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Fundy National Park

Fundy National Park is a national park of Canada located on the Bay of Fundy, near the village of Alma, New Brunswick. It was opened on 29 July 1950; the Park showcases a rugged coastline which rises up to the Canadian Highlands, the highest tides in the world and more than 25 waterfalls. The Park covers an area of 207 km2 along the northwestern branch of the Bay of Fundy; when one looks across the Bay, one can see the northern Nova Scotia coast. At low tide, park visitors can explore the ocean floor where a variety of sea creatures cling to life. At high tide, the ocean floor disappears under 15 m of salt water. There are 25 hiking trails throughout the park; the Caribou Plains trail and boardwalk provides access to upland bog habitats. Dickson Falls is the most popular trail in the park. Park amenities include a golf course, a heated saltwater swimming pool, three campgrounds, a network of over 100 km of hiking and biking trails. During the winter, Fundy National Park is available for day use, at one's own risk.

Visitors use the park to go cross-country skiing, snowshoeing and winter walking. The cross-country ski trails are groomed by the local Chignecto Ski Club. A variety of scientific projects are ongoing in the Park, with the primary focus on monitoring the park's ecology. Recent projects have focused on re-establishing aquatic connectivity in the park (Bennett Lake Dam, new Culverts, Dickson Brook restoration. Species such as the endangered Inner Bay of Fundy Salmon and Fishers, brook trout and moose are monitored regularly; the Dobson Trail and Fundy Footpath extend out of the park to Riverview and to St. Martins respectively. A unique red-painted covered bridge is located at Point Wolfe. Other rivers that flow through the park include the: Broad River Point Wolfe River Upper Salmon River According to the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the park is located in the Level III- Eastern Temperate Forests ecoregion. According to the Ecological Framework of Canada, the park is situated in two distinct ecoregions.

The southern section of the park falls in the Fundy Coast ecoregion. This region experiences mild, rainy winters, its coniferous forest consists of red spruce, balsam fir, red maple with some white spruce, white and yellow birch. Some sugar maple and beech trees are found here at higher elevations; the northern section of the park falls in the Southern New Brunswick Uplands ecoregion. This ecoregion experiences summers that are warm and rainy, winters that are mild and snowy, its mixed-wood forest contains sugar and red maple and red spruce and balsam fir trees. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature the park is located in the New England-Acadian forest ecoregion; the park is home to 658 species of vascular plants, 276 species of bryophytes, more than 400 species of lichens. The Fundy forest is a mixed-wood forest composed of red spruce, balsam fir, yellow birch, white birch, sugar maple, red maple; the mixed-wood forest floor is blanketed with moss, wood fern, bunchberry. Pure hardwood stands account for 5.4% of the Fundy forest cover.

The most abundant pure hardwood stands are white birch. There are some sugar maple, red maple, beech stands. Carolina springbeauty and trout-lily bloom in the hardwood forest every year; the coniferous forest in the park represents the boreal element of Fundy’s forest cover. Although pure stands of conifer are rare in the park, the Fundy forest has some of the last pure stands of red spruce found in eastern North America; the bogs of the park are blanketed with sphagnum moss from which grow black spruce and Eastern larch. Within the park’s Caribou Plain bog, three carnivorous plant species are found: pitcher plant and bladderwort; some rare plant species are found in the park. Bird’s-eye primrose is found along the Point Wolfe and Goose River coastal cliffs, several other rare flora species, namely slender spikemoss, green spleenwort, rare sedges, fir clubmoss, are found along the eastern branch of the Point Wolfe River and the lower part of Bennett Brook. Animals that inhabit this national park are moose, snowshoe hares, cormorants, red squirrels, pileated woodpeckers, little brown bats, peregrine falcons, black bears, beavers, white-tailed deer, white-winged crossbills, various mice and shrews, sandpipers, warblers, great blue herons, northern flying squirrels.

Located in Alma, New Brunswick, Fundy National Park is operated by Parks Canada an agency of the Government of Canada, managed by Environment Canada. For the 2013-2014 fiscal year, Parks Canada plans to spend $693.7 million to manage its 44 national parks, 964 places of national historic significance, 4 national marine conservation areas. Of these national historic sites, 167 are directly administered by Parks Canada; the park received 240,481 visitors during the 2012-2013 year. It is the most visited Parks Canada site in New Brunswick. Data from previous years reveal that 40% of people who c

Interstitial art

Interstitial art is any work of art whose basic nature falls between, rather than within, the familiar boundaries of accepted genres or media, thus making the work difficult to categorize or describe within a single artistic discipline. The word interstitial means "between spaces", is used to denote "in-betweenness" in several different cultural contexts. Architects refer to the leftover gaps between building walls as "interstitial space", being neither inside any room nor outside the building. Medical doctors have used the term for hundreds of years to refer to a space within the human body that lies in between blood vessels and organs, or in between individual cells. Television station programmers refer to any short piece of content, neither a show nor a commercial, but is sandwiched between them, as "an interstitial". Take fiction as an example: If a librarian isn't sure where to shelve a book, that may be because the material is interstitial in some way, not fitting comfortably into a single, conventional literary category.

