Enoch (ancestor of Noah)
Enoch is of the Antediluvian period in the Hebrew Bible. Enoch was son of fathered Methuselah; this Enoch is not to be confused with Cain's son Enoch. The text of the Book of Genesis says; the text reads that Enoch "walked with God: and he was no more. Enoch is the subject of many Christian traditions, he was considered the author of the Book of Enoch and called Enoch the scribe of judgment. The New Testament has three references to Enoch from the lineage of Seth. Enoch appears in the Book of Genesis of the Pentateuch as the seventh of the ten pre-Deluge Patriarchs. Genesis recounts. Genesis 5 provides a genealogy of these ten figures, providing the age at which each fathered the next, the age of each figure at death. Enoch is considered by many to be the exception, said to "not see death". Furthermore, Genesis 5:22–29 states that Enoch lived 365 years, shorter than his peers, who are all recorded as dying at over 700 years of age; the brief account of Enoch in Genesis 5 ends with the cryptic note.
Three extensive Apocrypha are attributed to Enoch: Book of Enoch, composed in a Semitic language and preserved in Ge'ez, first brought to Europe by James Bruce and translated in English by August Dillmann and Reverent Schoode – recognized by the Orthodox Tewahedo churches and dated between the third century BC and the first century AD. Second Book of Enoch or the Book of the Secrets of Enoch, written in Old Bulgarian, first translated in English by William Morfill – dated to the first century AD. 3 Enoch, a Rabbinic text in Hebrew dated to the fifth century AD. These recount how Enoch was taken up to Heaven and was appointed guardian of all the celestial treasures, chief of the archangels, the immediate attendant on the Throne of God, he was subsequently taught all secrets and mysteries and, with all the angels at his back, fulfils of his own accord whatever comes out of the mouth of God, executing His decrees. Much esoteric literature like the 3 Enoch identifies Enoch as the Metatron, the angel which communicates God's word.
In consequence, Enoch was seen, by this literature, the Rabbinic kabbalah of Jewish mysticism, as having been the one which communicated God's revelation to Moses, in particular, the dictator of the Book of Jubilees. The Book of Giants is a Jewish pseudepigraphal work from the third century BC and resembles the Book of Enoch. Fragments from at least six and as many as eleven copies were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls collections; the third-century BC translators who produced the Septuagint in Koine Greek rendered the phrase "God took him" with the Greek verb metatithemi meaning moving from one place to another. Sirach 44:16, from about the same period, states that "Enoch pleased God and was translated into paradise that he may give repentance to the nations." The Greek word used here for paradise, was derived from an ancient Persian word meaning "enclosed garden", was used in the Septuagint to describe the garden of Eden. However, the term became synonymous for heaven, as is the case here.
In classical Rabbinical literature, there are various views of Enoch. One view regarding Enoch, found in the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, which thought of Enoch as a pious man, taken to Heaven, receiving the title of Safra rabba. After Christendom was separated from Judaism, this view became the prevailing rabbinical idea of Enoch's character and exaltation. According to Rashi, "Enoch was a righteous man, but he could be swayed to return to do evil. Therefore, the Holy One, blessed be He, hastened and took him away and caused him to die before his time. For this reason, Scripture changed in his demise and wrote,'and he was no longer' in the world to complete his years." Among the minor Midrashim, esoteric attributes of Enoch are expanded upon. In the Sefer Hekalot, Rabbi Ishmael is described as having visited the Seventh Heaven, where he met Enoch, who claims that earth had, in his time, been corrupted by the demons Shammazai, Azazel, so Enoch was taken to Heaven to prove that God was not cruel. Similar traditions are recorded in Sirach.
