1969 (Gábor Szabó album)
1969 is an album by Hungarian guitarist Gábor Szabó featuring performances recorded in 1969 and released on the Skye label. The Allmusic review states "The Hungarian guitarist doesn't always stretch out as much as he could on this album, but Szabo still deserves credit for bringing a jazz perspective to songs that so many other improvisers were ignoring". "Dear Prudence" - 2:37 "Sealed With a Kiss" - 2:41 "Both Sides Now" - 2:54 "Walk Away Renee" - 2:42 "You Won't See Me" - 3:31 "Michael from Mountains" - 3:56 "Stormy" - 3:12 "In My Life" - 2:25 "I've Just Seen a Face" - 4:30 "Until It's Time for You to Go" - 2:18 "Somewhere I Belong" - 3:33Recorded at United Recording Studio in Los Angeles, California on January 20–24, 1969 Gábor Szabó - guitar Francois Vaz - guitar Mike Melvoin - organ Louis Kabok - bass Randy Cierley-Sterling - electric bass Jim Keltner - drums, percussion George Ricci - cello Gary McFarland - arranger
Bacchanal is a 1968 album by Gábor Szabó, released on the label he founded with Cal Tjader and Gary McFarland, Skye Records "Three King Fishers" - 4: 48 "Love is Blue" - 4:17 "Theme from Valley of the Dolls" - 3:48 "Bacchanal" - 4:55 "Sunshine Superman" - 3:45 "Some Velvet Morning" - 5:10 "The Look of Love" - 3:15 "The Divided City" - 3:20 Gábor Szabó – guitar Jimmy Stewart – guitar Louis Kabok – double bass Jim Keltner – drums Hal Gordon – percussionTechnicalMarcia McGovern – pre-production Andy Richardson – engineer Roberta Ballard – production manager Robert Flynn - design Barry Peake - photography Barbara Flynn - illustration
Dreams (Gábor Szabó album)
Dreams is an album by Hungarian guitarist Gábor Szabó featuring performances recorded in 1968 and released on the Skye label. The Allmusic review states: "a collection of originals, pop covers, classical reinterpretations; the result is a sort of accessible third-stream music. Szabo has many fine moments". All compositions by Gábor Szabó except as indicated "Galatea's Guitar" – 5:33 "Half the Day is the Night" – 4:23 "Song of Injured Love" – 4:05 "The Fortune Teller" – 4:28 "Fire Dance" – 5:39 "The Lady in the Moon" – 5:13 "Ferris Wheel" – 5:27Recorded in Los Angeles, California on 6, 7, 9 August 1968 with overdubs recorded in New York City on 22 August 1968. Gábor Szabó – guitar Jim Stewart – guitar Louis Kabok – bass Jim Keltner – drums Hal Gordon – percussion Tony Miranda, Ray Alonge, Brooks Tillotson – French horn Julius Schacter – violin George Ricci – cello Gary McFarland – piano, arranger
High Contrast (album)
High Contrast is an album by Hungarian jazz guitarist Gábor Szabó, produced by Tommy LiPuma and recorded by Bruce Botnick at Capitol Studios, Hollywood in December 1970 & at The Record Plant, Hollywood in February 1971. The album features a major contribution from songwriter and guitarist Bobby Womack, including the original version of Womack's "Breezin'", that George Benson would have a major hit with in 1976; the composition "If You Don't Want My Love" was used by Womack in his soundtrack to the film Across 110th Street. All tracks composed by Bobby Womack.
Faces (Gábor Szabó album)
Faces is an album by Hungarian guitarist Gábor Szabó featuring performances recorded in 1977 and released on the Mercury label. The Allmusic review states "The iconoclastic guitarist's final American record suffers producer Wayne Henderson's dated disco tendencies, but by the time the needle finds side two, some genuinely beautiful performances emerge". All compositions by Gábor Szabó except as indicated"The Biz" - 4:35 "Magic Mystic Faces" - 5:19 "Gloomy Day" - 5:52 "Desiring You" - 6:05 "Misty Malarky Ying Yang" - 6:59 "Alicia" - 5:37 "Estaté" - 3:28Recorded at ABC Studios in Los Angeles, California in March and April 1977 Gábor Szabó - guitar James Stewart - guitar Oscar Brashear, Denny Christianson - trumpet George Bohannon - trombone Ernie Watts - tenor saxophone Bobby Lyle - electric piano Dean Gant - synthesizer Marlon McClain - electric guitar Nathaniel Phillips - electric bass Bruce Carter - drums Rini Kramer - cabassa, percussion Vance Tenort, Paul C. Shure, Bonnie Douglas, Assa Drori, Irving Geller, Irma Neumann, Haim Shtrum, Carroll Stephens, Robert Sushel - violin James Dunham, Janet Lakatos - viola Nathan Gershman, David H. Speltz - cello Sylvia St. James, Deborah Shotlow, Suandra Alexander, Cheryl Alexander - vocals William Jeffrey - arranger Wayne Henderson - horn arrangements
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or the Hungarian Uprising, was a nationwide revolution against the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. Leaderless when it first began, it was the first major threat to Soviet control since the Red Army drove Nazi Germany from its territory at the End of World War II in Europe; the revolt began as a student protest, which attracted thousands as they marched through central Budapest to the Hungarian Parliament building, calling out on the streets using a van with loudspeakers. A student delegation, entering the radio building to try to broadcast the students' demands, was detained; when the delegation's release was demanded by the protesters outside, they were fired upon from within the building by the State Security Police, known as the ÁVH. One student was wrapped in a flag and held above the crowd; this was the start of the revolution. As the news spread and violence erupted throughout the capital.