For instance, when novelist Laurell K. Hamilton first began writing and publishing romances featuring vampires and fairies, bookstores faced a dilemma: How do you file these stories when you're working in a system that labels one shelf for romances, a second shelf for fantasies, a third shelf for tales of horror? There's no single, obvious answer, because such a novel is interstitial fiction, its essence residing somewhere in between the boundaries of these genres. Or consider the performance artist Laurie Anderson: She might go onstage and sing, tell a spoken-word story, project shadow puppets on a screen, play a hacked violin whose bow is strung with audio tape. Is she a singer, a monologist, a puppeteer, or some kind of tinkering instrumentalist? Classifying such an act as interstitial performance art would be imprecise but efficient and accurate. In the mid-1990s, Delia Sherman, Ellen Kushner, Terri Windling, Heinz Insu Fenkl, Midori Snyder, Kelly Link, Gavin Grant, Gregory Frost, Theodora Goss, Veronica Schanoes, Carolyn Dunn, Colson Whitehead, other American writers interested in fantastic literature found themselves commiserating over the common perception that the genre-oriented publishing industry found it difficult to market innovative fiction involving unusual, fantastical, or cross-genre elements—because the mainstream literary fiction field demanded stories based in realism, while the fantasy field demanded stories that followed the standard conventions of sword and sorcery or high fantasy.

Yet it seemed to the authors that some of the best literature was that which didn't quite fit tidily into either category but instead was being discussed in terms of more amorphous, "in-between" descriptors such as "magic realism", "mythic fiction", or "the New Weird". Further, the idea of interstitiality applied to other kinds of "in-between" fiction and other "in-between" arts. Over a period of several years and Sherman prompted ongoing discussion about the importance of cultivating artistic "in-betweenness" led to the formulation of the broad concept of interstitial art. In 2002, literary scholar Heinz Insu Fenkl founded ISIS: The Interstitial Studies Institute at the State University of New York at New Paltz, in 2003–04, Sherman & Kushner and some of their colleagues established the Interstitial Arts Foundation, a 501c nonprofit organization dedicated to developing community and support for artists, arts-industry professionals and audiences whose creative pursuits are interstitial in nature.

In 2007, the Interstitial Arts Foundation published an anthology of interstitial fiction through Small Beer Press titled Interfictions. It features 19 stories from new and established writers in the US, Canada and the UK, fiction translated from Spanish and French; the anthology strives to "change your mind about what stories can and should do as they explore the imaginative space between conventional genres". The anthology raised several questions and started many debates on the nature of interstitiality as applied to fiction. Reviewers raised the question of how important the definition, or lack thereof, was to understanding the anthology as a whole and the stories individually. "The 19 stories contained within Interfictions serve as examples but not as points of an argument that could lead to a listing in a Funk and Wagnalls."Though many of the stories are written by science fiction and horror writers and contain fantastic or supernatural elements, Interfictions is not a genre anthology.

"...interstitial fiction mixes and matches these precepts—ghost stories, science fiction, nursery rhymes, detective story, whatever may be handy—as part of a variegated prism to focus on the psychology of existence while bending its collectively recognized state....each'interfiction' shares this sense of disjointed narrative, but in different ways that do not lend themselves to easy genre categorization." Heinz Insu Fenkl, Introduction Karen Jordan Allen, "Alternate Anxieties" Christopher Barzak, "What We Know About the Lost Families of ---- House" K. Tempest Bradford, "Black Feather" Matthew Cheney, "A Map of the Everywhere" Michael DeLuca, "The Utter Proximity of God" Adrián Ferrero, "When It Rains, You'd Better Get Out of Ulga" Colin Greenland, "Timothy" Csilla Kleinheincz, "A Drop of Raspberry" ) Holly Phillips, "Queen of the Butterfly Kingdom" Rachel Pollack, "Burning Beard: The Dreams and Visions of Joseph Ben Jacob, Lord Viceroy of Egypt" Joy Remy, "Pallas at Noon" Anna Tambour, "The Shoe in SHOES' Window" Veronica Schanoes, "Rats" Léa Silhol, "Emblemata" Jon Singer, "Willow Pattern" Vandana Singh, "Hung