Elaborations of this interpretation treated Enoch as having been a pious ascetic, called to mix with others, preached repentance, gathered a vast collection of disciples, to the extent that he was proclaimed king. Under his wisdom, peace is said to have reigned on earth, to the extent that he is summoned to Heaven to rule over the sons of God; the New Testament contains three references to Enoch. The first is a brief mention in one of the genealogies of the ancestors of Jesus by Luke; the second mention is in Hebrews 11: 5 which says, "By faith Enoch was translated that he should not see death. This suggests he did not experience the mortal death ascribed to Adam's other descendants, consistent with Genesis 5:24, which says, "And Enoch walked with God: and he not; the third mention is in the Epistle of Jude where the author attributes to "Enoch, the Seventh from Adam" a passage not found in Catholic and Protestant canons of the Old Testament. The quotation is believed by most modern scholars to be taken from 1 Enoch 1:9 which exists
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
Nüwa or Nügua is the mother goddess of Chinese mythology, the sister and wife of Fuxi, the emperor-god. She is credited with repairing the Pillar of Heaven, her reverential name is Wahuang. The Huainanzi relates Nüwa to the time when Heaven and Earth were in disruption: The catastrophes were caused by the battle between the deities Gonggong and Zhuanxu, the five-colored stones symbolize the five Chinese elements, the black dragon was the essence of water and thus cause of the floods, Ji Province serves metonymically for the central regions. Following this, the Huainanzi tells about how the sage-rulers Nüwa and Fuxi set order over the realm by following the Way and its potency; the Classic of Mountains and Seas, dated between the Warring States period and the Han Dynasty, describes Nüwa's intestines as being scattered into ten spirits. In Liezi, Chapter 5 "Questions of Tang", author Lie Yukou describes Nüwa repairing the original imperfect heaven using five-colored stones, cutting the legs off a tortoise to use as struts to hold up the sky.
In Songs of Chu, Chapter 3 "Asking Heaven", author Qu Yuan writes that Nüwa molded figures from the yellow earth, giving them life and the ability to bear children. After demons fought and broke the pillars of the heavens, Nüwa worked unceasingly to repair the damage, melting down the five-coloured stones to mend the heavens. In Shuowen Jiezi, China's earliest dictionary, under the entry for Nüwa author Xu Shen describes her as being both the sister and the wife of Fuxi. Nüwa and Fuxi were pictured as having snake-like tails interlocked in an Eastern Han Dynasty mural in the Wuliang Temple in Jiaxiang county, Shandong province. In Duyi Zhi, Volume 3, author Li Rong gives this description. In Yuchuan Ziji, Chapter 3, author Lu Tong describes Nüwa as the wife of Fuxi. In Siku Quanshu, Sima Zhen provides commentary on the prologue chapter to Sima Qian's Shiji, "Supplemental to the Historic Record: History of the Three August Ones," wherein it is found that the Three August Ones are Nüwa, Shennong.
In the collection Four Great Books of Song, compiled by Li Fang and others, Volume 78 of the book Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era contains a chapter "Customs by Yingshao of the Han Dynasty" in which it is stated that there were no men when the sky and the earth were separated. Thus Nüwa used yellow clay to make people, but the clay was not strong enough. It is said that she prayed to gods to let her be the goddess of marital affairs. Variations of this story exist. Nüwa is featured within the famed Ming dynasty novel Fengshen Bang; as featured within this novel, Nüwa is highly respected since the time of the Xia Dynasty for being the daughter of the Jade Emperor. After the Shang Dynasty had been created, Nüwa created the five-colored stones to protect the dynasty with occasional seasonal rains and other enhancing qualities, thus in time, Shang Rong asked King Zhou of Shang to pay her a visit as a sign of deep respect. After Zhou was overcome with lust at the sight of the beautiful ancient goddess Nüwa, he would write a small poem on a neighboring wall and take his leave.
When Nüwa returned to her temple after visiting the Yellow Emperor, Nüwa would see the foulness of Zhou's words. In her anger, she swore. In her rage, Nüwa would ascend to the palace in an attempt to kill the king, but was struck back by two large beams of red light. After Nüwa realized that King Zhou was destined to rule the kingdom for twenty-six more years, Nüwa would summon her three subordinates—the Thousand-Year Vixen, the Jade Pipa, the Nine-Headed Pheasant. With these words, Nüwa would bring destined chaos to the Shang Dynasty, "The luck Cheng Tang won six hundred years ago is dimming. I speak to you of a new mandate of heaven. You three are to enter King Zhou's palace. Whatever you do, do not harm anyone else. If you do my bidding, do it well, you will be permitted to reincarnate as human beings." Thus, with these words, Nüwa would never be heard of again, but would still be a major indirect factor towards the Shang Dynasty's fall. Nüwa was born three months after her brother, Fuxi, to whom she took as her husband.
