The working class comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour in manual-labour occupations and industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, most pink-collar jobs. Members of the working class rely for their income upon their earnings from wage labour. In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is used interchangeably with the term proletariat and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production; as with many terms describing social class, working class is defined and used in many different ways. The most general definition, used by Marxists and many socialists, is that the working class includes all those who have nothing to sell but their labour power and skills. In that sense it includes both white and blue-collar workers and mental workers of all types, excluding only individuals who derive their income from business ownership and the labour of others.
When used non-academically in the United States, however, it refers to a section of society dependent on physical labour when compensated with an hourly wage. For certain types of science, as well as less scientific or journalistic political analysis, for example, the working class is loosely defined as those without college degrees. Working-class occupations are categorized into four groups: unskilled labourers, artisans and factory workers. A common alternative, sometimes used in sociology, is to define class by income levels; when this approach is used, the working class can be contrasted with a so-called middle class on the basis of differential terms of access to economic resources, cultural interests, other goods and services. The cut-off between working class and middle class here might mean the line where a population has discretionary income, rather than sustenance; some researchers have suggested that working-class status should be defined subjectively as self-identification with the working-class group.
This subjective approach allows people, rather than researchers. In feudal Europe, the working class as such did not exist in large numbers. Instead, most people were part of the labouring class, a group made up of different professions and occupations. A lawyer and peasant were all considered to be part of the same social unit, a third estate of people who were neither aristocrats nor church officials. Similar hierarchies existed outside Europe in other pre-industrial societies; the social position of these labouring classes was viewed as ordained by natural law and common religious belief. This social position was contested by peasants, for example during the German Peasants' War. In the late 18th century, under the influence of the Enlightenment, European society was in a state of change, this change could not be reconciled with the idea of a changeless god-created social order. Wealthy members of these societies created ideologies which blamed many of the problems of working-class people on their morals and ethics.
In The Making of the English Working Class, E. P. Thompson argues that the English working class was present at its own creation, seeks to describe the transformation of pre-modern labouring classes into a modern, politically self-conscious, working class. Starting around 1917, a number of countries became ruled ostensibly in the interests of the working class; some historians have noted that a key change in these Soviet-style societies has been a massive a new type of proletarianization effected by the administratively achieved forced displacement of peasants and rural workers. Since four major industrial states have turned towards semi-market-based governance, one state has turned inwards into an increasing cycle of poverty and brutalization. Other states of this sort have either collapsed, or never achieved significant levels of industrialization or large working classes. Since 1960, large-scale proletarianization and enclosure of commons has occurred in the third world, generating new working classes.
Additionally, countries such as India have been undergoing social change, expanding the size of the urban working class. Karl Marx defined the working class or proletariat as individuals who sell their labour power for wages and who do not own the means of production, he argued. He asserted that the working class physically build bridges, craft furniture, grow food, nurse children, but do not own land, or factories. A sub-section of the proletariat, the lumpenproletariat, are the poor and unemployed, such as day labourers and homeless people. Marx considered them to be devoid of class consciousness. In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that it was the destiny of the working class to displace the capitalist system, with the dictatorship of the proletariat, abolishing the social relationshi
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of late antiquity. English dictionary definitions of Late Latin date this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, continuing into the 7th century in the Iberian Peninsula; this somewhat ambiguously defined version of Latin was used between the eras of Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. There is no scholarly consensus about when Classical Latin should end or Medieval Latin should begin. However, Late Latin is characterized by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin is not the same as Vulgar Latin; the latter served as ancestor of the Romance languages. Although Late Latin reflects an upsurge of the use of Vulgar Latin vocabulary and constructs, it remains classical in its overall features, depending on the author who uses it; some Late Latin writings are more literary and classical, but others are more inclined to the vernacular. Late Latin is not identical to Christian patristic Latin, used in the theological writings of the early Christian fathers.
