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Göran Persson

Hans Göran Persson served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1996 to 2006 and was leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1996 to 2007. Persson was first elected to the Swedish Parliament in 1979, representing Södermanland County but left in 1985 to serve as Municipal Commissioner of Katrineholm, which he did from 1985 to 1989. In 1991, he represented the same constituency, he served as Minister for Schools from 1989 to 1991 in Ingvar Carlsson's second cabinets. From 1994 to 1996, Persson served as Minister for Finance in Carlsson's third cabinet. After that Ingvar Carlsson announced his retirement from the position of Prime Minister, Persson was chosen to become the new Prime Minister. Persson began as Prime Minister where he left office as Minister for Finance – by continuing to spearhead government efforts to alleviate Sweden's chronic budget deficit. In 1994, the annual shortfall was about 13 per cent of the country's gross domestic product, but after implementing welfare cuts and tax increases, it fell to a projected 2.6 per cent of GDP in 1997, which placed Sweden in a position to qualify for the European Economic and Monetary Union.

However, the cost was high: unemployment rose, hovering persistently around 13 per cent suddenly fell to about 6.5 per cent the same year. In the 1998 general election, the Social Democrats gained fewer votes than in the 1991 general election, when they got voted out of office. Persson could remain as Prime Minister with the support of the Left Party. In the 2002 general election the Social Democrats increased their number of seats in the parliament. After the defeat at the general elections of 17 September 2006, Persson filed a request for resignation, declared his intentions to resign as party leader after the party congress in March 2007. Since leaving office, Persson has been a consultant for the Stockholm-based PR firm JKL, he published a book in October 2007, "Min väg, mina val". In 2008 he was appointed Chairman of the Board of Sveaskog by the Swedish Government, he has been a member of the European Council on Tolerance and Reconciliation since 2007, a member of the board of World Resources Institute since 2010.

Persson was born in Vingåker in Sweden, in a working-class home. He has in recent years revealed, he completed 80 college credits in the subject before he left the college in 1971 without graduating. As the college received credentials as a full university, the renamed Örebro University gave him an honorary PhD in medicine in February 2005, an award that provoked some controversy, he first married Gunnel in 1978, with. They divorced in 1995. On 10 March 1995, he married Annika Barthine, whom he divorced in December 2002. On 6 December 2003, Persson married Anitra Steen. In 2004, Persson and Steen purchased the 190 hectare agricultural property Övre Torp by Lake Båven in Södermanland. During 2006 the couple started the construction of a large house on the property, he has maintained his Christian faith and is a member of Swedish Association of Christian Social Democrats. On 8 July 2002, Persson broke his left clavicle. Following this accident he was unable to lift his left arm for some time and fainted during a speech in Almedalen on 10 July 2002 and after a meeting with British Prime Minister Tony Blair on 15 July 2002.

Present with him during the accident was Pär Nuder, Minister of Finance, Sten Olsson, State Secretary. Pär Nuder wrote in his book Stolt men inte nöjd, released in 2008, that Persson had fallen while riding his bicycle because he was drunk after consuming large amounts of alcoholic beverages. Persson said in response to these claims: "I can't recapitulate the event but I can say as much that I'm surprised that Pär Nuder remembers anything". In September 2003 Persson was diagnosed with hip osteoarthritis and surgery was recommended, he chose to go through Sweden's public health-care system instead of seeking private treatment. During that 9-month period he walked with a limp and was on strong painkillers. Persson was in office for more than ten years, making him the second-longest continuously-governing prime minister of Sweden second to Tage Erlander, he is known for his oratorical prowess dispensing with prepared speeches or preparing them without the aid of his staff. During his time, he has faced several shocking incidents, such as the Gothenburg riots in June 2001, the murder of Swedish Foreign Minister Anna Lindh in September 2003, Asian tsunami disaster in December 2004 during the Boxing Day, the conflict over the publication of satirical Muhammed cartoons in Danish newspapers, leading to threats of violence against Scandinavians and burning of embassies in the Middle East and the resignation of Swedish Foreign Minister Laila Freivalds.

In the early seventies he worked for the Swedish Social Democratic Youth League, was a member of the national board from 1972 to 1975. He served as a city council politician at the small municipality of Katrineholm. In 1979 he was elected Member of Parliament, but went back to local politics to serve as Municipal Commissioner of Katrineholm from 1985 to 1989. In 1989, he was made Minister of Schools in the Ministry of Education du

Teatro Carlos Gomes (Rio de Janeiro)

Teatro Carlos Gomes is a theatre in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It was established in 1868 in the Hotel Richelieu. Teatro Carlos Gomes is a theater located in Praça Tiradentes, in the center of the city of Rio de Janeiro, it is one of the most traditional theaters in the country. Its primitive facilities were inaugurated in 1872, when it was called Theater Franc-Brésiliene denominated like Theater Santana and with the current denomination. Throughout its history, these facilities were devastated by three large fires. Has a capacity for an audience of 760 people, highlighting the three foyers in Art Deco style - one below the entrance, another up and third in the galleries - with floor in pads and stairs in marble; the theatre has ten dressing rooms, distributed on four floors. The name of the theater is a tribute to the composer Antônio Carlos Gomes


A chalcogenide is a chemical compound consisting of at least one chalcogen anion and at least one more electropositive element. Although all group 16 elements of the periodic table are defined as chalcogens, the term chalcogenide is more reserved for sulfides, selenides and polonides, rather than oxides. Many metal ores exist as chalcogenides. Photoconductive chalcogenide glasses are used in xerography; some pigments and catalysts are based on chalcogenides. The metal dichalcogenide MoS2 is a common solid lubricant. Alkali metal and alkaline earth monochalcogenides are salt-like, being colourless and water-soluble; the sulfides tend to undergo hydrolysis to form derivatives containing bisulfide anions. The alkali metal chalcogenides crystallize with the antifluorite structure and the alkaline earth salts in the sodium chloride motif. Transition metal chalcogenides occur with many structures. Most common and most important technologically, are the chalcogenides of simple stoichiometries, such as 1:1 and 1:2.

Extreme cases include metal-rich phases, which exhibit extensive metal-metal bonding, chalcogenide-rich materials such as Re2S7, which features extensive chalcogen-chalcogen bonding. For the purpose of classifying these materials, the chalcogenide is viewed as a dianion, i.e. S2−, Se2−, Te2−, Po2−. In fact, transition metal chalcogenides are covalent, not ionic, as indicated by their semiconducting properties. In most of their chalcogenides, transition metals adopt oxidation states of greater. Nonetheless, several examples exist; such compounds have extensive metal-metal bonding. Metal monochalcogenides have the formula ME, where M = a transition E = S, Se, Te, they crystallize in one of two motifs, named after the corresponding forms of zinc sulfide. In the zinc blende structure, the sulfide atoms pack in a cubic symmetry and the Zn2+ ions occupy half of the tetrahedral holes; the result is a diamondoid framework. The main alternative structure for the monochalcogenides is the wurtzite structure wherein the atom connectivities are similar, but the crystal symmetry is hexagonal.

A third motif for metal monochalcogenide is the nickel arsenide lattice, where the metal and chalcogenide each have octahedral and trigonal prismatic coordination, respectively. This motif is subject to nonstoichiometry. Important monochalcogenides include some pigments, notably cadmium sulfide. Many minerals and ores are monosulfides. Metal dichalcogenides have the formula ME2, where M = a transition E = S, Se, Te; as usual, the most important members are the sulfides. They are always dark diamagnetic solids, insoluble in all solvents, exhibiting semiconducting properties. In terms of their electronic structures, these compounds are viewed as derivatives of M4+, where M4+ = Ti4+, V4+, Mo4+. Titanium disulfide was investigated in prototype cathodes for secondary batteries, exploiting its ability to reversibly undergo intercalation by lithium. Molybdenum disulfide, the subject of many thousand publications, is the main ore of molybdenum where it is called molybdenite, it is used as a solid catalyst for hydrodesulfurization.

The corresponding diselenides and ditellurides are known, e.g. TiSe2, MoSe2, WSe2. Transition metal dichalcogenides adopt either cadmium diiodide or molybdenum disulfide structures. In the CdI2 motif, the metals exhibit octahedral structures. In the MoS2 motif, not observed for dihalides, the metals exhibit trigonal prismatic structures; the strong bonding between the metal and chalcogenide ligands, contrasts with the weak chalcogenide—chalcogenide bonding between the layers. Owing to these contrasting bond strengths, these materials engage in intercalation by alkali metals; the intercalation process is accompanied by charge transfer, reducing the M centers to M. In contrast to classical metal dichalcogenides, iron pyrite, a common mineral, is described as consisting of Fe2+ and the persulfido anion S22−; the sulfur atoms within the disulfido dianion are bound together via a short S-S bond. "Late" transition metal disulfides always adopt the pyrite or the related marcasite motif, in contrast to early metals which adopt 4+ oxidation state with two chalcogenide dianions.

