The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
U.S. Route 283
U. S. Route 283 is a spur of U. S. Route 83, it runs for 731 miles from Brady, Texas at U. S. Route 87 to Lexington, Nebraska at U. S. Route 30, it passes through the states of Texas, Oklahoma and Nebraska. This route went southeast from Albany via Cisco, Rising Star, Brownwood to end at Brady. In 1951, this route became US 380, US 183, US 377, it was rerouted to its current routing between Albany and Brady in 1951, replacing the old route of US 183. US-283 enters Oklahoma from Texas in rural Jackson County at a crossing of the Red River, it runs concurrently with State Highway 5 for several miles past Elmer and continues north to Altus, the largest Oklahoma town on the route. At the intersection of U. S. Highway 62 in Altus, SH-5 splits off and 283 joins with State Highway 6 for the next 12 miles before it takes a western bend to the town of Mangum; the route continues northwesterly. Through northwestern Oklahoma, US-283 passes through sparsely populated areas and is the main north–south traffic corridor.
After passing through Cheyenne, 283 meanders through Black Kettle National Grassland crosses the Canadian River. It continues north to Arnett where it joins with State Highway 51 west for 7 miles turns north again passing through Shattuck and Laverne following part of State Highway 15 along the way. North of Laverne, 283 turns west for 2 miles to visit the town of Rosston turns north again to cross the Cimarron River shortly before leaving the state for Kansas; some points of interest along US-283 in Oklahoma include the Museum of the Western Prairie in Altus. US-283 enters from Oklahoma south of Englewood in Clark County, passes through unpopulated areas of the county until joining up for a brief concurrency with U. S. Route 160. Following the split, US-283 continues north through Minneola before making its way into Dodge City, the only town with a population of more than 3,300 the highway passes through in the Sunflower State. At Dodge City, US-283 jogs east, it meets with U. S. Route 400. After passing the airport, the route bends northeast before joining U.
S. Route 50 and U. S. Route 56 for a brief stint. US-50 and US-56 split east towards Kinsley, US-283 resumes a due northerly course through open fields before reaching Jetmore, where K-156 crosses in an east–west direction. K-156 heads to Garden City westbound and Great Bend eastbound; the highway continues on another stretch through sparsely populated farmland before reaching Ness City and K-96, the first of two junctions in Ness County. The other junction in the county is at K-4 near Ransom; the highway reaches Interstate 70 in WaKeeney, makes a brief jog east through downtown WaKeeney before turning back to the north. US-283 between Ransom and I-70 was closed for much of 2006 as part of a major reconstruction program; the highway continues north to Hill City, where it crosses U. S. Route 24; the route stays on course until it reaches southern Norton County, where it has a brief concurrency with K-9. At the split, K-9 continues west to Lenora, US-283 resumes a straight northerly direction until the city of Norton, where after crossing U.
S. Route 36, it reaches Nebraska 11 miles later. With the exception of small sections in Dodge City, all portions of US-283 in Kansas are two-laned. U. S. Highway 283 enters Nebraska south of Arapahoe. At Arapahoe, US 283 meets U. S. Highway 6 and U. S. Highway 34, it continues north through Elwood turns northeast. Near Lexington, US 283 crosses the Platte River and intersects Interstate 80, it continues north into Lexington as a divided highway, turns back to a 2 lane road, crosses the Union Pacific railroad tracks via an overpass, after taking 2 right turns on city streets, it ends at an intersection with U. S. Highway 30. Texas US 87 northwest of Brady US 67 / US 84 in Santa Anna. US 67/US 283 travels concurrently through Santa Anna. US 84/US 283 travels concurrently to Coleman. I‑20 in Baird US 180 in Albany; the highways travel concurrently through Albany. US 183 south of Throckmorton; the highways travel concurrently to Vernon. US 380 in Throckmorton US 277 south-southwest of Seymour; the highways travel concurrently to Mabelle.
US 82 north-northeast of Seymour. The highways travel concurrently to Mabelle. US 70 / US 183 / US 287 in Vernon Oklahoma US 62 in Altus I‑40 in Sayre US 60 east of Arnett; the highways travel concurrently to west of Arnett. US 270 / US 412 south-southeast of Laverne US 64 east of Rosston; the highways travel concurrently to northwest of Rosston. Kansas US 160 north of Englewood; the highways travel concurrently to south-southeast of Minneola. US 54 in Minneola US 56 / US 400 south of Dodge City. US 56/US 283 travels concurrently to. US 283/US 400 travels concurrently to Dodge City. US 50 east-northeast of Dodge City; the highways travel concurrently to west-southwest of Wright. I‑70 / US 40 in WaKeeney US 24 in Hill City US 36 in Norton Nebraska US 6 / US 34 in Arapahoe I‑80 south of Lexington US 30 in Lexington Endpoints of U. S. Highway 283
Vehicle registration plates of Nebraska
The U. S. state of Nebraska first required its residents to register their motor vehicles in 1905. Registrants provided their own license plates for display until 1915, when the state began to issue plates. All state-issued plates were made of steel until 1947. With the exception of 1945, all plates have been issued in pairs since 1922. In 1956, the United States and Mexico came to an agreement with the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators, the Automobile Manufacturers Association and the National Safety Council that standardized the size for license plates for vehicles at 6 inches in height by 12 inches in width, with standardized mounting holes; the 1955 issue was the first Nebraska license plate. Nebraska established a county-code system for its passenger and motorcycle plates in 1922, with one- or two-digit codes assigned to each county in order of the number of registered vehicles in the county at that time; these codes remained constant through 1950. For 1951, letter codes were used.
One-letter codes were assigned to the first counties whose names began with those letters, while all other counties were assigned two-letter codes consisting of the initial letter and the next available letter in their names. There were three exceptions: Douglas County, the most populous in the state, was assigned single-letter X to increase capacity; the numeric code system was reintroduced with the codes the same as before. It remains in use to this day, except in Douglas and Sarpy Counties, which adopted an uncoded ABC 123 serial format in 2002. Nebraska license plates 1969-present
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Nebraska's 3rd congressional district
Nebraska's 3rd congressional district seat encompasses the western three-fourths of the state. It includes Grand Island, Hastings, North Platte and Scottsbluff. Additionally, it encompasses a large majority of the Platte River. Nebraska has had at least three congressional districts since 1883; the district's current configuration dates from 1963, when Nebraska lost a seat as a result of the 1960 United States Census. At that time, most of the old 3rd and 4th districts were merged to form the new 3rd District; the district is one of the most Republican districts in the nation. Democrats have only come close to winning this district three times as drawn, in 1974, 1990, 2006, all years where the incumbent was not running for reelection. Republican presidential and gubernatorial candidates carry the district with margins of 40 percent or more, while Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1936 was the last Democratic presidential candidate to win a plurality within the current district boundaries. Excepting Democratic Saline County on the district’s eastern boundary and Dakota County which has only been within this district since 2013, the last Democrat to carry any county within the district at a presidential level was Jimmy Carter in 1976.
Although Nebraska's state legislature is elected on a nonpartisan basis, all but two state senators representing significant portions of the district are known to be Republicans. With a Cook PVI of R+27, it is the most Republican Congressional District in the country outside the South, it is held by Republican Adrian Smith. The previous congressman, Tom Osborne, did not seek reelection in order to wage an unsuccessful campaign for the Republican nomination for governor of Nebraska. Nebraska's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Decatur County, Kansas
Decatur County is a county located in Northwest Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 2,961, its county seat and most populous city is Oberlin. The county is named in honor of Jr.. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state. Decatur County was established March 20, 1873 and organized on December 15, 1879, it is named for the Navy war hero Commodore Stephen Decatur, Jr. who served during the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War and the War of 1812.
Oberlin was the site of the last Native American Raid in Kansas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 894 square miles, of which 894 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water. Red Willow County, Nebraska Furnas County, Nebraska Norton County Sheridan County Thomas County Rawlins County As of the 2000 census, there were 3,472 people, 1,494 households, 981 families residing in the county; the population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 1,821 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.87% White, 0.52% Black or African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 0.37% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.98% of the population. There were 1,494 households out of which 25.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.00% were married couples living together, 5.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.30% were non-families.
32.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.83. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.60% under the age of 18, 4.70% from 18 to 24, 22.90% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 26.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 97.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,257, the median income for a family was $34,982. Males had a median income of $25,139 versus $17,368 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,348. About 8.00% of families and 11.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.20% of those under age 18 and 6.30% of those age 65 or over. Following amendment to the Kansas Constitution in 1986, the county remained a prohibition, or "dry", county until 2002, when voters approved the sale of alcoholic liquor by the individual drink with a 30% food sales requirement.
Oberlin USD 294 Prairie Heights USD 295, dissolved as of July 1, 2006. Clayton Dresden Jennings Norcatur Oberlin Allison Cedar Bluffs Kanona Leoville Lyle Traer Decatur County is divided into twenty-five townships; the city of Oberlin is considered governmentally independent and is excluded from the census figures for the townships. In the following table, the population center is the largest city included in that township's population total, if it is of a significant size. Handbook of Decatur County, Kansas. S. Burch Publishing Co. Standard Atlas of Decatur County, Kansas. A. Ogle & Co. Standard Atlas of Decatur County, Kansas. A. Ogle & Co. CountyDecatur County - Official Decatur County - Directory of Public OfficialsMapsDecatur County Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Highway Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Railroad Maps: Current, 1996, 1915, KDOT and Kansas Historical Society