While Christian writings used a subset of Late Latin, pagans wrote extensively in Late Latin in the early part of the period. Late Latin formed when mercenaries from non-Latin-speaking peoples on the borders of the empire were being subsumed and assimilated in large numbers, the rise of Christianity was introducing a heightened divisiveness in Roman society, creating a greater need for a standard language for communicating between different socioeconomic registers and separated regions of the sprawling empire. A new and more universal speech evolved from the main elements: Classical Latin, Christian Latin, which featured sermo humilis in which the people were to be addressed, all the various dialects of Vulgar Latin; the linguist Antoine Meillet wrote, "Without the exterior appearance of the language being much modified, Latin became in the course of the imperial epoch a new language", and, "Serving as some sort of lingua franca to a large empire, Latin tended to become simpler, to keep above all what it had of the ordinary".
Neither Late Latin nor Late Antiquity are modern concepts. A notice in Harper's New Monthly Magazine of the publication of Andrews' Freund's Lexicon of the Latin Language in 1850 mentions that the dictionary divides Latin into ante-classic, quite classic, Augustan, post-Augustan and post-classic or late Latin, which indicates the term was in professional use by English classicists in the early 19th century. Instances of English vernacular use of the term may be found from the 18th century; the term Late Antiquity meaning post-classical and pre-medieval had currency in English well before then. Wilhelm Sigismund Teuffel's first edition of History of Roman Literature defined an early period, the Golden Age, the Silver Age and goes on to define other ages first by dynasty and by century. In subsequent editions he subsumed all periods under three headings: the First Period, the Second Period and the Third Period, "the Imperial Age", subdivided into the Silver Age, the 2nd century, Centuries 3–6 together, a recognition of Late Latin, as he sometimes refers to the writings of those times as "late."
Imperial Latin went on into English literature. There are, insoluble problems with the beginning and end of Imperial Latin. Politically the excluded Augustan Period is the paradigm of imperiality, yet the style cannot be bundled with either the Silver Age or with Late Latin. Moreover, in 6th century Italy, the Roman Empire no longer existed. Subsequently the term Imperial Latin was dropped by historians of Latin literature, although it may be seen in marginal works; the Silver Age was extended the final four centuries represent Late Latin. Low Latin is a vague and pejorative term that might refer to any post-classical Latin from Late Latin through Renaissance Latin depending on the author, its origins are obscure but the Latin expression media et infima Latinitas sprang into public notice in 1678 in the title of a Glossary by Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange. The multi-volume set had many expansions by other authors subsequently; the title varies somewhat. It has been translated by expressions of different meanings.
The uncertainty is understanding what media, "middle", infima, "low", mean in this context. The media is securely connected to Medieval Latin by Cange's own terminology expounded in the Praefatio, such as scriptores mediae aetatis, "writers of the middle age." Cange's Glossary takes words from authors ranging from the Christian period to the Renaissance, dipping into the classical period if a word originated there. Either media et infima Latinitas refers to one age, which must be the middle age covering the entire post-classical range, or it refers to two consecutive periods, infima Latinitas and media Latinitas. Both interpretations have their adherents. In the former case the infimae appears extraneous; the two-period case postulates a second unity of style, infima Latinitas, translated into English as "Low Latin". Cange in the glossarial part of his Glossary identifies some words as being used by purioris Latinitatis scriptores, such as Cicero, he has said in the Preface that he rejects the a
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is applied in an aqueous solution, may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber. Both dyes and pigments are colored. Dyes are soluble in water whereas pigments are insoluble; some dyes can be rendered insoluble with the addition of salt to produce a lake pigment. The majority of natural dyes are derived from plant sources: roots, bark and wood, lichens. Most dyes are synthetic, i.e. are man-made from petrochemicals. Other than pigmentation, they have a range of applications including organic dye lasers, optical media and camera sensors. Textile dyeing dates back to the Neolithic period. Throughout history, people have dyed their textiles using common, locally available materials. Scarce dyestuffs that produced brilliant and permanent colors such as the natural invertebrate dyes Tyrian purple and crimson kermes were prized luxury items in the ancient and medieval world.
Plant-based dyes such as woad, indigo and madder were important trade goods in the economies of Asia and Europe. Across Asia and Africa, patterned fabrics were produced using resist dyeing techniques to control the absorption of color in piece-dyed cloth. Dyes from the New World such as cochineal and logwood were brought to Europe by the Spanish treasure fleets, the dyestuffs of Europe were carried by colonists to America. Dyed flax fibers have been found in the Republic of Georgia in a prehistoric cave dated to 36,000 BP. Archaeological evidence shows that in India and Phoenicia, dyeing has been carried out for over 5,000 years. Early dyes were obtained from animal, vegetable or mineral sources, with no to little processing. By far the greatest source of dyes has been from the plant kingdom, notably roots, bark and wood, only few of which are used on a commercial scale; the first synthetic dye, was discovered serendipitously by William Henry Perkin in 1856. The discovery of mauveine started a surge in organic chemistry in general.
Other aniline dyes followed, such as fuchsine and induline. Many thousands of synthetic dyes have since been prepared. Dyes are classified according to their chemical properties. Acid dyes are water-soluble anionic dyes that are applied to fibers such as silk, wool and modified acrylic fibers using neutral to acid dye baths. Attachment to the fiber is attributed, at least to salt formation between anionic groups in the dyes and cationic groups in the fiber. Acid dyes are not substantive to cellulosic fibers. Most synthetic food colors fall in this category. Examples of acid dye are Acid red 88, etc.. Basic dyes are water-soluble cationic dyes that are applied to acrylic fibers, but find some use for wool and silk. Acetic acid is added to the dye bath to help the uptake of the dye onto the fiber. Basic dyes are used in the coloration of paper. Direct or substantive dyeing is carried out in a neutral or alkaline dye bath, at or near boiling point, with the addition of either sodium chloride or sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate.
Direct dyes are used on cotton, leather, wool and nylon. They are used as pH indicators and as biological stains. Mordant dyes require a mordant, which improves the fastness of the dye against water and perspiration; the choice of mordant is important as different mordants can change the final color significantly. Most natural dyes are mordant dyes and there is therefore a large literature base describing dyeing techniques; the most important mordant dyes are chrome dyes, used for wool. The mordant potassium dichromate is applied as an after-treatment, it is important to note that many mordants those in the heavy metal category, can be hazardous to health and extreme care must be taken in using them. Vat dyes are insoluble in water and incapable of dyeing fibres directly. However, reduction in alkaline liquor produces the water-soluble alkali metal salt of the dye; this form is colorless, in which case it is referred to as a Leuco dye, has an affinity for the textile fibre. Subsequent oxidation reforms the original insoluble dye.
The color of denim is due to the original vat dye. Reactive dyes utilize a chromophore attached to a substituent, capable of directly reacting with the fiber substrate; the covalent bonds that attach reactive dye to natural fibers make them among the most permanent of dyes. "Cold" reactive dyes, such as Procion MX, Cibacron F, Drimarene K, are easy to use because the dye can be applied at room temperature. Reactive dyes are by far the best choice for dyeing cotton and other cellulose fibers at home or in the art studio. Disperse dyes were developed for the dyeing of cellulose acetate, are water-insoluble; the dyes are finely ground in the presence of a dispersing agent and sold as a paste, or spray-dried and sold as a powder. Their main use is to dye polyester, but they can be used to dye nylon, cellulose triacetate, acrylic fibers. In some cases, a dyeing temperature of 130 °C is required, a pressurized dyebath is used; the fine particle size gives a large surface area that aids dissolution to allow uptake by the fiber.
The dyeing rate can be influenced by the choice of dispersing agent used during the grinding. Azoic dyeing is a technique in which an insoluble Azo dye is produced directly
Twill is a type of textile weave with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs. This is done by passing the weft thread over one or more warp threads under two or more warp threads and so on, with a "step," or offset, between rows to create the characteristic diagonal pattern; because of this structure, twill drapes well. Twill weaves can be classified from four points of view: According to the stepping: Warp-way: 3/1 warp way twill, etc. Weft-way: 2/3 weft way twill, etc. According to the direction of twill lines on the face of the fabric: S-Twill or left-hand twill weave: 2/1 S, etc. Z-Twill or right-hand twill weave: 3/2 Z, etc. According to the face yarn: Warp face twill weave: 4/2 S, etc. Weft face twill weave: 1/3 Z, etc. Double face twill weave: 3/3 Z, etc. According to the nature of the produced twill line: Simple twill weave: 1/2 S, 3/1 Z etc. Expanded twill weave: 4/3 S, 3/2 Z, etc. Multiple twill weave: 2/3/3/1 S, etc. In a twill weave, each weft or filling yarn floats across the warp yarns in a progression of interlacings to the right or left, forming a pattern of distinct diagonal lines.