Cyril Flower, 1st Baron Battersea

Cyril Flower, 1st Baron Battersea was a British Liberal politician and patron of art. Flower was the eldest of five sons of Philip William Flower, of Furze Down, Streatham and his wife Mary, daughter of Jonathan Flower, he was born at Tooting in the 18th century Hill House and lived in Streatham, both of which were rural environs at the time. He was educated at Harrow and Trinity College and was called to the Bar, Inner Temple, in 1870; as well as exceptional good looks, it was said he possessed a genius for friendship, an'irresistible charm' that made everyone'want to pet him'. His father had earlier established a successful merchant house in Australia. In 1838, Philip William Flower, brother sailed to Australia in order to establish themselves as merchants in Sydney. In 1842 the partnership of Flower, Salting & Co was formed, shipping wool and gold to London. In 1842/3, Philip returned to London, the other end of the firm’s shipping routes, leaving his brother to oversee operations in Sydney.

Upon his return to London, formed the firm of P. W. Flower and Co. and his property included other London wharves. From 1867, with other partners, Philip began developing part of the newly laid out Victoria Street in Westminster, St Philips Square was named by Philip Flower as was St Philip’s Church in its centre, consecrated in July 1870. Like his father, Flower became involved in property development, took on the development of Battersea's Park Town after the death of his father in 1872. Park Town was the lozenge-shaped estate running either side of Queens Road, which extended from Battersea Park Road to Wandsworth Road, he developed the mansion blocks lining the south side Prince of Wales Drive, London. In 1888 Flower and his wife acquired two cottages at Overstrand for the purposes of creating a holiday home. In 1897 their architect, Edwin Lutyens and joined them to form a large mansion in extensive gardens, The Pleasaunce. Aided by his wife's fortune, in 1880 Flower entered Parliament for Brecon, a seat he held until 1885 when the constituency was abolished, represented Luton until 1892.

He served as a Junior Lord of the Treasury from February to July 1886 in the third Liberal administration of William Ewart Gladstone. He was referred to as "the most handsome man in the House of Commons", was a great favourite of Gladstone who, in 1892, raised him to the peerage as Baron Battersea of Battersea in the County of London and of Overstrand in the County of Norfolk, he took. In 1893 Battersea was offered the governorship of New South Wales; however he sacrificially turned it down due the separation it would have imposed on Lady Battersea from her mother, who enjoyed his company. He was president of the National Education Association as late as 1902, when the association was involved in debating the Education Bill. Apart from his property development and political career he was a great collector and patron of art, he was involved with the Pre-Raphaelite set. His bedroom in his London residence was of the few interiors completed by Carlo Bugatti. In 1877 Battersea married Constance, daughter of Sir Anthony de Rothschild, whom he met in 1864 through his friendship with her cousin, Leopold de Rothschild.

The marriage was childless. Battersea favoured men: a close friend and possible lover was the psychical researcher Frederic W. H. Myers. Other friends included Sir Edward Burne-Jones. There are indications that Lady Battersea disapproved of some of his friends, in her memoirs she cautiously comments that she had intuitively felt that "some of the ardent and sudden likings he took to certain persons might lead to misplaced friendship". Battersea maintained a broad range of other interests, as a politician, art collector and photographer, had a love for decoration and had a love for bright colour, both in his houses and on his person. At Overstrand he was described as appearing "a gorgeous vision of pale blue, sea-green, or rose-coloured silk". Wrote another: "He is a handsome man, but at times affects costumes which would make him more at home in the pages of Ouida than in scenes of ordinary life." In 1902 Battersea was involved in a homosexual scandal. Lord and Lady Battersea were noted for their philanthropy towards the working class, following her husband's enforced retirement, Lady Battersea devoted most of her time and vast wealth to improving the living conditions of female prisoners.

Battersea died from pneumonia in November 1907, aged 64. One obituarist was drawn to reflect: "Lord Battersea has for the last few years lived so beyond the ken of society that the demise of this once so popular and gifted man has attracted no attention, beyond a quiet expression that his death was a happy release for the kindly and philanthropic woman who had taken his name and given him her fortune." However, Lady Battersea's memoirs make plain her admiration for her husband, her enjoyment of his career, their mutual interests. Lady Battersea died in November 1931. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Leigh Rayment's Historical List of Darryl. "FAQ". The Peerage. Stibbons and Cleveland, David Cleveland. Strands of Norfolk History, Poppyland Publishing. Metcalf, Priscilla. "The Park Town Estate and the Battersea Triangle", London Topographical Society Publication. The Rothschild Archive – Melaine