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A funicular is a type of a grade-separated fixed guideway transit system powered by a cable traction designed for steep inclines. This system is using two counterbalanced track-guided passenger cars or small trains permanently attached to the opposite ends of a single cable —, looped over a pulley at the upper end of the track. A funicular's two cars move in concert: as one ascends, the other descends an arrangement that distinguishes a funicular from other cable-guided transportation systems — e.g. a single car inclined elevator. The term funicular derives from the Latin word funiculus, the diminutive of funis, meaning "rope". In a funicular both cars are permanently connected to the opposite ends of the same cable, known as a haul rope. At the engine room at upper end of the track the haul rope runs through a system of pulleys. Sheave wheels guide the cable along the track to and from the cars; the rope pulls one car upwards while the other car descends the slope as the other end of the rope is paid out from the engine mechanics.

This arrangement counterbalances the two cars and thereby reduces the energy needed to lift the ascending car. In a modern funicular the propulsion is provided by an electric motor, linked via a speed-reducing gearbox to a large pulley – a drive bullwheel; the bullwheel in its turn transfers its torque to the haul rope by friction. The bullwheel has two grooves: after the first half turn around it the cable returns back via an auxiliary pulley. High friction liners are used in modern installations to enhance the friction between the bullwheel and the cable. For emergency and service purposes two sets brakes are used at the engine room: the emergency brake grips directly the bullwheel, the service brake is mounted at the high speed shaft of the gear. In a case of emergency the cars are equipped by spring applied hydraulically opened rail brakes. Early funiculars used two parallel straight tracks, four rails, with separate station platforms for each vehicle; the tracks are laid with sufficient space between them for the two cars to pass at the midpoint.

Three-rail arrangement was used to overcome the half-way passing problem. Examples of this type of track layout are the Duquesne Incline in Pittsburgh and most cliff railways in the UK. In layouts using three rails, the middle rail is shared by both cars, like in the early version of the Petřín funicular in Prague; the three-rail layout is wider than the two-rail layout, but the passing section is simpler to build. If a rack for braking is used, that rack can be mounted higher in a three-rail layout, making it less sensitive to choking in snowy conditions; some four-rail funiculars have the upper and lower sections interlaced and a single platform at each station. The Hill Train at Legoland, Windsor, is an example of this configuration; the track layout can be changed during the renovation of a funicular, four-rail layouts have been rebuilt as two- or three-rail layouts. The Swiss engineer Carl Roman Abt invented the method that allows cars to be used with a two-rail configuration; the cars, in this case, have their wheelsets of a rather unconventional design: the outboard wheel has flanges on both sides whereas the inboard wheel is unflanged.

One car has its dual-flanged wheels on the left side, so it follows the leftmost rail. The other car – on the right side, it follows the rightmost rail. Given that the left car always goes through the passing loop at its left branch and the right car at its right branch; the car's unflanged wheels are wider than their opposites which allows them to roll over the turnouts from one rail to another and above the cables. This system does not have moving parts for crossings. Hereat in comparison with the other options it is proven to be quite cost-effective, it was first implemented by Abt in 1886 at the Lugano Città–Stazione funicular. Since when the two rail system with the Abt turnout have grown quite popular so to become a standard for modern funiculars. A few funiculars have been built using water tanks under the floor of each car that are filled or emptied until just sufficient imbalance is achieved to allow movement; the car at the top of the hill is loaded with water until it is heavier than the car at the bottom, causing it to descend the hill and pulling up the other car.

The water is drained at the bottom, the process repeats with the cars exchanging roles. The movement is controlled by a brakeman using the break handle of the rack and pinion system engaged with the rack mounted between the rails; the Bom Jesus funicular built in 1882 near Braga, Portugal is one of the extant systems of this type. Another example, the funicular Neuveville - St-Pierre in Fribourg, of a particular interest as for counterbalancing it utilizes waste water, coming from a sewage plant at the upper part of the city; some of funiculars of this type were converted on to electrical power. For example, the Giessbachbahn in the Swiss canton of Berne, opened in 1879 was powered by water ballast. In 1912 its energy provision was replaced by a hydraulic engine powered by a Pelton turbine. In 1948, it was replaced by an electric motor; the cars can be attached to a second cable running through a pulley at the bottom of the incline in case the gravity force acting on the vehicles is too low to operate them on the slope.

One of the pulleys must be designed as a tensioning wheel to avoid slack in the ropes. In this case, the winching can be done at the lower end of the incline; this practice is used for funiculars with slopes below 6%, funiculars using sledges instead of cars, or an

Marcus Marius Gratidianus

Marcus Marius Gratidianus was a Roman praetor, a partisan of the political faction known as the populares, led by his uncle, Gaius Marius, during the civil war between the followers of Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla. As praetor, Gratidianus is known for his policy of currency reform during the economic crisis of the 80s. Although this period of Roman history is marked by the extreme violence and cruelty practiced by partisans on each side, Gratidianus suffered a vicious death during the Sullan proscriptions. See also: Gratidia and Maria. Born Marcus Gratidius, Gratidianus was the son of Marcus Gratidius of Arpinum and Maria, the sister of Gaius Marius. After his father's death, he was adopted by his uncle, Marcus Marius, whose name he assumed according to Roman custom, becoming Marcus Marius Gratidianus. Gratidianus' aunt married grandfather of the celebrated orator. Gratidianus was a close friend of the young Cicero, he may have had a pungent relationship with his brother-in-law. Gratidius, his natural father, was a close friend of Marcus Antonius the orator and consul of 99 BC.

He was killed circa 102 BC. In 92 BC, Antonius deployed his famed oratorical skills in defending his friend's son when Gratidianus was sued by the oyster-breeder and real-estate speculator Sergius Orata in a civil case involving the sale of a property on the Lucrine Lake. Orata was not in the person of Lucius Licinius Crassus. Cicero says Orata was trying to force Gratidianus to buy back the property when Orata's business plan for farm-raised oysters fell through because of unforeseen complications arising from water rights or fishing rights. Sometime before 91 BC, a claim also a civil suit, was filed against Gratidianus by Gaius Visellius Aculeo, supported again by Crassus. A Lucius Aelius Lamia spoke on behalf of Gratidianus. Gratidianus was tribune of the plebs in 87 BC, he was a legate that same year the commander named Marius, sent north by Cinna with the objective of seizing Ariminum and cutting off any reinforcements that might be sent to Sulla from Cisalpine Gaul. This Marius took control of his army.

By the end of 87, Gratidianus had returned to Rome with Gaius Marius. He took on the prosecution of Quintus Lutatius Catulus, a move, to prove fateful. Catulus had been the colleague of Marius during his consulship in 102 BC, had shared his triumph over the Cimbri, but had broken with him. Rather than face the inevitable guilty verdict, Catulus committed suicide; the charge was perduellio, submitted to the judgment of the people, for which the punishment was death by scourging at the stake. See Fourrée; as praetor in 85, Gratidianus was among those officials who attempted to address Rome's economic crisis. A number of praetors and tribunes drafted a currency reform measure to reassert the former official exchange rate of silver and the bronze as, allowed to fluctuate and destabilize. Gratidianus seized the opportunity to attach his name to the edict and claim credit for publishing it first; the currency measure pleased the equites, or business class, more than did the debt reform legislation of Lucius Valerius Flaccus, which had permitted the repayment of loans at one-quarter of the amount owed, it was enormously popular with the plebs.

An alternative view of the reform, based on a "hopelessly confused" statement by Pliny, is that Gratidianus introduced a method for detecting counterfeit money. The two reforms are not incompatible, but historian and numismatist Michael Crawford finds no widespread evidence of silver-plated or counterfeit denarii in surviving coin hoards from the period leading up to the edict. Since the measures taken by Gratidianus cannot be shown to address a problem of counterfeit money, the edict is best understood as part of the Cinnan government's efforts to restore and create a perception of stability in the wake of Sulla's first civil war. Cicero says the people expressed their gratitude by offering wine and incense before images of Gratidianus at street-corner shrines; each neighborhood had a compitum within which its guardian spirits, or Lares, were thought to reside. During the Compitalia, a new year festival, the cult images were displayed in procession. Festus and Macrobius thought that the "dolls" were ritual replacements for human sacrifices to the spirits of the dead.

The sources express no surprise or disapproval toward tending cult for a living man, which may have been a tradition otherwise little evidenced. In historical times, the Compitalia included a purification and the sacrifice of a pig, first paraded around the city. Street theater, including farces that satirized current political events, was a feature; because it encouraged the people to assemble and foment insurrection, there were sporadic efforts among the elite to regulate or suppress the Compitalia. The poli

USS Straus

USS Straus was a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U. S. Navy during World War II; the primary purpose of the destroyer escort was to escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket. Post-war, she returned home proudly with three battle stars to her credit, she was named in honor of Storekeeper Second Class David H. Straus, Jr., killed during the Battle of the Coral Sea. The ship's keel was laid down on 18 November 1943 by the Brown Shipbuilding Co. of Texas. The destroyer escort was launched on 30 December 1943, sponsored by Mrs. David Straus, commissioned on 6 April 1944, Lt. Comdr. D. A. Nienstedt in command. Straus was fitted out and held sea trials at Galveston, until 25 April when she sailed to Bermuda for her shakedown cruise, she sailed to Boston, for a post-shakedown overhaul from 28 May to 9 June. The ship arrived at Norfolk, Virginia, on 11 June and sailed for Panama the following week as an escort for the oiler USS Mississinewa.

The oiler continued to Panama. On the evening of 24 June, the escort attacked a sound contact with depth charges and her Hedgehog anti-submarine mortar. Oil slicks and bubbles rose to the surface, but Straus had to break off the attack to rejoin Mississinewa. Straus left the oiler at Cristóbal and transited the Panama Canal on 26 June to sail independently to California. Straus stopped at San Diego, for voyage repairs from 6 to 9 July and sailed westward, arriving at Pearl Harbor on 16 July. Eight days she sailed for the Marshall Islands; the destroyer escort arrived at Eniwetok on 2 August and was assigned to the convoy screen which sailed three days for the Marianas and arrived off Saipan on 10 August. Straus was assigned to local antisubmarine patrol. On 13 August, she rescued two U. S. Army put them ashore. From 14 August to 14 September, Straus escorted convoys between Guam. On the latter date, the ship was assigned to the U. S. 3rd Fleet. Straus stood out of Apra Harbor, Guam, on 17 September with a replenishment unit to join the main logistics group, Task Group 30.8, supporting the fast carriers of Task Force 38.

The ship was detached from the screen on 23 September to investigate a life raft reported west of Cocos Island. She found a raft carrying two enlisted men. A boat was dispatched to tow the raft to the ship. Before the boat reached the raft, the two enlisted; the other three surrendered peacefully. The next day, Straus steamed for a rendezvous with the 3rd Fleet for refueling and replenishment operations, after which her unit returned to Saipan, she sailed for Eniwetok on 1 October. Straus arrived five days later, she became station ship for the Commander, Western Carolines and Escort Group. The destroyer escort moved to the Palau Islands on 15 November, with her division, Escort Division 65, was assigned to the screen around Peleliu and Angaur. On 18 November, a report was received that enemy swimmers were moving from Eli Malk Island, under cover of darkness, toward Peleliu. Straus provided starshell illumination while a landing craft flotilla attacked the swimmers with machine guns and eliminated them.

The ship returned to Ulithi on 26 November, resumed her former duties until March 1945 when she was attached to the U. S. 5th Fleet. Straus departed Ulithi on 26 March with a task unit en route to rendezvous with task group TG 50.8, the main logistics group, refueling and replenishing the fast carriers during the Okinawa operations. She remained with the group until 26 June. Two days she sailed from Ulithi with a convoy en route to Okinawa; the ships arrived on 2 July, Straus was assigned to antisubmarine patrol. The destroyer escort continued operating in the Okinawa area after the cessation of hostilities with Japan. On 19 September, she arrived at Sasebo the following day; the force consisted of a cruiser accompanied by five destroyers to provide a show of force before occupation forces arrived. Straus was detached before the amphibious forces arrived to join two aircraft carriers that were steaming off Kyūshū with ready air support in case the Japanese offered resistance, she returned to Sasebo on 25 September and remained there until 15 October when she weighed anchor for the United States.

After port calls at Saipan and Pearl Harbor, the destroyer escort arrived at San Diego on 5 November 1945 to begin inactivation. Straus remained inactive at the Naval Repair Base until 15 January 1947 when she was decommissioned and attached to the San Diego Group of the Pacific Reserve Fleet. Straus was struck from the Navy List on 1 May 1966 and used as a target in August 1973. Straus received three battle stars for World War II service; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. NavSource Online: Destroyer Escort Photo Archive - USS Straus

Tom Schnackenberg

Thomas William Schnackenberg is a New Zealand sailor and yacht designer best known for his involvement with the America's Cup. He was inducted into the America's Cup Hall of Fame in 2000. Schnackenberg attended Auckland Grammar School before gaining a masters in physics from the University of Auckland and the University of British Columbia. Schnackenberg was first involved with the 1977 America's Cup as a sail designer for Enterprise, he was involved with as a sail designer for Australia in the 1980 America's Cup before being promoted to sail co-ordinator for Australia II in the 1983 America's Cup. Australia II won the cup. Schnackenberg was again the sail co-ordinator for Australia III and Australia IV's unsuccessful defence of the America's Cup in 1987 before joining New Zealand Challenge to help design KZ1 for the 1988 America's Cup, he was a part of the Spirit of Australia challenge at the 1992 Louis Vuitton Cup before joining Team New Zealand as the design co-ordinator and navigator for their victory at the 1995 America's Cup.

1995 was his first on-board role at an America's Cup. During this period, he coached the New Zealand yachting team for the Olympic Games in 1992 and 1996, he remained with Team New Zealand for their defence at the 2000 America's Cup and was promoted to syndicate head for the unsuccessful 2003 America's Cup defence, where he was credited as a designer of NZL 82. He remained with the team for the 2007 America's Cup. In 2001 he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Engineering be the University of Auckland. Schnackenberg has been awarded the Order of Australia medal. Schnackenberg worked with Artemis Racing in the lead up to the 2013 America's Cup as their head of performance and design

Lilias Armstrong bibliography

This is a list of works by the English phonetician Lilias Armstrong. It contains references to contemporary reviews of her books. Armstrong, L. E.. An English Phonetic Reader; the London Phonetic Readers. University of London Press. Hdl:2027/uc1.$b257662. Reviews: Chatterji, S. K.. "". Reviews; the Calcutta Review. 9: 561. Armstrong, L. E.. A Burmese Phonetic Reader: With English translation; the London Phonetic Readers. University of London. Reviews: Brown, R. G.. "Books on Burma and Siam ". Notices of Books. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 57: 737–738. Doi:10.1017/S0035869X00169060. JSTOR 25220835. Reynolds, H. O.. "Some Notes on'A Burmese Phonetic Reader'". Journal of the Burma Research Society. 17: 119–125. Response: Pe Maung Tin. "A Burmese Phonetic Reader". Journal of the Burma Research Society. 20: 49–51. Armstrong, L. E.. C.. Handbook of English Intonation. Cambridge: Heffer. Reviews: Bohnhof, A.. "". Besprechungen. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen. 29: 269–272. JSTOR 43340731. Guittart, L. J..

"". Reviews. English Studies. 9: 55–57. Doi:10.1080/00138382708596521. MacLeod, E. C.. "". Kɔ̃trɑ̃dy. Le Maître Phonétique. 3rd. Ser. 17: 7–8. Menzerath, P.. "". Kurze Anzeigen. Teuthonista. 4: 179–180. JSTOR 40498568. Ruud, M. B.. "". Brief Mention. Modern Language Notes. 43: 567–567. JSTOR 2914433. Armstrong, L. E.. The Phonetics of French: A Practical Handbook. London: Bell. Foreword by Daniel Jones. Reviews: Boillot, F.. "". Comptes-Rendus. Le Français moderne. 2: 88. Dietrich, G.. "". The English Literary and Educational Review for Continental Readers. Duraffour, A.. "". Kɔ̃trɑ̃dy. Le Maître Phonétique. 3rd Ser.. 43: 50–51. Response: Coustenoble, H.. "nɔt syr la prɔnɔ̃sjɑsjɔ̃ frɑ̃sɛːz". Artiklə də fɔ̃. Le Maître Phonétique. 3rd Ser.. 45: 8–9. Armstrong, L. E.. "The Phonetic Structure of Somali". Mitteilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin. 37: 116–161. Reviews: Lukas, J.. "". Reviews of Books. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute. 11: 121–122. Doi:10.2307/1155231. JSTOR 1155231. Coustenoble, H. N.. E.. Studies in French Intonation.

Cambridge: Heffer. Reviews: Hedgecock, F. A.. "". Reviews. Modern Languages. 16: 163–165. Lloyd James, A.. "". Kɔ̃trɑ̃dy. Le Maître Phonétique. 3rd Ser. 54: 25–26. Richter, E.. "Neuerscheinungen zur französischen Linguistik". Neuphilologische Monatsschrift. 9: 166–167. Simpson, W.. "". Bibliographie. Revue des Langues Romanes. 67: 243–247. Armstrong, L. E.. The Phonetic and Tonal Structure of Kikuyu. London: International African Institute. Preface by Daniel Jones. Reviews: Doke, C. M.. "". Book Reviews. Bantu Studies. 15: 197–198. Doi:10.1080/02561751.1941.9676138. Ward, I. C.. "". Reviews of Books. Journal of the Royal African Society. 40: 179–180. JSTOR 717899. Armstrong, L. E.. "The Progress of Phonetics Since 1914". In Waterhouse, Gilbert; the Year Book of Modern Languages 1920. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 25–27. Review: Pitollet, Camille. "". Bibliographie. Revue de l'Enseignement des Langues Vivantes. 39: 219–221. Armstrong, L. E.. C.. "Phonology". The Year's Work in English Studies. 1: 28–31. Doi:10.1093/ywes/1.1.28. Murray, H. M. R..

E.. "Philology: General Works". This Year's Work in English Studies. 2: 25–32. Doi:10.1093/ywes/II.1.25. Armstrong, L. E.. "ə nærouə trænskripʃn fər ɪŋglɪʃ". Artiklə də fɔ̃. Le Maître Phonétique. 3rd Ser. 3: 17–19. Bailey, T. G.. "The Sounds of Ṣiṇā". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London. 3: 799–802. Doi:10.1017/S0041977X00000495. JSTOR 607089. Armstrong, L. E.. "ðə biː biː siː kəmɪtɪ ɒn prənʌnsɪeɪʃn". Artiklə də fɔ̃. Le Maître Phonétique. 3rd Ser. 16: 34–35. Armstrong, L. E.. "The Technique of Speech". Good Speech. London. 3: 2–5. Armstrong, L. E.. "Ganda". Practical Phonetics for Students of African Languages. By Westermann, D.. London: International African Institute. Pp. 188–197. Armstrong, L. E.. "Some Notes on Kikuyu". Practical Phonetics for Students of African Languages. By Westermann, D.. London: International African Institute. Pp. 213–216. Armstrong, L. E.. "Speech and the Phonetician". Good Speech. London. 7: 32–36. Armstrong, L. E.. "swiˑdɪʃ". Spesimɛn. Le Maître Phonétique. 3rd Ser. 18: 20–21. Pronunciation: Fröken Gyllander of Stockholm Text: "The Honest Woodcutter" Armstrong, L.

E.. "rʌʃn" [Russian

2000 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania

The 2000 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania took place on November 7, 2000, was part of the 2000 United States presidential election. Voters chose 23 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Pennsylvania was won by Vice President Al Gore by a 4.17% margin of victory. However, voter enthusiasm for both candidates was low throughout the campaign. Gore failed to capture Clinton's appeal in Democratic regions such as Pittsburgh and Scranton, thus carried these areas by a smaller number than his predecessor. However, opposition to George W. Bush was strong in the suburban counties of Philadelphia. Bush support was strong in rural, central Pennsylvania, where the Texas Governor appealed to Evangelical voters and where Gore's connection to gun control policies was rejected. Marginal wins in both of the state's metropolitan areas helped the Vice President to capture the state; this was the first election since 1968 that the candidate who won Pennsylvania did not win the general election, only the fourth time that has happened since 1916.

As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Greene County, Mercer County, Lawrence County voted for the Democratic candidate. The electors of each state and the District of Columbia met on December 18, 2000 to cast their votes for president and vice president; the Electoral College itself never meets as one body. Instead the electors from each state and the District of Columbia met in their respective capitols; the following were the members of the Electoral College from the state. All were pledged to and voted for Al Gore and Joe Lieberman: Kathy Black Richard W. Bloomingdale Robert P. Casey Jr. Nelson Diaz William M. George Ken Jarin James J. Johnston Edward Keller Robert Mellow Thomas J. Murphy, Jr. Elsa Favila Robert O'Connor Lazar M. Palnick Stephen R. Reed T. J. Rooney Joyce Savocchio John F. Street Patsy J. Tallarico Christine M. Tartaglione Margaret M. Tartaglione Marian Tasco Sala Udin Anna Verna Gore won 11 of 21 congressional districts. Gore won 3 that elected Republican representatives while Bush won 2 that elected Democrats