Keihan Main Line
The Keihan Main Line is a railway line in Japan operated by Keihan Electric Railway. The line runs between Yodoyabashi Station in Osaka. There are through services to the Keihan Nakanoshima Line. Trains from Kyoto to Osaka are treated as "down" trains, from Osaka to Kyoto as "up" trains; as of August 20, 2017, the following services are operated. Liner All cars reserved seating Rapid Limited Express "Rakuraku" Premium car is reserved seating only Limited Express Premium car is reserved seating only Commuter Rapid Express - "down" trains only, on weekday mornings Rapid Express Midnight Express - "up" trains only A train departs from Yodoyabashi for Kuzuha at 0:20 a.m. and passes Moriguchishi and Hirakata-kōen. Express Commuter Sub-express - "down" trains only, on weekday mornings Trains are operated from Demachiyanagi, Hirakatashi to Yodoyabashi or Nakanoshima in the morning and pass Moriguchishi. Sub-express Semi-express Local Trains stop at all stations. Operation in non-rush hours per hour Limited express: 6 round trips between Yodoyabashi and Demachiyanagi Express: 3 round trips between Yodoyabashi and Kuzuha Sub. express: 3 round trips between Yodoyabashi and Demachiyanagi Local: 6 round trips between Nakanoshima and Kayashima, of which 3 extend to Demachiyanagi S: Trains stop.
S: limited stop |, ↑, ↓: Trains pass. ↑, ↓: Only one direction.: Stations using melodies composed by musician Minoru Mukaiya in train departure announcements. For train abbreviations, see above; the Temmabashi to Kiyomizu-Gojo section opened as dual track, electrified at 1,500 V DC, in 1910, was extended to Sanjo in 1915. The Temmabashi to Yodoyabashi section opened in 1963. List of railway lines in Japan This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia
Keihan Electric Railway
Keihan Electric Railway Co. Ltd. is a Japanese railway operator in Osaka and Shiga Prefectures. It is known as "Keihan", "Keihan Dentetsu" or "Keihan Densha", it is subsidiary of Keihan Holdings, Ltd.. Keihan started its operation between Osaka and Kyoto in 1910, it was the first electric railway to connect these two cities, the first line on the left bank of Yodo River. Keihan purchased the lines in the Ōtsu area. In the 1920s, Keihan built another Osaka-Kyoto line through its subsidiary Shinkeihan Railway, which merged into Keihan in 1930; this line is now known as Hankyu Kyoto Line. In 1943, with the power given by the Land Transport Business Coordination Act, the wartime government of Japan forced Keihan to merge with Hanshin Kyūkō Railway to form Keihanshin Kyūkō Railway. In 1949, the pre-war Keihan operations, except for Shinkeihan lines, restored independence under the original corporate name. Keihanshin Kyūkō Railway changed the name to present Hankyu Railway; the lines operated by Keihan are grouped into Ōtsu Lines.
The former operates between Osaka with long formation of larger rolling stock. The latter runs Ōtsu with more tram-like cars; the entire network has 1,435 mm standard gauge double track. Keihan Main Line: Yodoyabashi - Sanjo Ōtō Line: Sanjo - Demachiyanagi Nakanoshima Line: Nakanoshima - Temmabashi Katano Line: Hirakatashi - Kisaichi Uji Line: Chushojima - Uji Keishin Line: Misasagi - Biwako-hamaotsu Ishiyama Sakamoto Line: Ishiyamadera - Sakamoto-hieizanguchi Cable Line called Otokoyama Cable Keishin Line: Keishin-Sanjo - Misasagi Umeda Line As of 1 April 2016, Keihan owns a fleet of 693 vehicles, as follows. 1000 series 7-car EMUs x 6 2200 series 7-car EMUs x 7 2400 series 7-car EMUs x 6 2600 series 7-car EMUs x 7 3000 series 8-car EMUs x 6 5000 series 7-car EMUs x 7 6000 series 7/8-car EMUs x 14 7000 series 7-car EMUs x 4 7200 series 7/8-car EMUs x 3 8000 series 8-car EMUs x 10 9000 series 7/8-car EMUs x 5 10000 series 4/7-car EMUs x 6 13000 series 4/7-car EMUs x 8 600 series 2-car EMUs x 10 700 series 2-car EMUs x 5 800 series 4-car EMUs x 8 1900 series 5-car EMUs 8030 series 8-car EMU Train fare varies based on travel distance.
As of January 1, 2009, IC cards are accepted on the Keihan Lines and the Otsu Lines, but not on the Cable Line. The fare rate was changed on April 1, 2014 to reflect the change in the rate of consumption tax from 5% to 8%. Additional fare when taking or passing the following linesOto Line: 60 yen Nakanoshima Line: 60 yenWhen using commutation tickets, Naniwabashi Station is treated as the same station as Kitahama Station, Oebashi Station as that as Yodoyabashi Station. 200 yen The name Keihan is derived from the words Osaka in Japanese. The characters for Kyoto are 京都 and Osaka's are 大阪; the first character from Kyoto and the second from Osaka make 京阪, which can be read "Keihan". Keihan operates other businesses such as bus, water bus, department store and amusement park in the area along its railway system. Keihan Cable Line Keihan Electric Railway Keihan Electric Railway
Fushimi-Inari Station is a railway station located in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan, on the Keihan Electric Railway Keihan Main Line. This station has 2 side platforms with a track each. Fushimi Inari-taisha Inari Station Inari Station
An Inari shrine is a type of Japanese shrine used to worship the deity Inari. Inari is a popular deity associated with foxes, household wellbeing, business prosperity, general prosperity. Inari shrines are constructed of white stucco walls with red-lacquered woodwork, their entrances are marked by vermilion torii. Both Buddhist and Shinto Inari shrines are located throughout Japan; the original legend of Inari as described in the Yamashiro fudoki is the story of Hata no Irogu, a Korean immigrant, who used sticky rice for target practice. Legend states that once an arrow pierces the rice, the rice would transform into a white bird and fly to the peak of Mount Mitsumine. Upon its arrival to the mountain, the white bird changed back into rice plants; the development of Inari shrines began in the ninth century when Inari was appointed the protector kami for the Toji temple at Kyoto by Kobo Daishi, the founder of Shingon Buddhism. Kobo Daishi's recognition of the deity played a large part in the advancement of Inari worship.
Recorded legend describes Kobo Daishi's ascent of Inari mountain, where he meets an old man and recognizes him as the rice kami, Inari. Kobo Daishi understood Inari's significance and built a shrine for the kami and inscribed on it the Chinese characters for "rice" and "sack"; the spread of Inari worship first began through the kami's adoption as a yashikigami, which functioned as an estate deity that are enshrined on family land. Inari worship expanded further as it was adopted by merchants of developing cities and became the kami of business. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the practice of dividing and re-enshrining deities became a common practice in the case of Inari; the reason for this was to increase the status of the deity's patron. This practice continues today, the Motomiya festival is held annually in celebration of the one thousand enshrinements of the Inari kami; this number includes small household shrines belonging to other public institutions. It should be noted that there are many different variations of Inari origin myths, many of which developed and changed based on local and personal worship practices.
The function of Inari as a deity is fluid as over time, the term "Inari" has begun to encompass a wide variety of deities and beliefs. Inari or Inari Okami is the Japanese kami of improvement in the performing arts, household wellbeing, business prosperity, general prosperity. Inari is attributed to rice, tea, foxes and industry; the word “Inari” is an abbreviated term for “Ine Nari” or “Ine ni naru”, which translates to “reaping of rice”. The ancient Japanese word stems from the importance of rice in the daily Japanese diet and symbolizes the miracles of heaven and earth; as one of the principal deities of Shinto, Inari houses and protects all people so that they may live a fulfilling life. Inari is one of the most venerated kami in Japanese culture. Inari is a popular deity associated with both Buddhist shrines located throughout Japan. According to a 2007 report from Kokugakuin University, 2970 shrines are dedicated to Inari; this number includes only Shinto shrines that are registered as religious corporations and are a part of the Association of Shinto Shrines.
Small roadside or field shrines, shrines kept in a home or corporate office, Buddhist temples were not included in this statistic but, if they were the number might increase by a large amount. Inari worship continues to center around folk-religion practices and remains unchanged by Meiji Restorations. Inari shrines are well known and remain some of the most familiar and recognizable shrines to the Japanese people; the entrance to an Inari shrine is marked by one or more vermilion torii and images of foxes, which are adorned with red yodarekake by worshippers out of respect. The color red has come to be identified with Inari because of the prevalence of its use among Inari shrines and their torii; the main Inari shrine is the Fushimi Inari-taisha in Fushimi-ku, where the path to the shrine is marked by thousands of torii. Inari shrines possess guardian figures in the form of foxes or kitsune; these guardian figures are messengers of Inari but are thought of as the deity itself. The kitsune statues come in pairs, each represent a male and female.
These fox statues hold a symbolic item in their mouths or beneath a front paw. The items may include a jewel or a key which are most common but, a sheaf of rice, a scroll, or a fox cub are popular. All Inari shrines, no matter how small, will feature a pair of these statues flanking or on the altar or in front of the main sanctuary; the statues are realistic. Despite these common characteristics, the statues are individualistic in nature and no two are the same. Today, fox statues found at entrances signify the presence of an Inari shrine. Offerings of rice and other foods are given at the shrine to appease and please these kitsune messengers, who are expected to plead with Inari on the worshipper's behalf. Inari-zushi, a Japanese sushi roll of rice-packed fried tofu, is another popular offering. Fried tofu is believed to be a favorite food of Japanese foxes, an Inari-zushi roll has pointed corners that resemble fox ears, thus reinforcing the association. Priests do not offer food to the deity, but it is common for shops that line the approach to an Inari shrine to sell fried tofu for devotees to purchase and use as an offering.
Fox statues are offered to Inari shrines by worshippers, on occasion a stuffed and mounted fox is pres
Modern system of ranked Shinto shrines
The modern system of ranked Shinto shrines was an organizational aspect of the establishment of Japanese State Shinto. This system classified Shinto shrines as "other" shrines; the official shrines were divided into Imperial shrines, which are parsed into minor, medium, or major sub-categories. Some shrines are the "first shrines" called ichinomiya that have the highest rank in their respective provinces of Japan; the Ise Grand Shrine stood at the top of all shrines and thus was outside the classification. In 1871, an Imperial decree established a hierarchic ranking of Shinto shrines; these rankings were set aside in 1946, when such rankings were deemed "State Shinto" by the Occupation Shinto Directive. The Jinja Honcho has a different List of Special Shrines. In 1871, the Kanpei-sha identified the hierarchy of government-supported shrines most associated with the imperial family; the kampeisha were shrines venerated by the imperial family. This category encompasses those sanctuaries enshrining emperors, imperial family members, or meritorious retainers of the Imperial family.
The most ranked Imperial shrines or Kanpei-taisha encompassed 67 sanctuaries. The mid-range of ranked Imperial shrines or Kanpei-chūsha included 23 sanctuaries; the lowest ranked among the Imperial shrines or Kanpei-shōsha were five sanctuaries. In addition to the ranked Imperial shrines, there were other shrines at which the kami of emperors were venerated; the Kokuhei-sha identified the hierarchy of government-supported shrines with national significance. The kokuheisha enshrined kami considered beneficial to more local areas; the most ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Taisha were six sanctuaries. The mid-range of ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Chūsha encompassed 47 sanctuaries; the lowest ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Shōsha includes 50 sanctuaries. List of Shinto shrines Twenty-Two Shrines Setsumatsusha
Inari Ōkami is the Japanese kami of foxes, of fertility, rice and sake, of agriculture and industry, of general prosperity and worldly success, one of the principal kami of Shinto. In earlier Japan, Inari was the patron of swordsmiths and merchants. Represented as male, female, or androgynous, Inari is sometimes seen as a collective of three or five individual kami. Inari appears to have been worshipped since the founding of a shrine at Inari Mountain in 711 AD, although some scholars believe that worship started in the late 5th century. By the 16th century Inari had become the patron of blacksmiths and the protector of warriors, worship of Inari spread across Japan in the Edo period. Inari is a popular figure in both Buddhist beliefs in Japan. More than one-third of the Shinto shrines in Japan are dedicated to Inari. Modern corporations, such as cosmetic company Shiseido, continue to revere Inari as a patron kami, with shrines atop their corporate headquarters. Inari's foxes, or kitsune, act as their messengers.
Inari has been depicted both as female. The most popular representations of Inari, according to scholar Karen Ann Smyers, are a young female food goddess, an old man carrying rice, an androgynous bodhisattva. No one view is correct; because of their close association with kitsune, Inari is believed to be a fox. Inari appears in the form of a snake or dragon, one folktale has Inari appear to a wicked man in the shape of a monstrous spider as a way of teaching him a lesson. Inari is sometimes identified with other mythological figures; some scholars suggest that Inari is the figure known in classical Japanese mythology as Uka-no-Mitama or Uke Mochi. Some take Inari to be identical to any grain kami. Inari's female aspect is identified or conflated with Dakiniten, a Buddhist deity, a Japanese transformation of the Indian dakini, or with Benzaiten of the Seven Lucky Gods. Dakiniten is portrayed as a androgynous bodhisattva riding a flying white fox. Inari's association with Buddhism may have begun in the 8th century, when Shingon Buddhist monk and founder, Kūkai, took over administration of the temple of Tōji, chose Inari as a protector of the temple.