Nüwa Mends the Heavens Birrell, Chinese Mythology: An Introduction, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Lewis, Mark Edward, The Flood Myths of Early China, Albany: State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-6663-6. Major, John S.. The Huainanzi: A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Government in Early Han China, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-14204-5. Allan, The shape of the turtle: myth and cosmos in early China, SUNY series in Chinese philosophy and culture, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-0460-9
Snakes in Chinese mythology
Snakes are an important motif in Chinese mythology. There are various myths and folk tales about snakes. Chinese mythology refers to other myths found in the historical geographic area of China; these myths include Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese as well as other ethnic groups. Snakes appear in myth, legend, or tales as fantastic beings unlike any possible real snake having a mix of snake with other body parts, such as having a human head, or magical abilities, such as shape shifting. One famous snake, able to transform back and forth between a snake and a human being was Madam White Snake in the Legend of the White Snake. Other snakes or snakelike beings sometimes include deities, such as Gong Gong. Sometimes Fuxi and Nuwa are described as snakes with human heads and sometimes as humans with dragon or serpent tails... In the study of historical Chinese culture, many of the stories that have been told regarding characters and events which have been written or told of the distant past have a double tradition: one which tradition which presents a more historicized and one which presents a more mythological version.
This may be true of some accounts related to mythological snakes and snakelike beings, in China. The' serpent of the sky' means. For example, in every story, there is a good side and a bad side, so the rainbow is the good side and the ’serpent of the sky’ is the bad side. In ancient China, some of the river gods which were worshiped were depicted in the form of some sort of snake or snakelike being: In the ancient China of the Han dynasty, worship of Four Directional deities developed, the directions were east, south and north. With the direction of the middle, there were five major directions, each associated with a divine being or beings, a season, a color; this set of correlations of five whatevers included many more than mentioned here, in the elaborated philosophical system of Wu Xing, although some of the basics related to directional deities was much older. The north was associated with a pair of divine beings, the Dark Warrior, a tortoise and snake creature, with the season of winter, with the color black.
Each of the directions was associated with one of the wu xing, or five "elements": that of the north was water. According to Anthony Christie, the tortoise and snake combination was known as the Black Warrior. And, that although the worship of the other directions was an ancient practice, the worship of the north was avoided because the north was considered the dwelling place of a destructive deity of the ocean wind. However, the worship of the north was practiced, with sacrificial ceremonies to the Black Warrior, by the rulers of the Han dynasty, which claimed to rule with the protection of water and the north. Although the Black Warrior is depicted as a snake entwining around a turtle, sometimes they are viewed as two separable generals. In Chinese culture mythologized snakes and snakelike beings have various roles, including the calendar system and literature. In Chinese culture, years of the Snake are sixth in the cycle, following the Dragon Years, recur every twelfth year; the Chinese New Year does not fall on a specific date, so it is essential to check the calendar to find the exact date on which each Snake Year begins.
Snake years include: 1905, 1917, 1929, 1941, 1953, 1965, 1977, 1989, 2001, 2013, 2025. The 12 "zodiacal" animals recur in a cycle of sixty years, with each animal occurring five times within the 60-year cycle, but with different aspects each of those 5 times. Thus, 2013 is a year of the yin water Snake, starts on February 10, 2013 and lasts through January 30, 2014; the previous year of the yin water Snake was 1953. In Thai culture, the year of the Snake is instead the year of the little Snake, the year of the Dragon is the year of the big Snake. According to one mythical legend, there is a reason for the order of the 12 animals in the 12-year cycle; the story goes that a race was held to cross a great river, the order of the animals in the cycle was based upon their order in finishing the race. In this story, the Snake compensated for not being the best swimmer by hitching a hidden ride on the Horse's hoof, when the Horse was just about to cross the finish line, jumping out, scaring the Horse, thus edging it out for sixth place.
The same 12 animals are used to symbolize the cycle of hours in the day, each being associated with a two-hour time period. The "hour" of the Snake is 9:00 to 11:00 a.m. the time when the sun warms up the earth, Snakes slither out of their holes. The reason the animal signs are referred to as "zodiacal" is because a person's personality is said to be influenced by the animal sign ruling the time of birth, together with elemental aspect of that animal sign within the sexegenary cycle; the year governed by a particular animal sign is supposed to be characterized by it, with the effects strong for people who were born in a year governed by the same animal sign. The usual and general Chinese word and character for Snake is shé; as a zodiacal sign, the Snake is associated with Chinese: 巳. On the fifth day of the fifth month of the Chinese cal
Figurism was an intellectual movement of Jesuit missionaries at the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century, whose participants viewed the I Ching as a prophetic book containing the mysteries of Christianity, prioritized working with the Qing Emperor as a way of promoting Christianity in China. Since Matteo Ricci's pioneering work in China in 1583–1610, the Jesuit missionaries in China worked on a program of integrating Christianity with the Chinese traditions. Ricci and his followers identified three "sects" present in China – Confucianism and Taoism. While viewing Buddhism and Taoism as "pagan" religions inimical to Christianity, Ricci's approach – predominant with the Jesuits in China throughout most of the 17th century – viewed Confucianism as a moral teaching, compatible with, rather than contradictory to, the Christian beliefs, they viewed Confucian rites, such as those having to do with the veneration of the dead, as civil functions meant to edify the people in virtuous morals, rather than as religious rites.