This diagonal pattern is known as a wale. A float is the portion of a yarn. A twill weave requires three or more harnesses, depending on its complexity and is the second most basic weave that can be made on a simple loom. Twill weave is designated as a fraction, such as 2⁄1, in which the numerator indicates the number of harnesses that are raised, the denominator indicates the number of harnesses that are lowered when a filling yarn is inserted; the fraction 2⁄1 is read as "two up, one down". The minimum number of harnesses needed to produce a twill can be determined by totaling the numbers in the fraction. Twill weave can be identified by its diagonal lines. Twill fabrics technically have a front and a back side, unlike plain weave, whose two sides are the same; the front side of the twill is called the back the technical back. The technical face side of a twill weave fabric is the side with the most pronounced wale. If there are warp floats on the technical face, there will be filling floats on the technical back.
If the twill wale goes up to the right on one side, it will go up to the left on the other side. Twill fabrics have no "up" and "down". Sheer fabrics are made with a twill weave; because a twill surface has interesting texture and design, printed twills are much less common than printed plain weaves. When twills are printed, this is done on lightweight fabrics. Soiling and stains are less noticeable on the uneven surface of twills than on a smooth surface, such as plain weaves, as a result twills are used for sturdy work clothing and for durable upholstery. Denim, for example, is a twill; the fewer interlacings in twills as compared to other weaves allow the yarns to move more and therefore they are softer and more pliable, drape better than plain-weave textiles. Twills recover from creasing better than plain-weave fabrics do; when there are fewer interlacings, the yarns can be packed closer together to produce high-count fabrics. With higher counts, including high-count twills, the fabric is more durable, is air- and water-resistant.
Twills can be divided into warp-faced. Even-sided twills include foulard or surah, houndstooth, serge and twill flannel. Warp-faced twills include cavalry twill, covert, drill, fancy twill and lining twill; the dictionary definition of twill at Wiktionary Media related to Twill at Wikimedia Commons
A priest or priestess is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They have the authority or power to administer religious rites, their office or position is the priesthood, a term which may apply to such persons collectively. According to the trifunctional hypothesis of prehistoric Proto-Indo-European society, priests have existed since the earliest of times and in the simplest societies, most as a result of agricultural surplus and consequent social stratification; the necessity to read sacred texts and keep temple or church records helped foster literacy in many early societies. Priests exist in many religions today, such as all or some branches of Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism, they are regarded as having privileged contact with the deity or deities of the religion to which they subscribe interpreting the meaning of events and performing the rituals of the religion. There is no common definition of the duties of priesthood between faiths.
These include blessing worshipers with prayers of joy at marriages, after a birth, at consecrations, teaching the wisdom and dogma of the faith at any regular worship service, mediating and easing the experience of grief and death at funerals – maintaining a spiritual connection to the afterlife in faiths where such a concept exists. Administering religious building grounds and office affairs and papers, including any religious library or collection of sacred texts, is commonly a responsibility – for example, the modern term for clerical duties in a secular office refers to the duties of a cleric; the question of which religions have a "priest" depends on how the titles of leaders are used or translated into English. In some cases, leaders are more like those that other believers will turn to for advice on spiritual matters, less of a "person authorized to perform the sacred rituals." For example, clergy in Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy are priests, but in Protestant Christianity they are minister and pastor.
The terms priest and priestess are sufficiently generic that they may be used in an anthropological sense to describe the religious mediators of an unknown or otherwise unspecified religion. In many religions, being a priest or priestess is a full-time position, ruling out any other career. Many Christian priests and pastors choose or are mandated to dedicate themselves to their churches and receive their living directly from their churches. In other cases it is a part-time role. For example, in the early history of Iceland the chieftains were titled goði, a word meaning "priest"; as seen in the saga of Hrafnkell Freysgoði, being a priest consisted of offering periodic sacrifices to the Norse gods and goddesses. In some religions, being a priest or priestess is by human election or human choice. In Judaism the priesthood is inherited in familial lines. In a theocracy, a society is governed by its priesthood; the word "priest", is derived from Greek via Latin presbyter, the term for "elder" elders of Jewish or Christian communities in late antiquity.
The Latin presbyter represents Greek πρεσβύτερος presbúteros, the regular Latin word for "priest" being sacerdos, corresponding to ἱερεύς hiereús. It is possible that the Latin word was loaned into Old English, only from Old English reached other Germanic languages via the Anglo-Saxon mission to the continent, giving Old Icelandic prestr, Old Swedish präster, Old High German priast. Old High German has the disyllabic priester, priestar derived from Latin independently via Old French presbtre. Αn alternative theory makes priest cognate with Old High German priast, from Vulgar Latin *prevost "one put over others", from Latin praepositus "person placed in charge". That English should have only the single term priest to translate presbyter and sacerdos came to be seen as a problem in English Bible translations; the presbyter is the minister who both presides and instructs a Christian congregation, while the sacerdos, offerer of sacrifices, or in a Christian context the eucharist, performs "mediatorial offices between God and man".
The feminine English noun, was coined in the 17th century, to refer to female priests of the pre-Christian religions of classical antiquity. In the 20th century, the word was used in controversies surrounding the women ordained in the Anglican communion, who are referred to as "priests", irrespective of gender, the term priestess is considered archaic in Christianity. In historical polytheism, a priest administers the sacrifice to a deity in elaborate ritual. In the Ancient Near East, the priesthood acted on behalf of the deities in managing their property. Priestesses in antiquity performed sacred prostitution, in Ancient Greece, some priestesses such as Pythia, priestess at Delphi, acted as oracles. Sumerian en were top-ranking priestesses who were distinguished with special ceremonial attire and held equal status to high priests, they owned property, transacted business, initiated the hieros gamos with priests and kings. Enheduanna was the first known holder of the title en. Nadītu served as priestesses in the temples of Inanna in the city of Uruk.
They were recruited from the highest families in the land and were supposed to remain childless, own
"Panne" redirects here. For the wetland feature, see Salt pannes and pools. Velvet is a type of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it a distinctive soft feel. By extension, the word velvety means "smooth like velvet." Velvet can be made from either natural fibers. Velvet is woven on a special loom; the two pieces are cut apart to create the pile effect, the two lengths of fabric are wound on separate take-up rolls. This complicated process meant that velvet was expensive to make before industrial power looms became available, well-made velvet remains a costly fabric. Velvet is difficult to clean because of its pile, but modern dry cleaning methods make cleaning more feasible. Velvet pile is created by warp or vertical yarns and velveteen pile is created by weft or fill yarns. Velvet can be made from several different kinds of fibers, the most expensive of, silk. Much of the velvet sold today as "silk velvet" is a mix of rayon and silk.
Velvet made from silk is rare and has market prices of several hundred US dollars per yard. Cotton is used to make velvet, though this results in a less luxurious fabric. Velvet can be made from fibers such as linen and wool. A cloth made by the Kuba people of the Democratic Republic of Congo from raffia is referred to as "Kuba velvet". More synthetic velvets have been developed from polyester, viscose and from either mixtures of different synthetics or from combined synthetics and natural fibers. A small percentage of spandex is sometimes added to give the final material a certain amount of stretch; because of its unusual softness and appearance as well as its high cost of production, velvet has been associated with nobility. Velvet was introduced to Baghdad during the rule of Harun al-Rashid by Kashmiri merchants and to Al-Andalus by Ziryab. In the Mamluk era, Cairo was the world's largest producer of velvet. Much of it was exported to Venice and the Mali Empire. Musa I of Mali, the ruler of the Mali Empire, visited Cairo on his pilgrimage to Mecca.
Many Arab velvet makers accompanied him back to Timbuktu. Ibn Battuta mentions how Suleyman, the ruler of Mali, wore a locally produced complete crimson velvet caftan on Eid. During the reign of Mehmed II, assistant cooks wore blue-coloured dresses, conical hats and baggy trousers made from Bursa velvet. King Richard II of England directed in his will that his body should be clothed in velveto in 1399; the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition described velvet and its history thus: VELVET, a silken textile fabric having a short dense piled surface. In all probability the art of velvet-weaving originated in the Far East; the peculiar properties of velvet, the splendid yet softened depth of dye-colour it exhibited, at once marked it out as a fit material for ecclesiastical vestments and state robes, sumptuous hangings. These were in many ways most treated for ornamentation, such as by varying the colour of the pile, by producing pile of different lengths, by brocading with plain silk, with uncut pile or with a ground of gold tissue, &c.
The earliest sources of European artistic velvets were Lucca, Genoa and Venice, which continued to send out rich velvet textures. Somewhat the art was taken up by Flemish weavers, in the sixteenth century, Bruges attained a reputation for velvets that were not inferior to those of the great Italian cities. Chiffon velvet: Very lightweight velvet on a sheer silk or rayon chiffon base. Ciselé: Velvet where the pile uses cut and uncut loops to create a pattern. Crushed: Lustrous velvet with patterned appearance, produced by either pressing the fabric down in different directions, or alternatively by mechanically twisting the fabric while wet. Devoré or burnout. A velvet treated with a caustic solution to dissolve areas of the pile, creating a velvet pattern upon a sheer or lightweight base fabric. Embossed: A metal roller is used to heat-stamp the fabric, producing a pattern. Hammered: This type is lustrous, appears dappled, somewhat crushed. Lyons: A densely woven, heavier-weight pile velvet used for hats, coat collars and garments.
Mirror: A type of exceptionally soft and light crushed velvet. Nacré: Velvet with an effect similar to shot silk, where the pile is woven in one or more colours and the base fabric in another, creating a changeable, iridescent effect. Panne: Also a type of crushed velvet, panne is produced by forcing the pile in a single direction by applying heavy pressure. Sometimes, less called paon velvet. However, since the 1970s, "panne velvet," as used in ordinary fabric stores, has referred to a pile knit better called a velour, with a short pile that falls in many directions of polyester. Pile-on-pile: A luxurious type of velvet woven with piles of differing heights to create a pattern. Plain: Commonly made of cotton, this type of velvet has a firm hand and can be used for many purposes. Utrecht: A pressed and crimped velvet associated with Utrecht, the Netherlands. Velveteen is a type of imitation velvet, it is made of cotton or a combination of cotton and silk. It has a pile, short, is set, it has
Corduroy is a textile with a distinct pattern, a "cord" or wale. Modern corduroy is most composed of tufted cords, sometimes exhibiting a channel between the tufts. Both velvet and corduroy derive from fustian fabric; the fabric looks as if it is made from multiple cords laid parallel to each other and stitched together. The word corduroy is from cord and duroy, a coarse woollen cloth made in England in the 18th century; the interpretation of the word as corde du roi is a false etymology. As a fabric, corduroy is considered a durable cloth. Corduroy is found in the construction of trousers and shirts; the width of the cord is referred to as the size of the "wale". The lower the "wale" number, the thicker the width of the wale. Corduroy’s wale count per inch can vary from 1.5 to 21, although the traditional standard falls somewhere between 10 and 12. Wide wale is more used in trousers and furniture upholstery. Corduroy is made by weaving extra sets of fibre into the base fabric to form vertical ridges called wales.
The wales are built. The primary types of corduroy are Standard wale: 11 wales/inch, available in many colours Pincord/pinwale/needlecord: Pincord is the finest cord around with a count at the upper end of the spectrum Pigment dyed/printed corduroy: The process of colouring or printing corduroy with pigment dyes; the dye is applied to the surface of the fabric the garment is cut and sewn. When washed during the final phase of the manufacturing process, the pigment dye washes out in an irregular way, creating a vintage look; the colour of each garment becomes softer with each washing, there is a subtle colour variation from one to the next. No two are alike. Other names are used for corduroy. Alternative names include: elephant cord, pin cord, Manchester cloth and cords. In continental Europe, corduroy is known as "Cord", "rib cord" or "rib velvet" - in parts of Europe as "Manchester". Corduroy is a material traditionally used in making British country clothing though its origin lies among items worn by townspeople in industrial areas.
Although corduroy has existed for a long time and was used in Europe since the 18th century, only in the 20th century did it become global - notably expanding in popularity during the 1970s. Corduroy road Bedford cord