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The future is the time after the present. Its arrival is considered inevitable due to the laws of physics. Due to the apparent nature of reality and the unavoidability of the future, everything that exists and will exist can be categorized as either permanent, meaning that it will exist forever, or temporary, meaning that it will end. In the Occidental view, which uses a linear conception of time, the future is the portion of the projected timeline, anticipated to occur. In special relativity, the future is considered the future light cone. In the philosophy of time, presentism is the belief that only the present exists and the future and the past are unreal. Religions consider the future when they address issues such as karma, life after death, eschatologies that study what the end of time and the end of the world will be. Religious figures such as prophets and diviners have claimed to see into the future. Future studies, or futurology, is the science and practice of postulating possible futures.

Modern practitioners stress the importance of alternative and plural futures, rather than one monolithic future, the limitations of prediction and probability, versus the creation of possible and preferable futures. The concept of the future has been explored extensively in cultural production, including art movements and genres devoted to its elucidation, such as the 20th-century movement futurism. In physics, time is the fourth dimension. Physicists argue that spacetime can be understood as a sort of stretchy fabric that bends due to forces such as gravity. In classical physics the future is just a half of the timeline, the same for all observers. In special relativity the flow of time is relative to the observer's frame of reference; the faster an observer is traveling away from a reference object, the slower that object seems to move through time. Hence, the future is not an objective notion anymore. A more modern notion is the future light cone. While a person can move backward or forwards in the three spatial dimensions, many physicists argue you are only able to move forward in time.

One of the outcomes of Special Relativity Theory is that a person can travel into the future by traveling at high speeds. While this effect is negligible under ordinary conditions, space travel at high speeds can change the flow of time considerably; as depicted in many science fiction stories and movies, a person traveling for a short time at near light speed will return to an Earth, many years in the future. Some physicists claim that by using a wormhole to connect two regions of spacetime a person could theoretically travel in time. Physicist Michio Kaku points out that to power this hypothetical time machine and "punch a hole into the fabric of space-time", it would require the energy of a star. Another theory is. In the philosophy of time, presentism is the belief that only the present exists, the future and past are unreal. Past and future "entities" are construed as logical fictions; the opposite of presentism is'eternalism', the belief that things in the past and things yet to come exist eternally.

Another view is sometimes called the'growing block' theory of time—which postulates that the past and present exist, but the future does not. Presentism is compatible with Galilean relativity, in which time is independent of space, but is incompatible with Lorentzian/Einsteinian relativity in conjunction with certain other philosophical theses that many find uncontroversial. Saint Augustine proposed that the present is a knife edge between the past and the future and could not contain any extended period of time. Contrary to Saint Augustine, some philosophers propose that conscious experience is extended in time. For instance, William James said that time is "...the short duration of which we are and incessantly sensible." Augustine proposed that God is outside of present for all times, in eternity. Other early philosophers who were presentists include the Buddhists. A leading scholar from the modern era on Buddhist philosophy is Stcherbatsky, who has written extensively on Buddhist presentism: Human behavior is known to encompass anticipation of the future.

Anticipatory behavior can be the result of a psychological outlook toward the future, for examples optimism and hope. Optimism is an outlook on life such. People would say, it is the philosophical opposite of pessimism. Optimists believe that people and events are inherently good, so that most situations work out in the end for the best. Hope is a belief in a positive outcome related to circumstances in one's life. Hope implies a certain amount of despair, wishing, suffering or perseverance—i.e. Believing that a better or positive outcome is possible when there is some evidence to the contrary. "Hopefulness" is somewhat different from optimism in that hope is an emotional state, whereas optimism is a conclusion reached through a deliberate thought pattern that leads to a positive attitude. Pessimism as stated, it is the tendency to see, anticipate, or emphasize only bad or undesirable outcomes, results, or problems. The word originates in Latin from Pessimus meaning Malus meaning bad. Religions consider the future when they address issues such as karma, life after death, eschatologies that study what the end of time and the end of the world will be.

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2007 London Sevens

The London Sevens is played annually as part of the IRB Sevens World Series for international rugby sevens. The 2007 competition, which took place on 26 and 27 May, was held at Twickenham and was part of the 2006-07 IRB Sevens World Series. New Zealand were overall winners, defeating defending series champions and current 2006-07 leaders Fiji 29-7 in the Cup final. However, the Fijians put themselves in good position to win the overall season crown. 1/4 final Bowl - France 31-0 Georgia 1/4 final Bowl - England 19-0 Kenya 1/4 final Bowl - Italy 0-5 Portugal 1/4 final Bowl - Canada 5-19 Russia 1/4 final Cup - Fiji 26-10 Australia 1/4 final Cup - Wales 15-5 Scotland 1/4 final Cup - New Zealand 14-0 South Africa 1/4 final Cup - Samoa 39-10 Argentina SF Shield - Georgia 0-19 Kenya SF Shield - Italy 17-12 Canada SF Bowl - France 7-17 England SF Bowl - Portugal 19-12 Russia SF Plate - Australia 15-5 Scotland SF Plate - South Africa 17-14 Argentina SF Cup - Fiji 24-7 Wales SF Cup - New Zealand 19-0 Samoa Final Shield - Kenya 15-0 Italy Final Bowl - England 10-0 Portugal Final Plate - Australia 5-14 South Africa Final Cup - Fiji 7-29 New Zealand London Sevens Profile on


Botrylloides is a genus of ascidian tunicates in the family Styelidae. Like Botryllus, Botrylloides are flat sheets of organisms which can be found covering ropes, boat hulls, horseshoe crabs and any still or slow-moving object in saltwater. Both are considered to be invasive Ascidians, found in many ports around the world. Invasive tunicates such as these, Didemnum sp. and Styela clava are a problem for shellfish and other marine life populations, cause fouling of boats and piers. Species within the genus Botrylloides include: Botrylloides anceps Botrylloides aureum Botrylloides chevalense Herdman, 1906 Botrylloides diegensis Ritter & Forsyth, 1917 Botrylloides fuscus Saito & Watanabe, 1985 Botrylloides giganteum Botrylloides israeliense Brunetti, 2009 Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides lenis Saito & Watanabe, 1985 Botrylloides lentus Saito & Watanabe, 1985 Botrylloides magnicoecum Botrylloides nigrum Herdman, 1886 Botrylloides perspicuus Botrylloides pizoni Brunetti & Mastrototaro, 2012 Botrylloides saccus Kott, 2003 Botrylloides simodensis Saito & Watanabe, 1981 Botrylloides superbum Botrylloides tyreum Herdman, 1886 Botrylloides violaceus Oka, 1927Species names considered to be synonyms: Botrylloides albicans Milne Edwards, 1841: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides aurantium Oka, 1927: synonym of Botryllus aurantius Botrylloides aurea Sars, 1851: synonym of Botrylloides aureum Botrylloides boloniense Giard, 1875: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides carnosum Oka, 1927: synonym of Botrylloides violaceus Oka, 1927 Botrylloides chazaliei Sluiter, 1898: synonym of Botrylloides nigrum Herdman, 1886 Botrylloides clavelina Giard, 1872: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides cyanescens Giard, 1888: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides diegense Ritter & Forsyth, 1917: synonym of Botrylloides diegensis Ritter & Forsyth, 1917 Botrylloides eligulatum Beniaminson, 1975: synonym of Botryllus tuberatus Ritter & Forsyth, 1917 Botrylloides fulgurale Herdman, 1886: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides gregalis Sluiter, 1898: synonym of Botryllus gregalis Botrylloides insigne Giard, 1872: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides lateritium Beniaminson, 1975: synonym of Botrylloides violaceus Oka, 1927 Botrylloides leachi: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides leptum Herdman, 1899: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides maeandrium Sluiter, 1898: synonym of Botryllus maeandrius Botrylloides maeandrius Sluiter, 1898: synonym of Botryllus maeandrius Botrylloides magnicoecus Hartmeyer, 1912: synonym of Botrylloides magnicoecum Botrylloides magnum: synonym of Botryllus magnus Ritter, 1901 Botrylloides magnus: synonym of Botryllus magnus Ritter, 1901 Botrylloides meandrinum Sluiter: synonym of Botryllus maeandrius Botrylloides namei: synonym of Botryllus planus Botrylloides niger Herdman, 1886: synonym of Botrylloides nigrum Herdman, 1886 Botrylloides parvulum Huitfeld-Kaas, 1896: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides parvulus Huitfeld-Kaas, 1896: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides perspicuum Herdman, 1886: synonym of Botrylloides perspicuus Botrylloides planus: synonym of Botryllus planus Botrylloides prostratum Giard, 1872: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides purpureum Herdman, 1886: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides pusilla Alder, 1863: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides radiata Alder & Hancock, 1848: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides ramulosa Alder & Hancock, 1848: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides rotifera Milne Edwards, 1841: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides rubrum Milne Edwards, 1841: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides rugosum Gottschaldt, 1894: synonym of Botrylloides aureum Botrylloides sparsa Alder, 1863: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides translucidum Hartmeyer, 1912: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides vinosa Alder & Hancock, 1912: synonym of Botrylloides leachii Botrylloides violaceum Oka, 1927: synonym of Botrylloides violaceus Oka, 1927

Ching-chih Chen

Ching-chih Chen is an educator, administrator and speaker in the field of digital information management and technology. After her 10-year administrative experience, 39-year teaching, research and speaking activities, she became professor emeritus of Simmons College in June 2010, president of Global Connection and Collaboration, Inc. a non-profit tax-exempt 501 organization. Ching-chih Chen was born in Gulangyu Island, Fukien Province, on the southeastern coast of China, to a family that prioritized education, her father was an economics professor. She moved with her mother to Taiwan in 1949 shortly before the Communist takeover of the mainland where she completed her elementary and secondary schooling; as a Rotary Scholar, she attended the National Taiwan University, where she received a B. A. degree in foreign literature and language in 1959. As a Barbour Scholar, Chen went on to receive an A. M. L. S. Degree from the University of Michigan in 1961. After graduation she took undergraduate classes in mathematics.

She received a Ph. D. in Information Science from Case Western Reserve University in 1974 with the late Prof. Philip M. Morse of MIT as her Ph. D. Supervisor on operations research with data from the Countway Library of Medicine of Harvard University. Prior to July 1971, Chen held administrative positions at various organizations, including the University of Michigan, head of Science Library at McMaster University, head of Engineering and Science Library at University of Waterloo, associate head librarian at MIT Science Library. Chen moved to Canada in the summer of 1962. After working at the Windsor Public Library she accepted a position at the McMaster University Library as a reference librarian and, within six months, was promoted to the head of the engineering and science library. In September 1964 Chen started work as a senior reference librarian at the University of Waterloo. In July 1965, after holding an appointment as the supervising librarian, Chen was named head of the engineering and math library.

She joined Simmons College Graduate School of Library and Information Science as an assistant professor in 1971 and retired in June 2010, after a 39-year teaching and research career. She was full professor from 1979 to 2010, associate dean of the Graduate School of Library and Information Science from 1979 to 1998, her focus throughout her academic career was in the areas of information management, new information technology applications, international librarianship. Since 1985 her focus has been digital humanities, optical technology, digital media, multimedia technologies, web-based development related to global digital libraries and museums. Between 1980 and 2010, she offered more than 60 continuing education institutes at Simmons College and about 50 globally in more than two dozen countries, including Australia, Canada, Croatia, Finland, India, Malaysia, Singapore, Sweden, UK Chen's interdisciplinary career attracted collaborators from many subject areas, including computer science, chemistry and humanities.

Since the mid-1980s, Chen's research has focused on developing multimedia applications for educational purposes. Her work includes the production of the award-winning interactive multimedia videodisc and multimedia CD by the Voyager Company, entitled The First Emperor of China, supported by the U. S. National Endowment for the Humanities as part of her project entitled PROJECT EMPEROR-I; the videodisc and CD provide interactive access to images and descriptive information about the 7,000 lifesize figures of terra cotta warriors and horses found in the archeological excavations near Xi'an, China, in March 1974. The First Emperor of China CD was voted one of the 50 Best CD-ROMS by MacUser in 1979. Chen’s Project was written up by authors in various computer and videograph publications including Multimedia Solutions, Computerworld Special Report, in Library and Humanities Literature such as the Library of Congress Gazette, Visual Resources, Library Journal, it was the lead cover article in Academic Computing in March, 1989.