The revolt spread across Hungary, the government collapsed. Thousands organised into militias, battling the Soviet troops. Pro-Soviet communists and ÁVH members were executed or imprisoned, former political prisoners were released and armed. Radical impromptu workers' councils wrested municipal control from the ruling Hungarian Working People's Party and demanded political changes. A new government formally disbanded the ÁVH, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and pledged to re-establish free elections. By the end of October, fighting had stopped, a sense of normality began to return. Appearing open to negotiating a withdrawal of Soviet forces, the Politburo changed its mind and moved to crush the revolution. On 4 November, a large Soviet force invaded other regions of the country; the Hungarian resistance continued until 10 November. Over 2,500 Hungarians and 700 Soviet troops were killed in the conflict, 200,000 Hungarians fled as refugees. Mass arrests and denunciations continued for months thereafter.
By January 1957, the new Soviet-installed government had suppressed all public opposition. These Soviet actions, while strengthening control over the Eastern Bloc, alienated many Western Marxists, leading to splits and/or considerable losses of membership for communist parties in capitalist states. Public discussion about the revolution was suppressed in Hungary for more than 30 years. Since the thaw of the 1980s, it has been a subject of intense debate. At the inauguration of the Third Hungarian Republic in 1989, 23 October was declared a national holiday. During World War II, Hungary was a member of the Axis powers, allied with the forces of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Bulgaria. In 1941, the Hungarian military participated in the occupation of Yugoslavia and the invasion of the Soviet Union; the Red Army was able to force back the Hungarian and other Axis invaders, by 1944 was advancing towards Hungary. Fearing invasion, the Hungarian government began armistice negotiations with the Allies.
These ended when Nazi Germany invaded and occupied the country and set up the pro-Axis Government of National Unity. Both Hungarian and German forces stationed in Hungary were subsequently defeated when the Soviet Union invaded the country in late 1944. Toward the end of World War II, the Soviet Army occupied Hungary, with the country coming under the Soviet Union's sphere of influence. After World War II, Hungary was a multiparty democracy, elections in 1945 produced a coalition government under Prime Minister Zoltán Tildy. However, the Hungarian Communist Party, a Marxist–Leninist group who shared the Soviet government's ideological beliefs wrested small concessions in a process named salami tactics, which sliced away the elected government's influence, despite the fact that it had received only 17% of the vote. After the elections of 1945, the portfolio of the Interior Ministry, which oversaw the Hungarian State Security Police, was transferred from the Independent Smallholders Party to a nominee of the Communist Party.
The ÁVH employed methods of intimidation, falsified accusations and torture to suppress political opposition. The brief period of multi-party democracy came to an end when the Communist Party merged with the Social Democratic Party to become the Hungarian Working People's Party, which stood its candidate list unopposed in 1949; the People's Republic of Hungary was declared. The Hungarian Working People's Party set about to modify the economy into socialism by undertaking radical nationalization based on the Soviet model. Writers and journalists were the first to voice open criticism of the government and its policies, publishing critical articles in 1955. By 22 October 1956, Technical University students had resurrected the banned MEFESZ student union, staged a demonstration on 23 October that set off a chain of events leading directly to the revolution. Hungary became a communist state under the authoritarian leadership of Mátyás Rákosi. Under Rákosi's reign, the Security Police began a series of purges, first within the Communist Party to end opposition to Rákosi's reign.
The victims were labeled as "Titoists", "western agents", or "Trotskyists" for as insignificant a crime as spending time in the West to participate in the Spanish Civil War. In total, about half of all the middle and lower level party officials—at least 7,000 people—were purged. From 1950 to 1952, the Security Police forcibly relocated thousands of people to obtain property and housing for the Working People's Party members, to remove the threat of the intellectual
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh