Nishi Hongan-ji is a Jōdo Shinshū Buddhist temple in the Shimogyō ward of Kyoto, Japan. It is one of two Jōdo Shinshū temple complexes in the other being Higashi Hongan-ji. Jōdo Shinshū is a school of Pure Land Buddhism, today Nishi Hongan-ji serves as the head temple of the organization. Established in its current location in 1591, the origin of the temple goes back to the 14th century. Many of its building have survived from the Azuchi-Momoyama and early Edo period, making it a great example of the architecture from that period. A total of seven Nishi Hongan-ji structures have been designated National Treasures in three different categories: the karamon, Goei-dō and Amida hall, the Flying Cloud Pavilion and the Black study hall, including the Denrō gallery and the north Noh stage. Nishi Hongan-ji is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, part of the Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto, since 1994; the original Hongan-ji was established as a temple in 1321, on the site of the Otani Mausoleum, where Shinran, the founder of the Jōdo Shinshū was buried.
The mausoleum was attended by Kakue. Kakue's own son, became the first chief priest of the Hongan-ji and third monshu, dedicated it to the worship of Amitābha; the Hongan-ji first gained power and importance in the 15th century, when Rennyo became its eighth monshu. However, the Tendai based on Mount Hiei saw this expansion as a threat and attacked the Hongan-ji three times with their army of sōhei. Rennyo fled to Yoshizaki-gobō. During the Sengoku period, fearing the power of the monks of the Hongan-ji, Oda Nobunaga tried to destroy it. For ten years, he laid siege to the Ishiyama Hongan-ji in Osaka, one of the two primary temple fortresses of the sect. In 1580, the abbot of the Ishiyama Hongan-ji, surrendered, while his son Kyōnyo refused to surrender, for which he was publicly disowned. After the death of Nobunaga in 1582 and the ascent of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Kennyo was rewarded for his opposition to Nobunaga by being granted land in Kyoto, at the site of modern-day Nishi Hongan-ji, he was succeeded by his legitimate son, Junnyo, as abbot in 1592.
While his brother Kyōnyo re-established the Osaka Hongan-ji in 1596 with local support, owing to his refusal to surrender to Nobunaga earlier. After the death of Hideyoshi in 1598, Kyōnyo supported Tokugawa Ieyasu, who became shōgun in 1602. In reward for his loyalty, Kyōnyo was rewarded with land for a temple in Kyoto to the east of Nishi Honganji, which became known in 1603 as Higashi Honganji. In 1619 the government recognized the two entities as separate congregations, it is popularly believed, however mistakenly, that the institution was split in two in order to maintain control of the order. In 1994 Nishi Hongan-ji was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as one of the Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto. Nishi Hongan-ji occupies an entire rectangular area bounded by Hanayachō-dōri to the north, Horikawa-dōri to the east,A Shichijō-dōri to the south, Shichijō-dōri to the west; the main entrance to Nishi Hongan-ji is to the east on Horikawa-dōri. As the name of the temple implies, it is located to the west of Higashi Hongan-ji.
Nishi Hongan-ji has a more integral architecture. The karamon gate of Nishi Hongan-ji was built for Toyotomi Hideyoshi's Fushimi castle around 1598. After the castle was dismantled, it was moved to Nishi Hongan-ji in 1632 for a planned visit of Tokugawa Iemitsu to the temple, it is designated a National Treasure. It is constructed as a four-legged gate with karahafu gables of undulating curves on the front and back, it has a roof in the irimoya style, a style of hip roof sloping down on all four sides and integrated on two opposing sides with a gable. The roof is covered by bark shingles made from hinoki cypress, it is known as the Higurashi no Mon, due to the high number and quality of the carving that decorate the gate, including images of flowers and fantastic figures. One of the panels shows the legendary chinese hermit Xu You beside a waterfall, "washing from his ear an offensive proposal from the Emperor Yao". Another one shows a farmer cleaning his ox, "expressing anger at the pollution of the stream".
The last two times the gate was opened and visitors were allowed to walk through it were in 1983, during a rite related to the founder of Jōdo Shinshū Buddhism Shinran, in 2017, prior to the renovation of the gate in 2018. It is used for occasional visits of the Imperial Family; the goei-dō or "Founder's Hall" was rebuilt in 1636, following the destruction of the previous main halls by an earthquake in 1596 and a fire in 1617. It is designated a National Treasure; the building, single-storied, with a hongawarabuki roof, a tile roof composed of flat broad concave tiles and semi-cylindrical convex tiles covering the seams of the former, on the irimoya style. It measures 62 with a height on 29 metres. A wooden image of Shinran is enshrined in the central altar, with portraits of the successive head priests on display alongside. Major ceremonies conducted at Nishi Hongan-ji are conducted at this building. Glossary of Japanese Buddhism List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan A.^ The defunct hanamachi
Ishida Mitsunari was a Japanese samurai and military commander of the late Sengoku period of Japan. He is best remembered as the commander of the Western army in the Battle of Sekigahara following the Azuchi–Momoyama period of the 16th century, he is known by his court title, Jibu-no-shō. He was born in the north of Ōmi Province, was the second son of Ishida Masatsugu, a retainer for the Azai clan, his childhood name was Sakichi. The Ishida withdrew from service after the Azai's defeat in 1573. According to legend, he was a monk in a Buddhist temple before he served Toyotomi Hideyoshi, but the accuracy of this legend is doubted since it only came about during the Edo period. Mitsunari met Toyotomi Hideyoshi when the former was still young and the latter was the daimyō of Nagahama; when Hideyoshi engaged in a campaign in the Chūgoku region, Mitsunari assisted his lord in attacks against castles like the Tottori Castle and Takamatsu Castle. After Hideyoshi seized power, Mitsunari became known as a talented financial manager due to his knowledge and skill at calculation.
From 1585 onward, he was the administrator of Sakai, a role he took together with his elder brother Ishida Masazumi. He was appointed top administrators of Hideyoshi's government. Hideyoshi made him a daimyō of Sawayama in Ōmi Province, a five hundred thousand koku fief. Sawayama Castle was known as one of the best-fortified castles during that time. Mitsunari participated in the 1590 campaign against the Hōjō clan, where he commanded the Siege of Oshi and captured Oshi Castle, he served in the Japanese invasions of Korea. Mitsunari was a leader of bureaucrats in Hideyoshi's government, was known for his unbending character. Though he had many friends, he was on bad terms with some daimyōs that were known as good warriors, including Hideyoshi's relatives Kuroda Nagamasa and Hachisuka Iemasa. Additionally, the young warrior Kobayakawa Hideaki developed a grudge against Mitsunari as a result of rumors spread by Tokugawa Ieyasu. Toward the end of Taiko Hideyoshi's life, Hideyoshi ordered the execution of his heir Hidetsugu and the execution of his family, leaving his new heir to be the young child Toyotomi Hideyori.
After Hideyoshi's death, the conflicts in the court worsened. The central point of the conflict was the question of whether Tokugawa Ieyasu could be relied on as a supporter of the Toyotomi government, whose nominal lord was still a child, with actual leadership falling to a council of regents. After the death of the respected "neutral" Maeda Toshiie in 1599, the conflict came to arms, with Mitsunari forming an alliance of loyalists to Toyotomi's young heir to stand against Tokugawa. Mitsunari's support came from the south and west of Japan, with the addition of the Uesugi clan in the north, while Tokugawa's support came from central and northern Japan, but had influence and intimidation over some of the Western lords; the titular head of the Western alliance was Mōri Terumoto, but Mōri stayed entrenched in his castle. In 1600, He besieged Fushimi Castle before marching into direct conflict with Tokugawa's alliance at Sekigahara. A number of lords stayed neutral, watching the battle from afar, not wishing to join in the losing side.