Thus, Inari is still associated with Shingon Buddhism to this day. Inari is venerated as a collective of three deities. However, the identification of these kami has varied over time. According to records of Fushimi Inari, the oldest and most prominent Inari shrine, these kami have included Izanagi, Izanami and Wakumusubi, in addition to the food deities mentioned; the five kami today identified with Inari at Fushimi Inari are Ukanomitama, Omiyanome and Shi. However, at Takekoma Inari, the second-oldest Inari shrine in Japan, the three enshrined deities are Ukanomitama and Wakumusubi. According to the Nijūni shaki, the three kami are Ōmiyame no mikoto Ukanomitama no mikoto and Sarutahiko no mikami The fox and the wish-fulfilling jewel are prominent symbols of Inari. Other common elements in depictions of Inari, sometimes of their kitsune, include a sickle, a sheaf or sack of rice, a sword. Another belonging was their whip—although they were hardly known to use it, it was a powerful weapon, used to burn people's crops of rice.
The origin of Inari worship is not clear. The first recorded use of the present-day kanji of Inari's name, which mean "carrying rice", was in the Ruijū Kokushi in 892 AD. Other sets of kanji with the same phonetic readings, most of which contained a reference to rice, were in use earlier, most scholars agree that the name Inari is derived from ine-nari; the worship of Inari is known to have existed as of 711 AD, the official founding date of the shrine at Inari Mountain in Fushimi, Kyoto. Scholars such as Kazuo Higo believe; the name Inari does not appear in classical Japanese mythology. By the Heian period, Inari worship began to spread. In 823 AD, after Emperor Saga presented the Tō-ji temple to Kūkai, the founder of the Shingon Buddhist sect, the latter designated Inari as its resident protector kami. In 827, the court granted Inari the lower fifth rank, which further increased the deity's popularity in the capital. Inari's rank was subsequently increased, by 942, Emperor Suzaku granted Inari the top rank in thanks for overcoming rebellions.
At this time, the Fushimi Inari-taisha shrine was among the twenty-two shrines chosen by the court to receive imperial patronage, a high honor. The second Inari shrine, Takekoma Inari, was established in the late ninth century. Inari's popularity continued to grow; the Fushimi shrine a popular pilgrimage site, gained wide renown when it became an imperial pilgrimage site in 1072. By 1338, the shrine's festival was said to rival the Gion Festival in splendor. In 1468, during the Ōnin War, the entire Fushimi shrine complex was burned. Rebuilding took about thirty years. While the old complex had enshrined three kami in separate buildings, the new one enshrined five kami in a single building; the new shrine included a Buddhist temple building for the first time, the her
Kyoto Kyoto City, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan. It is best known in Japanese history for being the former Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. In Japanese, Kyoto was called Kyō, Miyako, or Kyō no Miyako. In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto, from the Chinese calligraphic, jingdu. After the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo in 1868, the seat of the Emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as Saikyō. Kyoto is sometimes called the thousand-year capital; the National Diet never passed any law designating a capital. Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto and Meaco, utilised by Dutch cartographers. Another term used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi, meaning "urba" or "capital". Ample archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, although not much published material is retained about human activity in the area before the 6th century, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established.
During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara. His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province; the new city, Heian-kyō, a scaled replica of the Tang capital Chang'an, became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto or in other cities such as Kamakura and Edo, Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration; the city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, did not recover until the mid-16th century. During the Ōnin War, the shugo collapsed, power was divided among the military families. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, came to involve the court nobility and religious factions as well.
Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since. In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi built earthwork walls called odoi encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo; the Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city which showed the rebels' dissatisfaction towards the Tokugawa Shogunate. The subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy; the modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city.
The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932. There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population large enough to persuade the emperor to surrender. In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki; the city was spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. As a result, the Imperial City of Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex. Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference.
Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres above sea level; this interior positioning results in cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 square kilometres. The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an; the Imperial Palace faced south. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern. Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a fa