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Furlong

A furlong is a measure of distance in imperial units and U. S. customary units equal to one eighth of a mile, equivalent to 660 feet, 220 yards, 40 rods, 10 chains or 201 meters. In the United States some states use older definitions for surveying purposes, leading to variations in the length of the furlong of two parts per million, or about 0.4 millimetre. This variation is too small to have practical consequences in most applications. Using the international definition of the inch as 25.4 millimetres, one furlong is 201.168 metres. Five furlongs are about 1 kilometre; the name furlong derives from the Old English words lang. Dating back at least to early Anglo-Saxon times, it referred to the length of the furrow in one acre of a ploughed open field; the furlong was the distance. This was standardised to be 40 rods or 10 chains; the system of long furrows arose because turning a team of oxen pulling a heavy plough was difficult. This offset the drainage advantages of short furrows and meant furrows were made as long as possible.

An acre is an area, one furlong long and one chain wide. For this reason, the furlong was once called an acre's length, though in modern usage an area of one acre can be of any shape; the term furlong, or shot, was used to describe a grouping of adjacent strips within an open field. Among the early Anglo-Saxons, the rod was the fundamental unit of land measurement. A furlong was 40 rods. At the time, the Saxons used the North German foot, 10 percent longer than the foot of today; when England changed to the shorter foot in the late 13th century and furlongs remained unchanged, since property boundaries were defined in rods and furlongs. The only thing that changed was the number of feet and yards in a rod or a furlong, the number of square feet and square yards in an acre; the definition of the rod went from 15 old feet to ​16 1⁄2 new feet, or from 5 old yards to ​5 1⁄2 new yards. The furlong went from 600 old feet from 200 old yards to 220 new yards; the acre went from 36,000 old square feet to 43,560 new square feet, or from 4,000 old square yards to 4,840 new square yards.

The furlong was viewed as being equivalent to the Roman stade, which in turn derived from the Greek system. For example, the King James Bible uses the term "furlong" in place of the Greek stadion, although more recent translations use miles or kilometres in the main text and give the original numbers in footnotes. In the Roman system, there were 625 feet to the stadium, eight stadia to the mile, three miles to the league. A league was considered to be the distance a man could walk in one hour, the mile consisted of 1,000 passus. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, medieval Europe continued with the Roman system, which the people proceeded to diversify, leading to serious complications in trade, etc. Around the year 1300, by royal decree England standardized a long list of measures. Among the important units of distance and length at the time were the foot, rod and the mile; the rod was defined as ​5 1⁄2 yards or ​16 1⁄2 feet, the mile was eight furlongs, so the definition of the furlong became 40 rods and that of the mile became 5,280 feet.

A description from 1675 states, "Dimensurator or Measuring Instrument whereof the mosts usual has been the Chain, the common length for English Measures four Poles, as answering indifferently to the Englishs Mile and Acre, 10 such Chains in length making a Furlong, 10 single square Chains an Acre, so that a square Mile contains 640 square Acres." —John Ogilby, Britannia, 1675 The official use of the furlong was abolished in the United Kingdom under the Weights and Measures Act 1985, an act that abolished the official use of many other traditional units of measurement. In Myanmar, furlongs are used in conjunction with miles to indicate distances on highway signs. Mileposts on the Yangon -- Mandalay Expressway use furlongs. In the rest of the world, the furlong has limited use, with the notable exception of horse racing in most English-speaking countries, including Canada and the United States; the distances for horse racing in Australia were converted to metric in 1972, but in the United Kingdom, Ireland and the United States, races are still given in miles and furlongs.

Distances along the canals in English navigated by narrowboats are expressed in miles and furlongs. The city of Chicago's street numbering system allots a measure of 800 address units to each mile, in keeping with the city's system of eight blocks per mile; this means that every block in a typical Chicago neighborhood is one furlong in length. Salt Lake City's blocks are each a square furlong in the downtown area; the blocks become less regular in shape farther from the center, but the numbering system remains the same everywhere in Salt Lake County. Blocks in central Logan, in large sections of Phoenix, are a square furlong in extent. City blocks in the Hoddle Grid of Melbourne are one furlong in length. Much of Ontario, was s

Margarula

Margarula is an Irish Thoroughbred racehorse and broodmare. In her first eleven races she showed herself to be a tough and consistent stayer, winning three handicap races, but appeared to be some way below top class. On her twelfth start however, she produced a major upset when she defeated a field of regarded fillies to win the Irish Oaks at odds of 33/1. Margarula was retired at the end of the season, she had some success as a broodmare. Margarula was a bay mare bred in Ireland by the County Kildare-based Airlie Stud; as a yearling in October 2000 the filly was consigned to the Goffs sale and was bought for IR£33,000 by the racehorse trainer and breeder Jim Bolger. During her racing career she was trained by Bolger at Coolcullen, County Carlow and owned by Jackie Bolger in partnership with John Corcoran, she was ridden in most of her races by Kevin Manning. She was sired by Doyoun who won the 2000 Guineas and finished third in The Derby in 1988 before becoming a successful breeding stallion whose other progeny included Daylami and Kalanisi.

Her dam Mild Intrigue showed modest racing ability, winning on her debut but finishing unplaced in four subsequent starts. As a granddaughter of the American broodmare Natashka, she was related to Questing, Elusive Quality and Dark Lomond. On her racecourse debut Margarula finished seventh in a maiden race over seven furlongs at the Curragh on 16 September, she finished third in similar events over one mile at Gowran Park and Thurles Racecourse before running unplaced in a nursery at Gowran Park on 13 October. On 7 November the filly made her fifth appearance in just over seven weeks when she was assigned a weight of 107 pounds for a nursery at Thurles in which she was ridden by David Moran. Starting at odds of 11/2 in a thirteen-runner field she was among the leaders from the start and kept on well to win by three quarters of a length from the favourite Arkaga, carrying 131 pounds. Margarula began her second season by being matched against older horses and male opposition in a handicap over ten furlongs at Cork Racecourse on 31 March.

Carrying 120 pounds she made steady progress in the second half of the race before taking the lead inside the final furlong and winning by a length from the five-year-old gelding Murrayfield. She finished second to Solid Approach in a handicap for three-year-olds at the Curragh on 6 May before being stepped up in distance to contest the Milltown Handicap against older horses over one and a half miles at Leopardstown Racecourse six days later; as she was assigned to carry only 106 pounds the lightweight Moran again came in to take the ride. Starting favourite against eight opponents, Margarula turned into the straight in fourth place before taking the lead a furlong out and winning by a length from the four-year-old gelding American Gothic. Five days she started favourite for the Mourne Abbey Handicap at Cork but faded in the closing stages and finished eighth of the twelve runners. On 6 June, Margarula was stepped up in class but dropped in distance for the Listed Victor McAlmont Stakes over nine and a half furlongs at Gowran Park and finished fifth of the fourteen runners, more than eight lengths behind the winner Fionn's Folly.

That month she was moved into Group 2 class for the Pretty Polly Stakes. After being restrained by Manning at the rear of the field she made steady progress in the straight to finish fourth behind Tarfshi, Wrong Key and Fraulein. Despite three consecutive defeats, Margarula was elevated to the highest class to contest the Group 1 Irish Oaks at the Curragh on 14 July and started a 33/1 outsider in a twelve-runner field; the Aidan O'Brien-trained Quarter Moon started odds-on favourite after finishing second in both the Irish 1000 Guineas and The Oaks while the other fancied runners included Irresistible Jewel, Mellow Park and Red Rioja. Margarula was settled towards the rear of the field as the O'Brien stable's pacemaker Kournakova made the running but moved up on the inside into fifth place approaching the final turn. Quarter Moon took the lead in the straight but Margarula was close behind and overtook the favourite a furlong from the finish; the two leaders drew well clear of the other fillies in the closing stages and Margarula kept on well to prevail by a length, with a gap of six lengths back to Lady's Secret in third.

Jim Bolger commented "I said beforehand that I had been training for 25 years and could do with a pleasant surprise at this stage. Margarula has given it to me today after getting a peach of a ride from Kevin, who saved every inch of ground along the inner". After her win in the Irish Oaks, Margarula made two more appearances, both against top class male opposition. In the Irish Champion takes over ten furlongs at Leopardstown on 7 September she finished sixth of the seven runners behind Grandera, who won by a short head from Hawk Wing. One week the filly contested the Irish St Leger over fourteen furlongs at the Curragh and again finished sixth in a race which saw Vinnie Roe record the second of his four wins in the event. In December 2003, Margarula was put up for auction at Tattersalls and was bought for 825,000 guineas, she entered the ownership of Carwell Equities Ltd and produced at least five winners: Set the Scene, a bay filly, foaled in 2004, sired by Sadler's Wells. Won one race. Marywell, chestnut filly, 2007, by Selkirk.

Won one race, dam of Martlet. Rosslyn Castle, chestnut colt, 2009, by Selkirk. Won three flat races and one National Hunt race. Grand Marshal, brown colt, 2010, by Dansili. Won two races in Britain as "Mag

Formula One 2000 (video game)

Formula One 2000 is a racing video game developed by Studio 33 and published by Midway Games. The game was released in 2000 for the Game Boy PlayStation, it is a sequel to the 1999 video game Formula One 99, is the only game in the series to be released on a non-Sony console. Drivers appearing on the front cover are Heinz-Harald Frentzen. Formula One 2000 features 17 Grand Prix circuits, a new "arcade" mode; this arcade mode seemed more similar in style to WipEout—tracks were grouped into "location zones" with futuristic-sounding names and cars were grouped into series. The player began on the easier courses with the worst cars, before unlocking the more difficult courses and the better cars. Bonus images could be unlocked as an incentive to win races, it features the new Indianapolis Motor Speedway. All alcohol and tobacco sponsors are censored. Ferrari’s Marlboro is censored. Jaguar's Beck's is replaced by "Best's". Jordan's Benson & Hedges is replaced by "Buzzin' Hornets". Benetton's Mild Seven is replaced by "Benetton".

McLaren's West is replaced by "Mika" and David". Prost's Gauloises is replaced by a "bar code". BAR's Lucky Strike is replaced by "Look Alike". Formula One 2000 at MobyGames