Tokugawa's forces gained the edge in the battle with the betrayal of Kobayakawa Hideaki to his side, won the battle. After his defeat, Mitsunari was caught by villagers, he was beheaded in Kyoto. Other daimyōs of the Western army, like Konishi Yukinaga and Ankokuji Ekei were executed. After execution, his head, severed from his body, was placed on a stand for all the people in Kyoto to see, his remains were buried at a sub-temple of the Daitoku-ji, Kyoto. A theory / legend says that Ieyasu showed him mercy, but hid him, for political reasons, with one of his veteran generals, Sakakibara Yasumasa, where he grew old and died a natural death. To thank Yasumasa for his silence, Mitsunari gave him a treasured sunnobi-tantō of 31,2 cm therefore nicknamed Ishida-Sadamune, ranked Jūyō Bunkazai by the Japanese Government. In general, traditional Japanese historiography did not pay much attention to Mitsunari's legacy, as he lost and Tokugawa won, his reputation has somewhat recovered since with historians noting his skill in planning and earlier battlefield victories, that Sekigahara could have gone the other way had a few more lords on his side stayed loyal.
Mitsunari had three daughters with his wife. After his father's death, Shigenari changed his family name to Sugiyama to keep living. In James Clavell's novel Shōgun, Ishida served as basis for the character of "Ishido". Ishido was portrayed by Nobuo Kaneko in the 1980 TV mini-series adaptation. In the 2017 film Sekigahara, Mitsunari is portrayed quite sympathetically; this version of Mitsunari is dismayed at Hideyoshi's execution of his heir and regent, recruits allies interested in ruling with justice, is uncomfortable with taking families hostage as leverage, genuinely seeks the best for Hideyoshi's heir, is in general a forthright and honest type. His rival Tokugawa is portrayed as more of a schemer; the director, Masato Harada, saw Mitsunari as a more modern type of ruler, ahead of his time. Mitsunari is a character in the Sengoku Basara franchise where he is portrayed more as a warrior loyal to Hideyoshi as opposed to an administrator and a general, he excels in using Iaido and darkness-based att
The Tokugawa Shogunate known as the Tokugawa Bakufu and the Edo Bakufu, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1603 and 1867. The head of government was the shōgun, each was a member of the Tokugawa clan; the Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern. Following the Sengoku period, the central government had been re-established by Oda Nobunaga during the Azuchi–Momoyama period. After the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, central authority fell to Tokugawa Ieyasu. Society in the Tokugawa period, unlike in previous shogunates, was based on the strict class hierarchy established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi; the daimyō were at the top, followed by the warrior-caste of samurai, with the farmers and traders ranking below. In some parts of the country smaller regions, daimyō and samurai were more or less identical, since daimyō might be trained as samurai, samurai might act as local rulers.
Otherwise, the inflexible nature of this social stratification system unleashed disruptive forces over time. Taxes on the peasantry were set at fixed amounts that did not account for inflation or other changes in monetary value; as a result, the tax revenues collected by the samurai landowners were worth less and less over time. This led to numerous confrontations between noble but impoverished samurai and well-to-do peasants, ranging from simple local disturbances to much larger rebellions. None, proved compelling enough to challenge the established order until the arrival of foreign powers. A 2017 study found that peasant rebellions and collective desertion lowered tax rates and inhibited state growth in the Tokugawa shogunate. In the mid-19th century, an alliance of several of the more powerful daimyō, along with the titular Emperor, succeeded in overthrowing the shogunate after the Boshin War, culminating in the Meiji Restoration; the Tokugawa shogunate came to an official end in 1868 with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, leading to the "restoration" of imperial rule.
Notwithstanding its eventual overthrow in favor of the more modernized, less feudal form of governance of the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa shogunate oversaw the longest period of peace and stability in Japan's history, lasting well over 260 years. The bakuhan taisei was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan. Baku is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government"—that is, the shogunate; the han were the domains headed by daimyō. Vassals provided military service and homage to their lords; the bakuhan taisei split feudal power between the shogunate in Edo and provincial domains throughout Japan. Provinces had a degree of sovereignty and were allowed an independent administration of the han in exchange for loyalty to the shōgun, responsible for foreign relations and national security; the shōgun and lords were all daimyōs: feudal lords with their own bureaucracies and territories. The shōgun administered the most powerful han, the hereditary fief of the House of Tokugawa.
Each level of government administered its own system of taxation. The emperor, nominally a religious leader, held no real power; the shogunate had the power to discard and transform domains. The sankin-kōtai system of alternative residence required each daimyō to reside in alternate years between the han and the court in Edo. During their absences from Edo, it was required that they leave family as hostages until their return; the huge expenditure sankin-kōtai imposed on each han helped centralize aristocratic alliances and ensured loyalty to the shōgun as each representative doubled as a potential hostage. Tokugawa's descendants further ensured loyalty by maintaining a dogmatic insistence on loyalty to the shōgun. Fudai daimyō were hereditary vassals of Ieyasu, as well as of his descendants. Tozama became vassals of Ieyasu after the Battle of Sekigahara. Shinpan were collaterals of Tokugawa Hidetada. Early in the Edo period, the shogunate viewed the tozama as the least to be loyal. In the end, it was the great tozama of Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa, to a lesser extent Hizen, that brought down the shogunate.
These four states are called Satchotohi for short. The number of han fluctuated throughout the Edo period, they were ranked by size, measured as the number of koku of rice that the domain produced each year. One koku was the amount of rice necessary to feed one adult male for one year; the minimum number for a daimyō was ten thousand koku. Regardless of the political title of the Emperor, the shōguns of the Tokugawa family controlled Japan; the administration of Japan was a task given by the Imperial Court in Kyoto to the Tokugawa family, which returned to the court in the Meiji Restoration. While the Emperor had the prerogative of appointing the shōgun, he had no say in state affairs; the shogunate appointed a liaison, the Kyoto Shoshidai, to deal with the Emperor and nobility. Towards the end of the shogunate, after centuries of the Emperor having little say in state affairs and being secluded in his Kyoto palace, in the wake of the reigning shōgun, Tokugawa Iemochi, marrying the sister of Emperor Kōmei, in 1862, the Imperial Court in Kyoto
Toyotomi Hideyoshi was a preeminent daimyō, general and politician of the Sengoku period, regarded as Japan's second "great unifier". He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, brought an end to the Warring Lords period; the period of his rule is called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle. After his death, his young son Hideyori was displaced by Tokugawa Ieyasu. Hideyoshi is noted for a number of cultural legacies, including the restriction that only members of the samurai class could bear arms, he financed the construction and rebuilding of many temples standing today in Kyoto. He is known for ordering the Japanese invasions of Korea. Little is known for certain about Hideyoshi before 1570 when he begins to appear in surviving documents and letters, his autobiography starts in 1577 but in it, Hideyoshi spoke little about his past. According to tradition, he was born in the home of the Oda clan, he was born of no traceable samurai lineage. He had no surname, his childhood given name was Hiyoshi-maru although variations exist.
Yaemon died in 1543, when Hideyoshi was 7, the younger of two children, his sibling being an older sister. Many legends describe Hideyoshi being sent to study at a temple as a young man, but he rejected temple life and went in search of adventure. Under the name Kinoshita Tōkichirō, he first joined the Imagawa clan as a servant to a local ruler named Matsushita Yukitsuna, he travelled all the way to the lands of Imagawa Yoshimoto, daimyō of Suruga Province, served there for a time, only to abscond with a sum of money entrusted to him by Matsushita Yukitsuna. In 1558, he joined the Oda clan, now headed by Oda Nobunaga, as an ashigaru, he became one of Nobunaga's sandal-bearers and was present at the Battle of Okehazama in 1560 when Nobunaga defeated Imagawa Yoshimoto to become one of the most powerful warlords in the Sengoku period. According to his biographers, he supervised the repair of Kiyosu Castle, a claim described as "apocryphal", managed the kitchen. In 1561, Hideyoshi married One, Asano Nagakatsu's adopted daughter.
He carried out repairs on Sunomata Castle with his younger brother Toyotomi Hidenaga and Hachisuka Masakatsu and Maeno Nagayasu. Hideyoshi's efforts were well received, he constructed a fort in Sunomata, according to legend overnight, discovered a secret route into Mount Inaba after which much of the garrison surrendered. Hideyoshi was successful as a negotiator. In 1564, he managed to convince with liberal bribes, a number of Mino warlords to desert the Saitō clan. Hideyoshi approached many Saitō clan samurai and convinced them to submit to Nobunaga, including the Saitō clan's strategist, Takenaka Shigeharu. Nobunaga's easy victory at Inabayama Castle in 1567 was due to Hideyoshi's efforts, despite his peasant origins, Hideyoshi became one of Nobunaga's most distinguished generals taking the name Hashiba Hideyoshi; the new surname included two characters, one each from Oda's two other right-hand men, Niwa Nagahide and Shibata Katsuie. Hideyoshi led troops in the Battle of Anegawa in 1570 in which Oda Nobunaga allied with Tokugawa Ieyasu to lay siege to two fortresses of the Azai and Asakura clans.
He participated in the 1573 Siege of Nagashima. In 1573, after victorious campaigns against the Azai and Asakura, Nobunaga appointed Hideyoshi daimyō of three districts in the northern part of Ōmi Province. Based at the former Azai headquarters in Odani, Hideyoshi moved to Kunitomo and renamed the city Nagahama in tribute to Nobunaga. Hideyoshi moved to the port at Imahama on Lake Biwa. From there he began work on Imahama Castle and took control of the nearby Kunitomo firearms factory, established some years by the Azai and Asakura. Under Hideyoshi's administration, the factory's output of firearms increased dramatically, he fought in the Battle of Nagashino. Nobunaga sent Hideyoshi to Himeji Castle to conquer the Chūgoku region from the Mori clan in 1576, he fought in the 1577 Battle of Tedorigawa, the Siege of Miki, the Siege of Itami, the 1582 Siege of Takamatsu. After the assassinations at Honnō-ji of Oda Nobunaga and his eldest son Nobutada in 1582 at the hands of Akechi Mitsuhide, seeking vengeance for the death of his beloved lord, made peace with the Mōri clan and defeated Akechi at the Battle of Yamazaki.
At a meeting at Kiyosu to decide on a successor to Nobunaga, Hideyoshi cast aside the apparent candidate, Oda Nobutaka and his advocate, Oda clan's chief general, Shibata Katsuie, by supporting Nobutada's young son, Oda Hidenobu. Having won the support of the other two Oda elders, Niwa Nagahide and Ikeda Tsuneoki, Hideyoshi established Hidenobu's position, as well as his own influence in the Oda clan. Tension escalated between Hideyoshi and Katsuie, at the Battle of Shizugatake in the following year, Hideyoshi destroyed Katsuie's forces. Hideyoshi had thus consolidated his own power, dealt with most of the Oda clan, controlled 30 provinces. In 1582, Hideyoshi began construction of Osaka Castle. Built on the site of the temple Ishiyama Hongan-ji destroyed by Nobunaga, the castle would become the last stronghold of the Toyotomi clan after Hideyoshi's death. Nobunaga's other son, Oda Nobukatsu, remained hostile to Hideyoshi, he allied himself with Tokugawa Ieyasu, the two sides fought at the inconclusive Battle of Komaki and Nagakute.
It resulted in a stalemate, although Hideyoshi's forces were delivered a
Torii Mototada was a Japanese samurai of the Sengoku period through late Azuchi–Momoyama period, who served Tokugawa Ieyasu. Torii died at the siege of Fushimi where his garrison was outnumbered and destroyed by the army of Ishida Mitsunari. Torii's refusal to surrender had a great impact on Japanese history. Torii was born in the son of Torii Tadayoshi; as a boy, he was sent as hostage to the Imagawa clan, together with the future Tokugawa Ieyasu. The young Mototada served the then-Matsudaira Takechiyo as a page. After Ieyasu's return from the Imagawa clan, his unification of Mikawa Province, Mototada served as one of his chief generals. In 1572, Mototada succeeded the Torii family headship, following the death of his father, he fought at the Battle of Mikata-ga-hara and Battle of Suwahara Castle the following year and was wounded in the legs, which rendered walking difficult for him from on. Mototada served in all of Ieyasu's major campaigns. With only 2,000 men he mounted a rearguard action against the Hōjō clan's force of over 10,000, defeated them.
In 1585, he joined Ōkubo Tadayo and Hiraiwa Chikayoshi in laying siege to the Sanada clan's Ueda Castle. After Ieyasu's move to the Kantō region, Torii was granted the 40,000 koku fief of Yasaku in Shimōsa Province, which made him a daimyō. In August 1600, Torii was forewarned by spies that an army of 40,000 battle-hardened followers of Toyotomi Hideyori were annihilating everything in their path on their march to Fushimi Castle; the 2000 man garrison at Fushimi Castle was badly outnumbered, yet escape for the men inside was still possible. In an act of loyalty to his lord Tokugawa Ieyasu, Torii chose to remain behind, pledging that he and his bastion would fight to the finish. In a last statement addressed to his son Tadamasa, Torii described how his family served the Tokugawa for generations and how his own brother had been killed in battle. In the letter, Torii stated that he considered it an honor to die first so that he might give courage to the rest of the Tokugawa warriors, he requested that his son raise his siblings to serve the Tokugawa Clan "In both ascent and decline" and to remain humble desiring neither lordship nor monetary reward.
Lifelong friends, Torii Mototada and Tokugawa Ieyasu parted ways sadly knowing that they would never see each other again: "It is not the Way of the Warrior to be shamed and avoid death under circumstances that are not important... For myself, I am resolved to die a quick death, it would not take much trouble to break through a part of their numbers and escape, no matter how many tens of thousands of horsemen approached for the attack or by how many columns we were surrounded. But, not the true meaning of being a warrior, it would be difficult to account as loyalty. Rather, I will stand off the forces of the entire country here, and... die a resplendent death."In the end, with the castle in flames around him, Torii ordered his men to charge headlong into battle over and over again until only ten remained. The castle defenders fought heroically to the last man; as was custom, Torii killed himself rather than be captured alive. The siege of Fushimi Castle stalled the advancement of the 40,000 troops by ten days, allowing Tokugawa to escape.
Torii Mototada's actions had a great impact on the course of Japanese history. Tokugawa Ieyasu would raise an army of 90,000 and confront Ishida Mitsunari's forces at Sekigahara in what would be one of the bloodiest battles in the Sengoku period. Forty-thousand heads would be taken in the first hours of battle and 70,000 would perish in the next two days as the remnants of Mitsunari's vanquished army were hunted down and executed; the battle of Sekigahara was a decisive one. Tokugawa’s family would rule the entire country for the next 268 years. Mototada's suicide at the fall of Fushimi is one of the most celebrated acts of seppuku in Japanese history. Totman, Conrad. Tokugawa Ieyasu: Shogun. Https://web.archive.org/web/20091002235330/http://www.city.okazaki.aichi.jp/museum/DB/KIKAKU/E/e001%20toriimototada.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20080307054400/http://www.h7.dion.ne.jp/~history/sub2.html http://www7a.biglobe.ne.jp/~echigoya/jin/ToriiMototada.html The Last Statement of Torii Mototada Written on the eve of his castle's destruction
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shōgun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616, his given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu, according to the historical pronunciation of the kana character he. Ieyasu was posthumously enshrined at Nikkō Tōshō-gū with the name Tōshō Daigongen, he was one of the three unifiers of Japan, along with his former lord Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. During the Muromachi period, the Matsudaira clan controlled a portion of Mikawa Province. Ieyasu's father, Matsudaira Hirotada, was a minor local warlord based at Okazaki Castle who controlled a portion of the Tōkaidō highway linking Kyoto with the eastern provinces, his territory was sandwiched between stronger and predatory neighbors, including the Imagawa clan based in Suruga Province to the east and the Oda clan to the west.
Hirotada's main enemy was the father of Oda Nobunaga. Tokugawa Ieyasu was born in Okazaki Castle on the 26th day of the twelfth month of the eleventh year of Tenbun, according to the Japanese calendar. Named Matsudaira Takechiyo, he was the son of Matsudaira Hirotada, the daimyō of Mikawa of the Matsudaira clan, Odai-no-kata, the daughter of a neighbouring samurai lord, Mizuno Tadamasa, his mother and father were step-siblings. They were just 17 and 15 years old when Ieyasu was born. In the year of Ieyasu's birth, the Matsudaira clan was split. In 1543, Hirotada's uncle, Matsudaira Nobutaka defected to the Oda clan; this gave Oda Nobuhide the confidence to attack Okazaki. Soon afterwards, Hirotada's father-in-law died, his son Mizuno Nobumoto revived the clan's traditional enmity against the Matsudaira and declared for Oda Nobuhide as well; as a result, Hirotada sent her back to her family. As both husband and wife remarried and both went on to have further children, Ieyasu had 11 half-brothers and sisters.
As Oda Nobuhide continued to attack Okazaki, in 1548 Hirotada turned to his powerful eastern neighbor, Imagawa Yoshimoto for assistance. Yoshimoto agreed to an alliance under the condition that Hirotada send his young heir to Sunpu Domain as a hostage. Oda Nobuhide, learned of this arrangement and had Ieyasu abducted from his entourage en route to Sunpu. Ieyasu was just five years old at the time. Nobuhide threatened to execute Ieyasu. Despite this refusal, Nobuhide chose not to kill Ieyasu, but instead held him as a hostage for the next three years at the Mansho-ji Temple in Nagoya. In 1549, when Ieyasu was 6, his father Hirotada was murdered by his own vassals, bribed by the Oda clan. At about the same time, Oda Nobuhide died during an epidemic. Nobuhide's death dealt a heavy blow to the Oda clan. An army under the command of Imagawa Sessai laid siege to the castle where Oda Nobuhiro, Nobuhide's eldest son and the new head of the Oda, was living. With the castle about to fall, Sessai offered a deal to Nobuhide's second son.
Sessai offered to give up the siege. Nobunaga agreed, so Ieyasu was taken as a hostage to Sumpu. At Sumpu, he remained a hostage, but was treated well as a useful future ally of the Imagawa clan until 1556 when he was 15 years old. In 1556 Ieyasu came of age, with Imagawa Yoshimoto presiding over his genpuku ceremony. Following tradition, he changed his name from Matsudaira Takechiyo to Matsudaira Jirōsaburō Motonobu, he was briefly allowed to visit Okazaki to pay his respects to the tomb of his father, receive the homage of his nominal retainers, led by the karō Torii Tadayoshi. One year at the age of 13, he married his first wife, Lady Tsukiyama, a relative of Imagawa Yoshitmoto, changed his name again to Matsudaira Kurandonosuke Motoyasu. Allowed to return to his native Mikawa, the Imagawa ordered him to fight the Oda clan in a series of battles. Motoyasu fought his first battle in 1558 at the Siege of Terabe; the castellan of Terabe in western Mikawa, Suzuki Shigeteru, betrayed the Imagawa by defecting to Oda Nobunaga.
This was nominally within Matsudaira territory, so Imagawa Yoshimoto entrusted the campaign to Ieyasu and his retainers from Okazaki. Ieyasu led the attack in person, but after taking the outer defences, grew fearful of a counterattack to the rear, so he burned the main castle and withdrew; as anticipated, the Oda forces attacked his rear lines, but Motoyasu was prepared and drove off the Oda army. He succeeded in delivering supplies in the 1559 Siege of Odaka. Odaka was the only one of five disputed frontier forts under attack by the Oda which remained in Imagawa hands. Motoyasu launched diversionary attacks against the two neighboring forts, when the garrisons of the other forts went to their assistance, Ieyasu's supply column was able to reach Odaka. By 1560 the leadership of the Oda clan had passed to the brilliant leader Oda Nobunaga. Imagawa Yoshimoto, leading a large army invaded Oda clan territory. Motoyasu was assigned a separate mission to capture the stronghold of Marune; as a result, he and his men were not present at the Battle of Okehazama where Yoshimoto was killed in Nobunaga's surprise assault.
With Yoshimoto dead, the Imagawa clan in a state of confus
Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)
The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, a second invasion in 1597. The conflict ended in 1598 with the withdrawal of the Japanese forces from the Korean Peninsula after a military stalemate in Korea's southern coastal provinces; the invasions were launched by Toyotomi Hideyoshi with the intent of conquering the Korean Peninsula and China, which were ruled by the Joseon and by the Ming dynasty, respectively. Japan succeeded in occupying large portions of the Korean Peninsula, but the contribution of reinforcements by the Ming, as well as the disruption of Japanese supply fleets along the western and southern coasts by the Joseon Navy forced a withdrawal of Japanese forces from Pyongyang and the northern provinces to the south, in Busan and nearby southern regions. Afterwards, with guerrilla warfare waged against the Japanese with righteous armies and supply difficulties hampering both sides, neither the Japanese nor the combined Ming and Joseon forces were able to mount a successful offensive or gain any additional territory, resulting in a military stalemate.
The first phase of the invasion lasted from 1592 until 1596, was followed by unsuccessful peace negotiations between Japan and the Ming between 1596 and 1597. In 1597, Japan renewed its offensive by invading Korea a second time; the pattern of the second invasion mirrored that of the first. The Japanese had initial successes on land, capturing several cities and fortresses, only to be halted and forced to withdraw to the southern coastal regions of the peninsula; the pursuing Ming and Joseon forces, were unable to dislodge the Japanese from their remaining fortresses and entrenched positions in the southern coastal areas, where both sides again became locked in a ten-month long military stalemate. With Hideyoshi's death in 1598, limited progress on land, continued disruption of supply lines by the Joseon navy, the Japanese forces in Korea were ordered to withdraw back to Japan by the new governing Council of Five Elders. Final peace negotiations between the parties followed afterwards and continued for several years resulting in the normalization of relations.
In Korean, the first invasion is called the "Japanese Disturbance of Imjin". The second invasion is called the "Second War of Jeong-yu". Collectively, the invasions are referred to as the Imjin War. In Chinese, the wars are referred to as the "Wanli Korean Campaign", after the reigning Chinese emperor, or the "Renchen War to Defend the Nation", where renchen is the Chinese reading of imjin. In Japanese, the war is called Bunroku no eki. Bunroku referring to the Japanese era name of Emperor Go-Yōzei, spanning the period from 1592 to 1596; the second invasion is called "Keichō no eki". During the Edo period, the war was called "Kara iri", because Japan's ultimate purpose at the commencement of the invasion was the conquest of Ming China, although with the reality that the conflict was confined to the Korean Peninsula for the duration of the war, the armies of Toyotomi Hideyoshi would alter their immediate objectives during the course of the campaign. In 1592, with an army of 158,000 troops, Toyotomi Hideyoshi launched what would end up being the first of two invasions of Korea, with the intent of conquering Joseon Korea and Ming-dynasty China.
The Japanese forces saw overwhelming success on land, capturing both Hanseong, the capital of Korea, Pyongyang, completing the occupation of large portions of the Korean Peninsula in three months. The Japanese forces, well trained and experienced after the numerous battles and conflicts of the Sengoku period held the field in most land engagements; this success on land, was constrained by the naval campaigns of the Korean navy which would continue to raid Japanese supply fleets in its coastal waters, hampering the Japanese advances as supply lines were disrupted along the Western Korean coast and Japanese naval reinforcements were repelled. These trends, with some exceptions on both sides, held true throughout much of the conflict. Under the rule of the Wanli Emperor, Ming China interpreted the Japanese invasions as a challenge and threat to the Imperial Chinese tributary system; the Ming's interest was to keep the war confined to the Korean peninsula and out of its own territory. In the engagements that followed, the majority of the Joseon army was focused on defending the northern provinces from Japanese offensives, while supporting Ming army campaigns to recapture territory occupied by the Japanese.
It was the combination of these Ming-led land campaigns and Joseon-led naval warfare that forced the Japanese army to withdraw from Pyongyang to the south, where the Japanese continued to occupy Hanseong and the southern regions with the exception of the southwestern Jeolla Province. The pursuing Ming and Joseon armies attempted to advance further into the south, but were halted by the Japanese army at the Battle of Byeokjegwan. Subsequently, the Japanese armies launched a counterattack in an attempt to reoccupy the northern provinces but were repelled by the defending Joseon army at Haengju fortress. Additionally, Joseon's civilian-led righteous armies waged guerrilla warfare against the Japanese forces in the south, which weakened the Japanese hold in the cities they occupied. Afterwards, with supply difficulties hampering bot