In 1992, The Chronicle of Higher Education highlighted her work in their Information Technology Section. The First Emperor of China was one of three university projects selected for inclusion in Sun MicroSystems’ brochure for worldwide distribution to higher education and research institutions, it was chosen for debut presentation at the TECH 2000 Preview Reception at the new TechWorld Plaza, Washington D. C. in 1990, in the company of Robert Abel’s multimedia version of Picasso’s Guernica, National Geographic Society's "GTV," "Ice Run," and "Mandala Systems. The Visual Almanac produced by the Multimedia Group of Apple Computer, Inc. includes contributions from PROJECT EMPEROR-I. PROJECT EMPEROR-I has contributed to the CD-ROM and Videodisc Samplers for Higher Education, produced by Apple Computer, Inc. in the beginning of 1990. With an Executive Order, Chen was appointed by President Clinton in February 1997 to serve as a member of the U. S. President's Information Technology Advisory Committee.

As a PITAC member serving under both Presidents Clinton and Bush between 1997 and December 2002, she co-chaired the PITAC Subcommittee on International Issues, was a member of the PITAC Subcommittees on Next Generation Internet and IT*2 Initiative Review.

Mangroves of the Straits of Malacca

The mangroves of the Straits of Malacca are found along the coast of Thailand, Malaysia and northern Sumatra. These tropical mangrove forests are diverse, are important wetlands with high conservation values. There are two Ramsar sites along the Strait of Malacca: Tanjung Piai. Tanjung Piai coastal mangrove is an internationally important Ramsar site. Under the Ramsar Convention, the government and relevant stakeholders have an obligation to ensure the mangrove ecosystem and its values are maintained. Erosion at the site needs to be minimized to safeguard the ecological integrity of the mangrove ecosystem; the root causes of the erosion need to be reduced. Tanjung Piai is a nationally important icon. Tanjung Piai is an important nature site in Johor, being the 3rd designated park of Johor National Park Corporation. Tanjung Piai has high socio-economic value for fisheries; the site has high ecotourism potential, attracting 32,360 visitors in 2006. The site is located on the southernmost tip of mainland Asia and is listed as a priority site for national ecotourism.

Tanjung Piai has a good representation of mangroves. It is an important habitat for migratory and resident birds; these include the IUCN-listed vulnerable species, such as the lesser adjutant stork. It is part of the Important Bird Area of southwest Johor, which extends from Parit Jawa to Tanjung Piai; the southwest Johor mangroves are ecologically important as a natural barrier to protect the inland villages and agricultural lands from storm events, including tsunamis. Mangroves are trees that grow in the intertidal zone of sheltered shores in the tropics and subtropics; the tree trunks, aerial roots, sediment provide suitable habitats for colonization of animals. Above the ground, the trees and canopy provide a habitat for insects, reptiles and mammals. Mangrove roots hanging in water along creeks and inlets are home a variety of epibionts such as sponges, barnacles and algae; the tree trunks within forest are a habitat for epibionts such as barnacles and several species of mobile gastropods including periwinkles.

The soft sediment in the mangrove forest is the habitat of polychaetes, crabs and a sipuncula. Mangrove fauna may be grouped into macrofauna and microfauna. Mangroves are inhabited by a variety of benthic invertebrates, such as polychaetes, bivalves, hermit crabs, brachyuran crabs and sipuncula; some species live on the sediment surface or reside in burrows, while others live on aerial roots and lower tree trunks or prop roots. Still others burrow in decaying wood; the burrowing activities of benthic invertebrates have a pronounced effect on sediment properties and biochemical processes. They enhance the porosity of water flow through the sediment and assist in flushing away toxic substances. Feeding activities of invertebrates on the sediment surface and plant matter promotes nutrient cycling. Benthic invertebrates are a source of food for vertebrates. Macrofauna may be divided into infauna. Many gastropods and bivalve species are typical of epifauna; the infauna consist of few polychaetes, pistol prawns, many crabs, a sipuncula.

Many sesarmid crabs make extensive burrows beneath the surface, some fauna take refuge in them. Macrofaunal communities in high and low intertidal mangroves are distinctly different; this relates to prevailing different environmental conditions with different periods of tidal cover. The lower shore is covered by tides, while the upper shore is covered by occasional high tides. In the high shore, the substrate is dry with more leaf litter accumulation. Frequent inundation of the low shore favors the presence of filter feeders like barnacles and oysters and abundance of deposit feeders on the substrate. Common invertebrates of the mangrove shore are: Gastropods and bivalves Littorina spp. Thais tissoti Murex capucinus Nerita articulata Neritina violacea Telescopium telescopium Telescopium mauritsi Syncera brevicula Cerithidea cingulata Enigmonia aenigmatica Xenostrobus sp. Brachyuran crabs Uca mani Uca dussumieri Metaplax elegans. Hermit crabsGastropods and a bivalve Ellobium aurismidae Ellobium aurisjudae Cassidula aursifelis Laemodonta spp.

Melampus sp. Cerithidea obtusa Cerithidea quadrata Nerita articulata Telescopium telescopium Telescopium mauritsi Syncera brevicula Geloina erosa Brachyuran crabs Grapsid crabs Episesarma spp. Perisesarma eumople Perisesarma onychophorum Clistocoeloma merguiensis Macrobenthos ingest sediment and food such as bacteria, microalgae and detritus, they burrow, move through, modify it in many physical and chemical ways. Crab burrows provide an efficient mechanism for exchanging water between the anoxic substrate and the overlying water. A crab burrow inhabited by a sesarmid crab and a pistol prawn was flushed within one hour by the activities of the crustaceans during a single tidal event. Crabs and gastropods are the major seed predators in mangrove forests and play an important role in determining plant community structure. There are mutual

Morning Glories

Morning Glories is a comic book series published by Image Comics. Described by writer Nick Spencer as "Runaways meets Lost," the series focuses on six "brilliant but troubled" new recruits at Morning Glory Academy, a prestigious prep school hiding "sinister and deadly" secrets. Featuring interior art by Joe Eisma and cover art by Rodin Esquejo, the series debuted in August 2010. Though sharing qualities with other long form, high-concept mysteries, writer Spencer points out that Morning Glories was launched with a planned run of about 100 issues and a definite ending, culminating in a final series run of fifty issues; the first pages of the debut, Spencer says, will "completely prove that we knew what we were doing from the get go." The series found commercial success from its inception, with four printings of the first issue alone. The first volume of the trade paperback edition sold 10,000 copies in a month. Critical success is abundant as well, with IGN calling the first issue "one of the most recent memory" and noting that Spencer is "determined to make the rest of the comic book world stand up and take notice."The first 50 issues are split into two "seasons", with the first encompassing volumes 1-4 and the second, volumes 5-10.

The third season, titled Summer Vacation, was expected to be released in Winter 2016 or early 2017. Although it is a continuation of the story, it is planned for Summer Vacation to launch as a new issue #1. Responding to a question on his Tumblr page in December 2017, Eisma stated that he is in semi-regular contact with Spencer but has been given no indication of a start date for work on the third season before adding that he is anxious to continue working on the series as soon as he receives the first script; the series takes place completely at the fictional Morning Glory Academy, an exclusive boarding school for teenagers. Beneath its placid facade, the school is involved in the murder and torture of students as well as various investigations into occult and supernatural phenomena; the main action focuses on six students from diverse backgrounds as they enter Morning Glory Academy, try to survive and fight back against the ruthless faculty. The series is written using a nonlinear narrative utilising flashbacks or flash-forwards to confuse and inform the reader.

Prominent recurring themes include religion, science, power and authoritarianism. The series includes science fiction elements time-travel. See: List of Morning Glories Characters for more information; the story centres on six new Morning Glory Academy students: Casey, Hunter, Jun and Ike, focusing on their early lives with their families as well as their interactions with each other and the school's faculty: Miss Daramount, Mr Gribbs, Miss Dagney, Miss Hodge and Nurse Nine. The villainous Headmaster of the Academy is mentioned but is not seen until issue #50; as the series progresses, a new significant group of students referred to as the Truants are introduced. Made up of Irina, Vanessa, Ian and Akiko, they are a diverse group of children loyal to Abraham, a man with a connection to the Academy and each of the Glories; the Truants play a pivotal role in the latter half of season one and continue to be important characters during the second season. In season two, the A. V. Club, a collection of students with the goal of exposing the truth about the Academy through non-violent means, are introduced after they befriend Hunter in issue #31.

They are composed of Esi and Hannah. The series has been released in trade paperbacks and "Deluxe Edition" hardcovers. Detailed information of the releases is listed below