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Géza, Grand Prince of the Hungarians

Géza Gejza, was Grand Prince of the Hungarians from the early 970s. He was the son of his Oriental -- Khazar, Pecheneg or Volga Bulgarian -- wife, he married a daughter of an Eastern Orthodox Hungarian chieftain. After ascending the throne, Géza made peace with the Holy Roman Empire. Within Hungary, he consolidated his authority with extreme cruelty, according to the unanimous narration of nearly contemporaneous sources, he was the first Hungarian monarch to support Christian missionaries from Western Europe. Although he was baptised, his Christian faith remained shallow and he continued to perform acts of pagan worship, he was succeeded by his son, Stephen, crowned the first King of Hungary in 1000 or 1001. Géza was the elder son of Grand Prince of the Hungarians, his mother was his father's wife "from the land of the Cumans", according to the anonymous author of the Gesta Hungarorum. This anachronistic reference to the Cumans suggests that she was of Khazar, Pecheneg or Volga Bulgarian origin.

The Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus, who listed the descendants of Grand Prince Árpád around 950, did not mention Géza. So, Gyula Kristó wrote that Géza was born around 940 and the emperor ignored him because of his youth; the genuine form of his name was either "Gyeücsa" or "Gyeusa", a diminutive form of the Turkic title yabgu. Géza's father arranged his marriage with Sarolt—a daughter of a Hungarian chieftain called Gyula, who ruled Transylvania independently of the grand prince and had converted to Christianity in Constantinople. Sarolt seems to have adhered to Eastern Orthodox Christianity, according to Bruno of Querfurt's remark on her "languid and muddled Christianity". Géza succeeded his father around 972, he adopted a centralizing policy. The longer version of his son's Life states that Géza's hands were "defiled with blood". Pál Engel wrote that Géza carried out a "large-scale purge" against his relatives, which explains the lack of references to other members of the Árpád dynasty from around 972.

Koppány, who continued to rule the southern parts of Transdanubia, is the only exception to this dearth of references. A marriage alliance between the German and Byzantine dynasties brought about a rapprochement between the two powers neighboring Hungary in 972. Géza decided to make peace with the Holy Roman Empire. First, a monk named Bruno sent by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor arrived in Hungary around 972. Hungarian "legates" were present at a conference held by the emperor in Quedlinburg in 973. Geyza, strict and cruel, acting in a domineering way, as it were, with his own people, but compassionate and generous with strangers with Christians, although still entangled in the rite of paganism. At the approach of the light of spiritual grace, he began to discuss peace attentively with all the neighboring provinces... Moreover, he laid down a rule that the favor of hospitality and security be shown to all Christians wishing to enter to his domains, he gave monks leave to enter his presence. A record on one Bishop Prunwart in the Abbey of Saint Gall mentions his success in baptising many Hungarians, including their "king".

The nearly contemporaneous Thietmar of Merseburg confirms that the conversion to Christianity of the pagan Hungarians started under Géza, who became the first Christian ruler of Hungary. His baptismal name was Stephen. However, Géza continued to observe pagan cults, which proves that his conversion to Christianity was never complete. Kristó and other historians have said that the first Roman Catholic diocese in Hungary, with its seat in Veszprém, was set up in Géza's reign, but their view has not been unanimously accepted. A charter issued during his son's reign states that Géza was the founder of the Benedictine Pannonhalma Archabbey. was cruel and killed many people because of his quick temper. When he became a Christian, however, he turned his rage against his reluctant subjects, in order to strengthen this faith. Thus, glowing with zeal for God, he washed away his old crimes, he sacrificed both to various false gods. When reproached by his priest for doing so, however, he maintained that the practice had brought him both wealth and great power.

Taking advantage of internal conflicts which emerged in the Holy Roman Empire after Emperor Otto I's death, Géza invaded Bavaria and took the fortress of Melk in 983. In 991, the Bavarians launched a counter-attack which forced Géza to withdraw Hungarian forces from the territories east of the Vienna Woods. Furthermore, he renounced the lands east of the river Leitha in his peace treaty of 996 with Henry IV of Bavaria. Géza arranged the marriage of his son and heir Stephen to Henry IV's sister Giselle. Before this marriage alliance, Géza convoked the Hungarian leaders to an assembly and forced them to take an oath confirming his son's right to succeed him. Sarolt gave birth to at least three of Géza's children. Sarolt survived Géza, which suggests that she was the mother of Géza's daughters. Based on the Polish-Hungarian Chronicle, Szabolcs de Vajay wrote that the daughters' mother was Géza's alleged second wife Adelaide of Poland, but this has not been accepted. Adelaide is only mentioned in the Polish–Hungarian Chronicle, which describes her as the sister of Mieszko I of Poland, but specialists have questioned her real existence.

The chronicle attributes Géza's conversion to Adelaide's influence. The following family tree present


Nirbheek is a 6-shot cylinder revolver designed and manufactured by the Ordnance Factories Organization in Kanpur, India. The revolver was sold at INR 122,360.00 or $USD2,000.00. The Nirbheek is marketed as India's first gun for women and it is named after Nirbheek, the alias given to a 23-year-old woman, gang raped in Delhi in December 16, 2012 dying of her injuries; the victim's alias Nirbhaya and the revolver's name, both mean "fearless" in Hindi. The gun is illegal to carry in public in India without a permit, but these are impossible to obtain; the weapon attracted widespread criticism from women's groups and gun control advocates. They said that the'revolver for women' was an insult to the memory of Nirbhaya, the victim, it could not be the solution to violence against women. One gun control advocacy group said that they saw the launch of this gun by a state-owned factory as an admission of failure by the government, they pointed out that women carrying guns are twelve times more to be shot by attackers compared to unarmed women.

The factory's general manager said that the gun would increase women's confidence and deter attackers. Critics answered that not many women could afford the gun to defend themselves since it costs more than the average Indian's annual salary. Only high- and middle-class women would be able to afford it but since these groups are not the most vulnerable, their having guns would not solve the problem. Additionally, carrying guns in public places in most of India is prohibited; the gun is black and lightweight, with a titanium-alloy body and wooden grips. It weighs 0.5 kg and it is said it could be carried in a purse or bag. The simple mechanism is thought to have been based on earlier designs by Webley & Scott and Smith & Wesson. While the Nirbheek has a range of 10 meters, it's effective to be used at 15 meters

Bahasa Rojak

Bahasa Rojak or Rojak language is a Malaysian pidgin formed by code-switching among two or more of the many languages of Malaysia. Bahasa means "language", while rojak means "mixture" in Malay, is a local food of the same name. Rojak language of Malaysia can be traced back to 1402, in the early Malacca of Parameswara, an international port where more than 80 languages from a variety of cultures were spoken. Worldwide traders and original dwellers speaking multiple languages in a conversation was common. According to the Encyclopedia of Malaysia, it is a contact language a pidgin, known in modern Malaysia as Rojak language; the uniqueness of Rojak language is in its code-switching style. A person who speaks Rojak language may begin with standard Malay, continue with English mix one or two words in Cantonese garnished with Tamil, finish with Mandarin Chinese or some fashionable Japanese words. During Parameswara's time, when two groups of traders without a shared language met, they would try many possible languages in order to best understand each other, the result would be a pidgin or Rojak.

In the early 16th century, Portuguese visitor Tome Pires found in Malacca "Moors from Cairo, Aden, men of Kilwa, Ormuz, Rumi, Turkomans, Christian Armenians, men of Chaul, Goa, of the kingdom of Deccan and Klings, merchants from Orissa, Bengal, Pegu, men of Kedah, men of Penang, Cambodia, Cochin China, men from Liu Kiu and Brunei, men of Tamjompura, Bangka, from the Moluccas, Bima, Madura, Sunda, Jambi, Indragiri, Menangkabau, Arcat, Bata, from the country of the Tomjano, Pedir, from the Maldives." These peoples came to Malacca with junks and ships, by 1511, Malacca had a population of 50,000 people, including a resident trade community that spoke 84 languages. The British brought in large numbers of immigrants from China and India from the late 18th to mid 20th century; the presence of local Malays, Orang Asli, Portuguese settlers, newly arrived Chinese and Indians, others resulted in the wide use of mixed language. Kau memang terror la! - You're great! Tempat makan ni best sangat! - This food court is cool!

Nak makan sini ke nak tapau? - Do you want to dine here or take away? Jangan susah hati maa, lu punya bos mesti boleh kaw tim punya maa! - Don't worry, your boss can compromise! Apasal lu buat ini kerja cincai? - Why do you do this task sloppily? "Do not forget your roots" or "Jangan lupa diri" is a rallying cry heard among Malaysians interested in protecting their linguistic heritage. This statement suggests that, regardless of race, the Malaysian people have their own roots and ancestral origin to protect. In 2002, Tun Dr. Mahathir proposed that English be'a tool' to obtain knowledge in the sciences and mathematics, as part of education in Malaysia. Bahasa Rojak is used by Malaysian urban youths, which has triggered concerns about continued proficiency in the Malaysian and English languages being mixed, consequent risks to job opportunities for new graduates; the Malaysian government is promoting the use of standard Malay in the private sector, discouraging the usage of Bahasa Rojak, similar to the Singapore Government's Speak Good English Movement and its discouragement of the use of the Singlish pidgin.

For example, Malaysian TV station TV3 in April 2006 changed the name of its carnival Karnival Sure Heboh to Karnival Jom Heboh as a result of this concern. Comic magazines are criticized for using Bahasa Rojak. Words or phrases written in Bahasa Rojak are printed in boldface to enable readers to identify them. By the end of 2003, Gempak magazine began using a more formal language style and minimizing use of Bahasa Rojak, including the usage of bold lettering for words deemed colloquial. During the Standard Malay Language Framework Congress held in November 2017, Former Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad Zahid Hamidi expressed his disappoinment towards the usage of the national language as despite Malaysia has achieved 60 years of independence, there are still many Malaysians who could not speak proper Malay despite being born and raised in Malaysia and follows country’s education system. Lecturer teaching in ‘rojak’ English Speak Bahasa Malaysia, not bahasa rojak Gag order on using bahasa rojak DBP cannot fight bahasa rojak alone Bahasa rojak is part of the Malaysian identity Politicians should first set an example Focus on language skills and noble values Rojak Manglish Singlish Malaysian English The Encyclopedia of Malaysia: Languages & Literature by Prof. Dato' Dr Asmah Haji Omar ISBN 981-3018-52-6.

Malaysia at the crossroads Mind your language VC’s Test of Monolingualism Mark III SURVEY REPORT Raising Bilingual Children Blog Rojak Language

Smalleye hammerhead

The smalleye hammerhead called the golden hammerhead or curry shark, is a small species of hammerhead shark, belonging to the family Sphyrnidae. This species is common in the shallow coastal waters of the western Atlantic Ocean, from Venezuela to Uruguay, it favors muddy habitats with poor visibility, reflected by its small eyes. Adult males and juveniles are schooling and found apart from the solitary adult females. Reaching 1.2–1.3 m in length, this shark has a unique, bright golden color on its head and fins, only scientifically documented in the 1980s. As in all hammerheads, its head is flattened and laterally expanded into a hammer-shaped structure called the cephalofoil, which in this species is wide and long with an arched front margin bearing central and lateral indentations; the yellow-orange pigments of the smalleye hammerhead seem to have been acquired from the penaeid shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, the main food of juvenile sharks, from sea catfish and their eggs, the main food of adults.

The golden color may serve to conceal it from predators such as larger sharks. This species is viviparous, with the developing embryos sustained by a placental connection formed from the depleted yolk sac. Females bear litters of five to 19 pups every year following a gestation period of 10 months. Reproductive seasonality, litter size, size at maturity vary between geographical regions; because of its abundance, the smalleye hammerhead is an economically important bycatch of artisanal gillnet fisheries throughout its range and is used as food. In recent years, overfishing has caused marked declines in its numbers off Trinidad, northern Brazil, elsewhere. Coupled with its low reproductive rate, this has led the International Union for Conservation of Nature to list it under vulnerable. Despite being one of the most recognizable sharks, the smalleye hammerhead has had a long history of taxonomic confusion that still remains to be resolved, its scientific name originated in 1822, with French zoologist Achille Valenciennes' description of Zygaena tudes in the scientific journal Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle.

Valenciennes made reference to three specimens: one from Nice in France, one from Cayenne in French Guiana, one from the Coromandel Coast of India. However, for over two centuries, taxonomists believed Valenciennes' account matched the great hammerhead, which thus became known as Zygaena tudes; the smalleye hammerhead was known by a different name, Sphyrna bigelowi, coined by Stewart Springer in a 1944 issue of Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. In 1950, Enrico Tortonese examined the Nice and Cayenne specimens of S. tudes and concluded that they were not great hammerheads, but rather the same species as S. bigelowi. Carter Gilbert concurred in his 1967 revision of the hammerhead sharks, noting that while the lost Coromandel specimen was a great hammerhead, none of the existing material belonged to that species. Thus, Sphyrna tudes became the accepted name for the smalleye hammerhead, taking precedence over S. bigelowi because it was published earlier, the great hammerhead received the next available name Sphyrna mokarran.

Gilbert designated the Nice specimen as the lectotype that would define S. tudes, having priority over the Cayenne specimen. This had the opposite effect. In 1981, Jean Cadenat and Jacques Blache revisited the type specimens of S. tudes and found that the lectotype from Nice is not a smalleye hammerhead, but rather a fetal whitefin hammerhead. This would explain the anomalous locality of the Nice specimen, as the smalleye hammerhead is not otherwise known outside of the Americas. By the rules of binomial nomenclature, Sphyra tudes should become the valid name for the whitefin hammerhead, taking precedence over S. couardi, the smalleye hammerhead would revert to being Sphyrna bigelowi. Taxonomists, have been reluctant to change the names again, preferring to keep the smalleye hammerhead as S. tudes. For this solution to have official status would require a decision by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, to reject the Nice specimen as the lectotype and designate the Cayenne specimen in its place.

The relevant petition to the ICZN has not yet been put forth. Until the first detailed study of the smalleye hammerhead was carried out in 1985–86 by José Castro of Clemson University for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, its distinctive golden coloration was unknown to science; the color fades after death and the pigments leech into the preservative, resulting in the "yellowish cast" of museum specimens being regarded as an artifact of preservation. The names "yellow hammerhead" or "golden hammerhead" are used by fishermen in Trinidad for this shark, the latter was promoted for wider usage by Castro. Another common name for this species is the curry shark. Phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA have found that the hammerheads with the smallest cephalofoils are the most derived members of their lineage; the closest relative of the smalleye hammerhead appears to be the scoophead, the two of them in turn form a clade with the sister species pair of the scalloped bonnethead and the bonnethead.

One of the smaller members of its family, the smalleye hammerhead can reach a length of 1.5 m, though 1.2–1.3 m is more typical, a weight of 9 kg. The body is streamlined and slender; the mallet-shaped ce

UK–Dutch Battlegroup

The UK–Dutch Battlegroup or UK/NL EUBG 2010 is an EU Battlegroup led by the United Kingdom, in which the Netherlands participate. It was on standby during the first half of 2010 with Battlegroup I-2010; the core of the battlegroup was formed by the United Kingdom/Netherlands Amphibious Force, that has existed since 1972. The Dutch provided the 11th Infantry Company of the Korps Mariniers, mortar support, medical support, a logistics detachment, a senior national representative and personnel for a combined headquarters staff. Within the battlegroup, the marines company is embedded in the 42 Commando Royal Marines. In late November 2009, UK/NL EUBG 2010 conducted exercises, codenamed "Orange Marauder" in the Salisbury Plain Training Area. Evacuation operations, convoy escorting and patrolling, as well as staff functioning, were trained

USS Araner (IX-226)

The USS Araner was laid down as the liberty ship Juan de Fuca under a Maritime Commission contract on 15 November 1942 at Vancouver, Washington, by the Oregon Shipbuilding Company and launched on 27 December 1942. The ship was delivered to the War Shipping Administration on 11 January 1943 and placed under a standard WSA operating agreement with Weyerhauser Steamship Company. While during service in the Atlantic and Mediterranean she came under fire at least once, on 4 October 1943, was credited with downing two attacking aircraft and assisting in driving off the remaining planes. During the Mindoro Campaign she was torpedoed and damaged by a Japanese aircraft, without casualties, in the West Philippine Sea 20 miles off Mindoro, Philippines, she was beached on Ambulong Island. She was towed to Subic Bay. On 30 December 1944 the ship was declared a total constructive loss. Repaired the ship entered United States Navy service under bareboat charter from WSA as USS Araner on 23 September 1945 and placed in service that same day with Lieutenant Henry Morath in charge.

Araner appears to have contributed little service to the United States Navy. She was inspected by an inspection and survey board at Leyte during October, the month following the beginning of her naval service. In January 1946 as a result of that inspection, she received orders to be towed to Subic Bay where all her naval gear was stripped pending her deactivation. On 22 August 1946, she was placed out of service at Subic Bay and turned over to the Maritime Commission's War Shipping Administration for disposal; that organization sold her along with fourteen other vessels to the Asia Development Corporation, Shanghai on 29 January 1948 for scrapping. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 29 October 1948; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. "Official Chronology of the US Navy in WWII". Ibiblio. Retrieved 31 December 2014