The Anglo-Saxons are a people who have inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their settlement and up until the Norman conquest. The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including government of shires. During this period, Christianity was re-established and there was a flowering of literature and law were established. The term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language that was spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England, in scholarly use, it is more commonly called Old English. The history of the Anglo-Saxons is the history of a cultural identity and it developed from divergent groups in association with the peoples adoption of Christianity, and was integral to the establishment of various kingdoms. Threatened by extended Danish invasions and occupation of eastern England, this identity was re-established, the visible Anglo-Saxon culture can be seen in the material culture of buildings, dress styles, illuminated texts and grave goods.
Behind the symbolic nature of these emblems, there are strong elements of tribal. The elite declared themselves as kings who developed burhs, and identified their roles and peoples in Biblical terms, above all, as Helena Hamerow has observed and extended kin groups remained. the essential unit of production throughout the Anglo-Saxon period. Use of the term Anglo-Saxon assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the meaning in all the sources. Assigning ethnic labels such as Anglo-Saxon is fraught with difficulties and this term began to be used only in the 8th century to distinguish the Germanic groups in Britain from those on the continent. The Old English ethnonym Angul-Seaxan comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Anglorum, Anglo-Saxon is a term that was rarely used by Anglo-Saxons themselves, it is not an autonym. It is likely they identified as ængli, Seaxe or, more probably, the use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age or the conquest of 1016, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest.
The earliest historical references using this term are from outside Britain, referring to piratical Germanic raiders, Saxones who attacked the shores of Britain, procopius states that Britain was settled by three races, the Angiloi and Britons. The term Angli Saxones seems to have first been used in writing of the 8th century. The name therefore seemed to mean English Saxons, the Christian church seems to have used the word Angli, for example in the story of Pope Gregory I and his remark, Non Angli sed angeli. The terms ænglisc and Angelcynn were used by West Saxon King Alfred to refer to the people, at other times he uses the term rex Anglorum, which presumably meant both Anglo-Saxons and Danes. Alfred the Great used Anglosaxonum Rex, the term Engla cyningc is used by Æthelred
By the time of the Conquest the move to the Romanesque style is nearly complete. Anglo-Saxon art survives mostly in illuminated manuscripts, Anglo-Saxon architecture, a number of very fine ivory carvings, Anglo-Saxon taste favoured brightness and colour, and an effort of the imagination is often needed to see the excavated and worn remains that survive as they once were. Perhaps the best known piece of Anglo-Saxon art is the Bayeux Tapestry which was commissioned by a Norman patron from English artists working in the traditional Anglo-Saxon style and these two styles mixed and developed together and by the following century the resulting Anglo-Saxon style had reached maturity. The final phase of Anglo-Saxon art is known as the Winchester School or style, though it was produced in many centres in the south of England, elements of this begin to be seen from around 900, but the first major manuscripts only appear around the 930s. The following lines revert to a style more typical of Frankish manuscripts of the period.
It is, in the chronology, the last English manuscript in which developed trumpet spiral patterns are found. The Anglo-Saxon metalwork produced in the Salzburg area of modern Austria has a counterpart in the Cutbercht Gospels in Vienna. By the 10th century Insular elements were relegated to decorative embellishments in England, the first plant ornament, with leaves and grapes, was already seen in an initial in the Leningrad Bede, which can probably be dated to 746. The other large initial in the manuscript is the first historiated initial in the whole of Europe, for some long time scrolls, especially in metal, bone or ivory, are prone to have an animal head at one end and a plant element at the other. Several ambitious projects of illumination are unfinished, such as the Old English Hexateuch, the illustrations give Old Testament scenes an entirely contemporary setting and are valuable images of Anglo-Saxon life. Æthelstan promoted Dunstan, an illuminator, eventually to Archbishop of Canterbury, and Æthelwold.
Illumination in a new style appears in a manuscript of the biographies by Bede of St Cuthbert given by Æthelstan to the monastery in Chester-le-Street about 937. There is a portrait of the king presenting his book to the saint. This is the first real portrait of an English king, and heavily influenced by Carolingian style, however the initials in the text combine Carolingian elements with animal forms in inventive fashion. Anglo-Saxon culture was coming into increasing contact with, and exchanging influences with, decoration included cloisonné, in gold and garnet for high-status pieces. It was probably his work which brought into contact with the royal family. Even the imprecise details given, mostly by Goscelin, are valuable evidence of what Anglo-Saxon metalwork was like. One 11th century lay goldsmith was even a thegn, like Spearhafoc, Mannigs biography, with some precise details, is given in the chronicle maintained by his abbey
The Ashmolean Museum on Beaumont Street, England, is the worlds first university museum. Its first building was erected in 1678–1683 to house the cabinet of curiosities that Elias Ashmole gave to the University of Oxford in 1677, the museum reopened in 2009 after a major redevelopment. In November 2011, new galleries focusing on Egypt and Nubia were unveiled, in May 2016, the museum opened new galleries of 19th century Art. The museum opened on 24 May 1683, with naturalist Robert Plot as the first keeper, the first building, which became known as the Old Ashmolean, is sometimes attributed to Sir Christopher Wren or Thomas Wood. After the various specimens had been moved into new museums, the Old Ashmolean building on Broad Street was used as space for the Oxford English Dictionary. The present building dates from 1841–45 and it was designed by Charles Cockerell in a classical style and stands on Beaumont Street. One wing of the building is occupied by the Taylor Institution and this wing of the building dates from 1845–48 and was designed by Charles Cockerell, using the Ionic order of Greek architecture.
The main museum contains collections of archaeological specimens and fine art. It has one of the best collections of Pre-Raphaelite paintings, majolica pottery, the archaeology department includes the bequest of Arthur Evans and so has an excellent collection of Greek and Minoan pottery. The department has a collection of antiquities from Ancient Egypt and the Sudan. Charles Buller Heberden left £1,000 to the University, which was used for the Coin Room at the museum, in 2012, the Ashmolean was awarded a grant of $1. 1m by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to establish the University Engagement Programme or UEP. The programme employs three Teaching Curators and a Programme Director to develop the use of the Museums collections in the teaching, the interior of the Ashmolean has been extensively modernised in recent years and now includes a restaurant and large gift shop. In 2000, the Chinese Picture Gallery, designed by van Heyningen and Haward Architects, the gallery was inserted into a lightwell in the Grade 1 listed building, and was designed to support future construction from its roof.
Apart from the original Cockerell spaces, this gallery was the part of the museum retained in the rebuilding. It houses the Ashmolean’s own collection, but is used from time to time for the display of loan exhibitions. It is the museum gallery in Britain devoted to Chinese paintings. Between 2006 and 2009, the museum was expanded to the designs of architect Rick Mather, the $98.2 million rebuilding resulted in five floors instead of three, with a doubling of the display space, as well as new conservation studios and an education centre. The renovated museum re-opened on 7 November 2009, on 26 November 2011, the Ashmolean opened to the public the new galleries of Ancient Egypt and Nubia
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Rupert Leo Scott Bruce-Mitford was a British archaeologist best known for his multi-volume publication on the Sutton Hoo ship burial. This he did through four decades at the British Museum and he became President of the Society of Antiquaries of London. Apart from military service in World War II he worked at the British Museum continuously until 1977, globs book The Bog People into English. In the 1950s, Bruce-Mitford was invited to join the panel of the television show Animal. He was married three times and had three children by his first wife, Kathleen Dent, the Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial, A Provisional Guide. London, Trustees of the British Museum, aspects of Anglo-Saxon Archaeology, Sutton Hoo and Other Discoveries. The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial, Volume 1, Background, the Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial, Volume 2, Arms and Regalia. The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial, Reflections after thirty years, university of York Medieval Monograph Series. The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial, Volume 3, Late Roman and Byzantine silver, hanging-bowls, drinking vessels and other containers, the lyre, pottery bottle and other items.
The Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial, Volume 3, Late Roman and Byzantine silver, hanging-bowls, drinking vessels and other containers, the Corpus of Late Celtic Hanging-Bowls with An Account of the Bowls Found in Scandinavia. Mawgan Porth, A settlement of the late Saxon period on the north Cornish coast, the Bog People, Iron Age man preserved. The Archaeology of the Site of the Bodleian Extension in Broad Street, skinner, F. G. & Bruce-Mitford, Rupert. A Celtic Balance-beam of the Christian Period, the Excavations at Seacourt, Berks,1939, an interim report. Bruce-Mitford, Rupert & Jope, E. M. Eleventh and Twelfth Century Pottery from the Oxford Region, myres, J. N. L. Hawkes, C. F. C. Bruce-Mitford, Hill, J. W. F. & Radford, the Archaeology of Lincolnshire and Lincoln and Anglo-Danish Lincolnshire. Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, the Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial, Recent theories and some comments on general interpretations. Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain.
The Problem of the Sutton Hoo Cenotaph, the Sutton Hoo Ship-Burial, A New Chapter in Anglo-Swedish Relations
The Strickland Brooch is an Anglo-Saxon silver and niello brooch dated to the mid 9th century, now held by the British Museum. Although its exact provenance is unknown, it is regarded by scholars as a rare, the Strickland Brooch is similar in appearance to the Fuller Brooch, held by the British Museum. Both brooches are circular in shape, made from silver and inlaid with niello. The Strickland Brooch is decorated with highly complex patterns that are deeply carved within the quatrefoil. In the case of the Strickland Brooch, the design includes a series of Trewhiddle style dogs interspersed between canine-like heads, for a long time, the brooch belonged to the Strickland family of Yorkshire. Sold by Mrd W. H. Strickland at a Sothebys auction in 1949 to an American buyer, bruce-Mitford, Late Saxon disc-brooches in Dark-Age Britain, pp. 171–201 D. M. Wilson, Anglo-Saxon Art L. Webster, Anglo-Saxon art, A new history S. Marzinzik, Early Medieval Art
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired in the Middle Ages.
In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period.
Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date.
English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
Silver is a metallic element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. The symbol Ag stems from Latin argentum, derived from the Greek ὰργὀς, a soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earths crust in the pure, free form, as an alloy with gold and other metals. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, lead, Silver is more abundant than gold, but it is much less abundant as a native metal. Its purity is measured on a per mille basis, a 94%-pure alloy is described as 0.940 fine. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had a role in most human cultures. Silver has long valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many premodern monetary systems in bullion coins, Silver is used in numerous applications other than currency, such as solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, and as an investment medium. Silver is used industrially in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, Silver compounds are used in photographic film and X-rays.
Dilute silver nitrate solutions and other compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings, catheters. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with an electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell. Silver is a soft and malleable transition metal. Silver crystallizes in a cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak and this observation explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of silver. Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a polish. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm, at wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silvers reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm.
The electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater even than copper, during World War II in the US,13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium, mainly because of the wartime shortage of copper
Olfaction, known as olfactics, is the sense of smell. This sense is mediated by specialized cells, called olfactory receptors. In humans, olfaction – the detection of smells – occurs when odorant molecules bind to sites on these receptors. These receptors come together at the glomerulus, a structure that transmits signals to the olfactory bulb, many vertebrates, including most mammals and reptiles, have two distinct olfactory systems—the main olfactory system, and the accessory olfactory system. For air-breathing animals, the olfactory system detects volatile chemicals. Olfaction, along with taste, is a form of chemoreception, the chemicals that activate the olfactory system, generally at very low concentrations, are called odorants. Although taste and smell are separate sensory systems in land animals, volatile small molecule odorants, non-volatile proteins, and non-volatile hydrocarbons may all produce olfactory sensations. Some animal species are able to smell carbon dioxide in minute concentrations, in vertebrates, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium.
The olfactory epithelium is made up of at least six morphologically and biochemically different cell types, the proportion of olfactory epithelium compared to respiratory epithelium gives an indication of the animals olfactory sensitivity. Humans have about 10 cm2 of olfactory epithelium, whereas some dogs have 170 cm2, a dogs olfactory epithelium is considerably more densely innervated, with a hundred times more receptors per square centimeter. This may occur by diffusion or by the binding of the odorant to odorant-binding proteins, the mucus overlying the epithelium contains mucopolysaccharides, salts and antibodies. This mucus acts as a solvent for odor molecules, flows constantly, in insects, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the chemosensory sensilla, which are present in insect antenna and tarsa, but on other parts of the insect body. Odorants penetrate into the pores of chemosensory sensilla and get in contact with insect odorant-binding proteins or Chemosensory proteins.
The binding of the ligand to the leads to an action potential in the receptor neuron, via a second messenger pathway. In mammals, the odorants stimulate adenylate cyclase to synthesize cAMP via a G protein called Golf, CAMP, which is the second messenger here, opens a cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel, producing an influx of cations into the cell, slightly depolarising it. The Ca2+ in turn opens a Ca2+-activated chloride channel, leading to efflux of Cl−, further depolarizing the cell, Ca2+ is extruded through a sodium-calcium exchanger. A calcium-calmodulin complex acts to inhibit the binding of cAMP to the cAMP-dependent channel and this mechanism of transduction is somewhat unusual, in that cAMP works by directly binding to the ion channel rather than through activation of protein kinase A. There are similarities in the immediate processing of stimuli by lateral inhibition
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding