Funk is a music genre that originated in African-American communities in the mid-1960s when African-American musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music and rhythm and blues. Funk de-emphasizes melody and chord progressions and focuses on a strong rhythmic groove of a bassline played by an electric bassist and a drum part played by a drummer at slower tempos than other popular music. Like much of African-inspired music, funk consists of a complex groove with rhythm instruments playing interlocking grooves that created a "hypnotic" and "danceable feel". Funk uses the same richly colored extended chords found in bebop jazz, such as minor chords with added sevenths and elevenths, or dominant seventh chords with altered ninths and thirteenths. Funk originated in the mid-1960s, with James Brown's development of a signature groove that emphasized the downbeat—with heavy emphasis on the first beat of every measure, the application of swung 16th notes and syncopation on all basslines, drum patterns, guitar riffs.

Other musical groups, including Sly and the Family Stone, The Meters, Parliament-Funkadelic, soon began to adopt and develop Brown's innovations. Notable funk women include Chaka Khan, Marva Whitney, Lyn Collins, Brides of Funkenstein, Vicki Anderson, Anna King, Parlet. Funk derivatives include the psychedelic funk of George Clinton. Funk samples and breakbeats have been used extensively in hip hop and various forms of electronic dance music, such as house music, Detroit techno, it is the main influence of go-go, a subgenre associated with funk. The word funk referred to a strong odor, it is derived from Latin "fumigare" via Old French "fungiere" and, in this sense, it was first documented in English in 1620. In 1784 "funky" meaning "musty" was first documented, which, in turn, led to a sense of "earthy", taken up around 1900 in early jazz slang for something "deeply or felt". Ethnomusicologist Portia Maultsby states that the expression "funk" comes from the Central African word "lu-funki" and art historian Robert Farris Thompson says the word comes from the Kikongo term "lu-fuki".

Thompson's proposed Kikingo origin word, "lu-fuki" is used by African musicians to praise people "for the integrity of their art" and for having "worked out" to reach their goals. Though in white culture, the term "funk" has negative connotations of odor or being in a bad mood, in African communities, the term "funk", while still linked to body odor, had the positive sense that a musician's hard-working, honest effort led to sweat, from their "physical exertion" came an "exquisite" and "superlative" performance. In early jam sessions, musicians would encourage one another to "get down" by telling one another, "Now, put some stank on it!". At least as early as 1907, jazz songs carried titles such as Funky; the first example is an unrecorded number by Buddy Bolden, remembered as either "Funky Butt" or "Buddy Bolden's Blues" with improvised lyrics that were, according to Donald M. Marquis, either "comical and light" or "crude and downright obscene" but, in one way or another, referring to the sweaty atmosphere at dances where Bolden's band played.

As late as the 1950s and early 1960s, when "funk" and "funky" were used in the context of jazz music, the terms still were considered indelicate and inappropriate for use in polite company. According to one source, New Orleans-born drummer Earl Palmer "was the first to use the word'funky' to explain to other musicians that their music should be made more syncopated and danceable." The style evolved into a rather hard-driving, insistent rhythm, implying a more carnal quality. This early form of the music set the pattern for musicians; the music was identified as slow, loose, riff-oriented and danceable. Like soul, funk is based on dance music, so it has a strong "rhythmic role"; the sound of funk is as much based on the "spaces between the notes" as the notes. While there are rhythmic similarities between funk and disco, funk has a "central dance beat that's slower and more syncopated than disco", funk rhythm section musicians add more "subtextures", complexity and "personality" onto the main beat than a programmed synth-based disco ensemble.

Before funk, most pop music was based on sequences of eighth notes, because the fast tempos made further subdivisions of the beat infeasible. The innovation of funk was that by using slower tempos, funk "created space for further rhythmic subdivision, so a bar of 4/4 could now accommodate 16 possible note placements." By having the guitar and drums play in "motoring" sixteenth-note rhythms, it created the opportunity for the other instruments to play "more syncopated, broken-up style", which facilitated a move to more "liberated" basslines. Together, these "interlocking parts" created a "hypnotic" and "danceable feel". A great deal of funk is rhythmically based on a two-celled onbeat/offbeat structure, which originated in sub-Saharan African music traditions. New Orleans appropriated the bifurcated structure from the Afro-Cuban mambo and conga in the late 1940s, made it its own. New Orleans funk, as it was called, gained international acclaim because James Brown's rhythm section used it to great ef

Chemseddine Nessakh

Chemseddine Nessakh is an Algerian footballer who plays for CR Belouizdad in the Algerian Ligue Professionnelle 1 and the Algeria national team. On February 18, 2009, Nessakh was chosen as the best ASM Oran player for the first half of the 2008–09 Algerian Championnat National 2 season by the club's fans. On December 26, 2009, Nessakh signed a two and a half year contract with JS Kabylie, joining them on a transfer from ASM Oran; the transfer fee was not disclosed. In his first season with the club, he made 4 of them as a starter, he played an important role in JS Kabylie's run to the semi-finals of the 2010 CAF Champions League, playing in all of the team's group stage games, as well as their two semi-final matches against TP Mazembe. On March 19, 2011, Nessakh scored the only goal in JS Kabylie's 1-0 win over ASC Tevragh-Zeïna in the first round of the 2011 CAF Confederation Cup. In the second leg in Mauritania, he scored another two goals to help JS Kabylie qualify 3-1 on aggregate to the second round.

Won the Algerian Cup once with JS Kabylie in 2010–11 Algerian Cup Chemseddine Nessakh at Soccerway Chemseddine Nessakh at Soccerway


Estádio Vivaldo Lima known by its nickname Vivaldão, was a multi-purpose stadium in Manaus, Brazil. It was used for football matches; the stadium held 36,000, with 31,000 seats. It was built between 1958 and 1970; the Vivaldão was owned by the government of Amazonas state. The stadium was named after Vivaldo Lima, the founder of Nacional Fast Clube and it was the home ground of América Futebol Clube, Nacional Futebol Clube and Atlético Rio Negro Clube; the stadium was replaced by the Arena da Amazônia. In 1970, construction of the Vivaldão was completed; the inaugural match was played on April 5 of that year, when Brazil national football team B beat Amazonas State All-Stars team B 4-1, followed by the match of the teams A 4-1. The first goal of the stadium was scored by Brazil B's Dadá Maravilha; the stadium's record attendance was 56,950, set on March 9, 1980 when Fast Clube and New York Cosmos of the United States drew 0-0. On May 31, 2009, Manaus was chosen as one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

The city's project involved the demolition of the Vivaldão, a new stadium built in its place, the Arena da Amazônia, with a capacity of 41,000 people. About R$580,000,000 was invested in the construction of the new stadium, which will include sport and recreation areas and a shopping mall; the stadium was closed on March 19, 2010, demolition began on July 12. Enciclopédia do Futebol Brasileiro, Volume 2 - Lance, Rio de Janeiro: Aretê Editorial S/A, 2001. Templos do Futebol