On this basis the Jesuits centered their work in China on the interaction with the Chinese Confucian literati, trying to convince them of their theories and convert them to the Christian faith. When addressing the European public, the China-based Jesuit missionaries strove to present Confucianism, as represented by its Four Books, in favorable light – the effort culminated with the publications of Confucius Sinarum Philosophus by Philippe Couplet. After the fall of the Ming Dynasty and the Manchu conquest of the entire country, the Jesuits in China had to switch their allegiance from the Ming Dynasty to the Manchu Qing, just as most of the Chinese literati did, they soon found themselves working in a quite different intellectual and political environment than their predecessors during the Ming era. While in Ricci's days the Jesuits were not in a position to work directly with the emperor, the early Qing emperors – Shunzhi, in particular Kangxi – were not above dealing directly with the Jesuits and using their services for the needs of the central government.
On the other hand, the Chinese Confucian thought had changed as well: the more open outlook of the late-Ming literati was replaced in the early Qing period by widespread clinging to the Neo-Confucian orthodoxy, endorsed by the court as well, but had been traditionally disapproved by the Jesuits as "atheistic" and "materialistic". Accordingly, by the late 17th century the way whereby the China-based Jesuits strove to bridge the gap between China and Christian Europe had changed as well. Instead of praising Confucius and the ideology attributed to him, many Jesuits, led by Joachim Bouvet, focused on China's earliest classic, I Ching, which Bouvet viewed as the oldest written work in the world, containing "precious vestiges from the remains of the most ancient and excellent philosophy taught by the first patriarchs of the world"; the Figurists maintained the belief of the early Jesuit missionaries in China that China's ancient religion, now lost, was connected to the Judeo-Christian tradition.
The Figurists disagreed with each other but they could agree on three basic tenets: 1. The Issue of Chronology The first aspect that all Figurists agreed upon was the belief that a certain period in the Chinese history does not belong to the Chinese only but to all of mankind; the Jesuits furthermore believed that Chinese history dated back before the Flood and was therefore as old as European history. This made. 2. The Theory of Common Origin with Noah After the great Flood, Noah’s son Shem moved to the Far East and brought with him the secret knowledge of Adam in original purity, thus the Figurists believed that one could find many hidden allusions to pre-Christian revelation in the Chinese classics. Bouvet thought that Fu Xi, the supposed author of the I Ching, as well as Zoroaster and Hermes Trismegistus, were the same person: the biblical patriarch Enoch.3. The Revelation of Messiah The Figurists determined; this proved in the minds of the Figurists that, for example, the birth of Jesus was foreshadowed in the Chinese classics as well.
Joachim Bouvet in particular focused his research on I Ching, trying to find a connection between the Chinese classics and the Bible. He came to the conclusion that the Chinese had known the whole truth of the Christian tradition in ancient times and that this truth could be found in the Chinese classics. There was opposition to the Figurists both in Europe. In China, there was an anti-Western group of Chinese officials; some Chinese scholars doubted the idea that God was part of the Confucian tradition. When Foucquet rejected the official Chinese history, he was angrily rejected by the Chinese and ordered back to Europe. In Europe there was an anti-Jesuit group in the Catholic Church; the Figurist idea was seen as an dangerous innovation because it elevated the Chinese classics at the expense of Christian authorities. The Catholic Church did not accept the idea that the Chinese classics could be of importance to the Christian faith; because of the overwhelming opposition to the Figurists, they were unable to publish any of their works during their lifetimes, except for Foucquet who got his major work published in 1729.
However other aspects hampered
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5,464 km. Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai province of Western China, it flows through nine provinces, it empties into the Bohai Sea near the city of Dongying in Shandong province; the Yellow River basin has an east–west extent of about 1,900 kilometers and a north–south extent of about 1,100 km. Its total drainage area is about 752,546 square kilometers, its basin was the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilization, it was the most prosperous region in early Chinese history. There are frequent devastating floods and course changes produced by the continual elevation of the river bed, sometimes above the level of its surrounding farm fields. Early Chinese literature including the Yu Gong or Tribute of Yu dating to the Warring States period refers to the Yellow River as 河, a character that has come to mean "river" in modern usage.
The first appearance of the name 黃河 is in the Book of Han written during the Eastern Han dynasty about the Western Han dynasty. The adjective "yellow" describes the perennial color of the muddy water in the lower course of the river, which arises from soil being carried downstream. One of its older Mongolian names was the "Black River", because the river runs clear before it enters the Loess Plateau, but the current name of the river among Inner Mongolians is Ȟatan Gol. In Mongolia itself, it is called the Šar Mörön. In Qinghai, the river's Tibetan name is "River of the Peacock" The Yellow River is one of several rivers that are essential for China's existence. At the same time, however, it has been responsible for several deadly floods, including the only natural disasters in recorded history to have killed more than a million people; the deadliest was a Yuan dynasty 1332 -- 33 flood. Close behind during the Qing dynasty is the 1887 flood, which killed anywhere from 900,000 to 2 million people, a Republic of China era 1931 flood that killed 1–4 million people.
The cause of the floods is the large amount of fine-grained loess carried by the river from the Loess Plateau, continuously deposited along the bottom of its channel. The sedimentation causes natural dams to accumulate; these subaqueous dams were unpredictable and undetectable. The enormous amount of water has to find a new way to the sea, forcing it to take the path of least resistance; when this happens, it bursts out across the flat North China Plain, sometimes taking a new channel and inundating any farmland, cities or towns in its path. The traditional Chinese response of building higher and higher levees along the banks sometimes contributed to the severity of the floods: When flood water did break through the levees, it could no longer drain back into the river bed as it would after a normal flood as the river bed was sometimes now higher than the surrounding countryside; these changes could cause the river's mouth to shift as much as 480 km, sometimes reaching the ocean to the north of Shandong Peninsula and sometimes to the south.
Another historical source of devastating floods is the collapse of upstream ice dams in Inner Mongolia with an accompanying sudden release of vast quantities of impounded water. There have been 11 such major floods in the past century, each causing tremendous loss of life and property. Nowadays, explosives dropped from aircraft are used to break the ice dams before they become dangerous. Before modern dams came to China, the Yellow River used to be prone to flooding. In the 2,540 years from 595 BC to 1946 AD, the Yellow River has been reckoned to have flooded 1,593 times, shifting its course 26 times noticeably and nine times severely; these floods include some of the deadliest natural disasters recorded. Before modern disaster management, when floods occurred, some of the population might die from drowning but many more would suffer from the ensuing famine and spread of diseases. In Chinese mythology, the giant Kua Fu drained the Yellow River and the Wei River to quench his burning thirst as he pursued the Sun.
Historical documents from the Spring and Autumn period and Qin dynasty indicate that the Yellow River at that time flowed north of its present course. These accounts show that after the river passed Luoyang, it flowed along the border between Shanxi and Henan Provinces continued along the border between Hebei and Shandong before emptying into Bohai Bay near present-day Tianjin. Another outlet followed the present course; the river left these paths in 602 BC and shifted south of the Shandong Peninsula. Sabotage of dikes and reservoirs and deliberate flooding of rival states became a standard military tactic during the Warring States period; as the Yellow River valley was the major entryway to the Guanzhong area and the state of Qin from the North China Plain, Qin fortified the Hangu Pass. Major flooding in AD 11 is credited with the downfall of the short-lived Xin dynasty, another flood in AD 70 returned the river north of Shandong on its present course. From around the beginning of the 3rd century, the importance of the Hangu Pass was reduced, with the major fortifications a
Lantian County is under the administration of Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi province, China. It is the second-most spacious of the 13 county-level divisions of Xi'an; the county borders the prefecture-level cities of Weinan to the northeast and Shangluo to the southeast, Lintong District to the north, Chang'an District to the west, Baqiao District to the northwest. One subdistrict: Languan Eighteen towns: Xiehu, Qianwei, Jiaodai, Sanli, Gepai, Jiujianfang, Wangchuan, Sanguanmiao, Mengcun, Xiaozhai Former towns: Yuchuan, Shijia China National Highway 312 Lantian Man Shangchen, palaeolithic site in Lantian Wangchuan ji