korean dragons are legendary creatures in Korean mythology and folklore. The appearance of the dragon reflects its relation to its East Asian counterparts, including the Chinese dragons. Whereas most dragons in European mythology are linked to the elements of fire and destruction, dragons in Korean mythology are benevolent beings related to water and agriculture considered bringers of rain and clouds. Hence, many Korean dragons are said to have resided in rivers, oceans, or deep mountain ponds; the symbol of the dragon has been used extensively in Korean culture, both in Korean mythology and ancient Korean art. Ancient texts sometimes mention sentient speaking dragons, capable of understanding complex emotions such as devotion and gratitude. One particular Korean legend speaks of the great King Munmu, who on his deathbed wished to become a "Dragon of the East Sea in order to protect Korea"; the Korean dragon is in many ways similar in appearance to other East Asian dragons such as the Chinese and Japanese dragons.

It differs from the Chinese dragon. A dragon may be depicted as carrying an orb known as the yeouiju, the Korean name for the mythical Cintamani, in its claws or its mouth, it was said that whoever could wield the yeouiju was blessed with the abilities of omnipotence and creation at will, that only four-toed dragons were both wise and powerful enough to wield these orbs, as opposed to the lesser, three-toed dragons. As with China, the number nine is significant and auspicious in Korea, dragons were said to have 81 scales on their backs, representing yang essence. Korean folk mythology states that most dragons were Imugis, or lesser dragons, which were said to resemble gigantic serpents. There are a few different versions of Korean folklore that describe both what imugis are and how they aspire to become full-fledged dragons. Koreans thought that an Imugi could become a true dragon, or yong or mireu, if it caught a Yeouiju which had fallen from heaven. Another explanation states they are hornless creatures resembling dragons who have been cursed and thus were unable to become dragons.

By other accounts, an Imugi is a proto-dragon which must survive one thousand years in order to become a fledged dragon. In either case they are said to be large, python-like creatures that live in water or caves, their sighting is associated with good luck. In the 2007 South Korean film D-War, two Imugi, of which one was benevolent and the other evil, were seen competing for possession of a source of power by which one of them could become a dragon; the evil Imugi is destroyed by his rival moments after the latter had captured the source. Here, the two are shown to be physically different, in that the evil Imugi is darker-colored, more slender and distinguished by an inflexible hood similar to that of a cobra, whereas the good Imugi is paler, stockier and more resembles a python. Narration in the film implies that many Imugi exist at a time, whereof few are designated to become a dragon; the Korean cockatrice is known as a gye-lyong, which means chicken-dragon. They are sometimes seen as chariot-pulling beasts for important legendary figures or for the parents of legendary heroes.

One such legend involves the founding of the Kingdom of Silla, whose princess was said to have been born from a cockatrice egg. It is the origin of the name for the city of Gyeryong in South Chungcheong province. Chinese dragon Druk, the Thunder Dragon of Bhutanese mythology Japanese dragon Nāga, a Hindu and Buddhist creature in South Asian and Southeast Asian mythology. Bakunawa, a moon-eating sea dragon depicted in Philippine mythology Vietnamese dragon Bates, Chinese Dragons, Oxford University Press, 2002. Bates, All About Chinese Dragons, China History Press, 2007.'Korean Water and Mountain Spirits', in: Ingersoll, Ernest, et al.. The Illustrated Book of Dragons and Dragon Lore. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN B00D959PJ0 Podcast: The Meaning of Dragons in Korean Folklore from The Korea Society

Listener (band)

Listener is an American spoken word rock band from Fayetteville, Arkansas. A hip hop project by Dan Smith, who used the moniker "Listener", it soon evolved into a full-fledged rock band; the current lineup consists of Smith as vocalist and bassist together with guitarist Jon Terrey and drummer Kris Rochelle. Listener started as a solo underground hip hop project of vocalist Dan Smith beginning with the commercial release of the album Whispermoon on Mush Records in 2003, he has contributed to several collaborative albums with the groups Deepspace5 and Labklik, both of which he is a founding member of. With his second release Ozark Empire in 2005, Smith began his first "Tour of Homes"; this consisted entirely of traveling from home to home around the United States in a grassroots style of touring. The European leg consisted more of performing in standard live music venues as well as houses, coffee shops, art galleries and warehouses, it was during this period that Smith invited drummer Andrew Gibbens and guitarist Erik Olsen to join him on tour, thus starting the transition away from traditional hip-hop performances toward a live band format.

Gibbens and Olsen remained until they departed the band in December 2006. Regardless of using the name Listener for his solo work, Smith decided to continue using the name as the project developed into a live band, it was during the Tour of Homes in 2005 that Smith met musician Christin Nelson at a house show in Las Vegas, Nevada. After finding out that Nelson played drums, Smith asked him to join the group in June 2007 and the band released the album Return to Struggleville. After a year and a half of touring, Listener released their third studio album, Wooden Heart, in July 2010; that year after being introduced to the band The Chariot, Smith was asked to collaborate on the song "David De La Hoz" on the album Long Live. Current membersDan Smith - vocals, mellophone, cornet Kris Rochelle - drums Jon Terrey - guitar Tim Stickrod - guitarFormer membersChristin Nelson - guitar Andrew Gibbens - drums Caleb Clendenen - guitar Erik Olsen - guitar Kristen Smith - bass Wolfgang Robinson - drums Whispermoon Ozark Empire Talk Music Not Waving, Drowning Return to Struggleville Wooden Heart Time Is a Machine Being Empty: Being Filled Listener and Dust – Just in Time for Christmas Train Songs Being Empty: Being Filled - Volume 1 Live on 3FM "Train Song" "Ozark Empire" "Wooden Heart" "Falling in Love with Glaciers" "Building Better Bridges" "Falling in Love with Glaciers" "It Will All Happen the Way It Should" "Eyes to the Ground for Change" "There's Money In The Walls" Official website Listener discography at Discogs

Franciscan Friary, Copenhagen

The Franciscan Friary, Copenhagen was the most important Franciscan friary in Denmark. The friary of the Franciscans in Copenhagen was founded in 1238 by Countess Ingerd of Revenstein, she was one of Denmark's wealthiest women of a member of the powerful Hvide family. She was the daughter of Jacob Sunesen, the sister of Bishop Peder Sunesen of Roskilde, she had become acquainted with the Franciscans, a new order, while she lived in Germany with her husband. She founded several Franciscan houses in Denmark, including the one in Copenhagen, to whom she gave the farm which stood at the time outside the town; the friary was run by the Guardian and several brothers with specific responsibilities for the hospital, guest house, so forth. Over time the friary acquired several properties scattered through Copenhagen which provided a good income through rents. Though it was forbidden for the friars to receive money, the rule was bent enough to make life a little easier for them, who were nicknamed the "beggar monks" because they could be seen on the streets asking for gifts of food.

The friary received remuneration for praying for the souls of the departed. The friary consisted at its height of a church, a refectory, a great hall, used on many occasions for important state meetings and meetings of the provincial which governed Franciscan monasteries in Denmark. Within the enclosing walls could be found a guesthouse, a hospital for the sick and poor, quarters for lay brothers, a large garden, a brewery, an apple orchard, they maintained a house for a brother at Dragør. The Franciscan church was renowned for its many relics, including those of Saint Olav, Saint Erik, Saint Canute, Saint Eskil, Abbot Vilhelm, Saint Bridget, Saint Willehad, many others. In the 1520s many people in Copenhagen flocked to hear the preaching of the new Lutheran doctrines. Many Danes felt that the tithes and additional requests to fund religious houses were excessive and an early target of the anti-Catholic party were the "beggar monks". Led by the mayor of Copenhagen, the town fathers made it illegal for monks or friars to go out into the street to beg for food or alms.

Because it was done lawfully, the guardian and vice-guardian of the friary had no redress and therefore wrote a letter dated 25 April 1530 conveying the friary and its contents and properties away from the Franciscan order, with an explanation of the reasons for abandoning it: "... Since we are required for the sake of many weighty reasons, the ordinary people in Copenhagen will not permit us here... and we are locked inside and may not go into the street to ask for God's alms." The brothers abandoned the friary thereafter. Eight of the brothers who had learned a craft removed their habits and settled down in Copenhagen with the help of the magistrate and citizens. Several months passed before the crown administrators decided that the church, conventual buildings and burial ground would be turned over to the University of Copenhagen for income. New streets were laid out through the former apple orchard. Rent from the houses owned by the friary were used to support the hospital. Frederik I issued a royal decree on 6 August 1532 which changed all of that: the monastery and income-producing houses were now all given over to fund the work of the hospital for the benefit of the poor and sick.

The church tower was a visible part of the city skyline as late as 1596. The huge cellars of the friary became the town jail and the church itself was converted to a prison. In 1621 Christian IV added an orphanage and recommissioned the church as a house of worship, though it was called the "Prison Church"; the friary buildings were destroyed in the fires of 1728 and 1807. Others were pulled down to make room for private businesses. Parts of the thick outside walls and conventual buildings were incorporated into new structures near Grayfriars Market Square in Copenhagen, but there is today little evidence of the hundreds of years of occupancy by the Franciscans at Grayfriars. Nielsen, Oluf, nd: Kjøbenhavns Historie