Several metals for the early metals form trichalcogenides. These materials are described as M4+. A well known example is niobium triselenide. Amorphous MoS3 is produced by treatment of tetrathiomolybdate with acid: MoS42− + 2 H+ → MoS3 + H2SThe mineral patrónite, which has the formula VS4, is an example of a metal tetrachalcogenide. Crystallographic analysis shows that the material can be considered a bis, i.e. V4+,2. Chalcogen derivatives are known for all of the main group elements except the noble gases, their stoichiometries follow the classical valence trends, e.g. SiS2, B2S3, Sb2S3. Many exceptions exist however, e.g. P4S3 and S4N4; the structures of many main group materials are dictated by directional covalent bonding, rather than by close packing. The chalcogen is assigned positive oxidation states for the halides and oxides. Phase-change memory Chalcogen Negative resistance Chalcogenide glass Hydrogen chalcogenide Advanced Chalcogenide Technologies and Applications Lab ACTAlab Jun 14, 2016 Phase change memory-based'moneta' system points to the future of computer storage ScienceBlog Jun 03, 2011 Kovalenko, Maksym V..

"Colloidal Nanocrys


The trot is a two-beat diagonal gait of the horse where the diagonal pairs of legs move forward at the same time with a moment of suspension between each beat. It has averages about 13 kilometres per hour. A slow trot is sometimes referred to as a jog. An fast trot has no special name, but in harness racing, the trot of a Standardbred is faster than the gallop of the average non-racehorse, has been clocked at over 30 miles per hour. On June 29, 2014 at Pocono Downs in Pennsylvania the Swedish standardbred Sebastian K trotted a mile in 1 minute, 49 seconds; this is equivalent to 33 miles per hour. From the standpoint of the balance of the horse, the trot is a stable gait and does not require the horse to make major balancing motions with its head and neck. Due to its many variations, the trot is a common gait. Eadweard Muybridge was the first to prove, by photography, in 1872 that there is a "moment of suspension" or "unsupported transit" during the trot gait. Depending on the amount of engagement and collection of the horse, the trot can be classified as "working", "collected", or "extended".

By the rhythm, one may distinguish a true, two-beat square trot when each diagonal pair of hoofs hits the ground at the same moment from a four-beat intermediate ambling gait, such as the fox trot or the "trocha" sometimes seen in the Paso Fino. Different speeds and types of trots are described by the following terms: Jog trot, as seen in western horses, is a slow, relaxed trot lacking the suspension of a working trot and with shorter strides, it is easy to ride because there is less "bounce". The head of the horse is carried low while the hindquarters are engaged and underneath the horse, there is less impulsion than in a dressage-style collected trot. Collected trot: A engaged trot where most of the horse's weight is carried toward the hindquarters; the frame is compressed and the stride length is shorter than any of the other trots with the horse taking higher steps. The horse is more mobile in the collected trot. Slow trot or Road gait: Is faster than a jog trot; this gait is one of the gaits used in harness classes at horse shows.

Working trot or Trot: The stride length is "normal" for the horse and is the natural trot of the horse when under saddle. It is a gait between the collected medium trot. Medium trot: A trot, more engaged and rounder than the working trot with moderately extended strides and good, solid impulsion; the medium trot lies between the extended trot. Park trot: Sometimes called a Trot in a given class and seen in saddle seat and fine harness classes for Saddlebreds and Morgans, it is a flashy trot with extreme elevation of the knees. The head is held high and at times a horse may hollow its back and lose cadence in an attempt to achieve high action in front; the hindquarters must be engaged for it to be properly performed. Lengthened trot: A trot with lengthened strides, it differs from the more advanced extended trot in that it does not require the horse to bring its weight as far back on its hindquarters. Road trot or Show at Speed: As seen in roadster classes, is a gait similar to a racing trot, but much slower.

The horse's head is collected, the stride is at maximum length, the step is high and animated. Extended trot: An engaged trot with long strides where the horse stretches its frame and lengthens its strides to the greatest degree possible; the horse has a great amount of suspension. The back is the horse's head just in front and vertical. Racing trot: As seen in harness racing horses that race at a trot, such as Standardbred; the stride is at its maximum length with a great deal of suspension. The hind leg in a diagonal pair may begin to hit the ground before the front. Unlike the extended trot, the neck is extended out; as of September 2013, the North American speed record for a racing trot under saddle at one mile is 1:59, or 30.25 miles per hour Two variations of the trot are specially trained in advanced dressage horses: the Piaffe and the Passage. The Piaffe is created by asking the horse to trot in place, with little forward motion; the Passage is an exaggerated slow motion trot. Both require tremendous collection, careful training and considerable physical conditioning for a horse to perform.

Depending on the horse and its speed, a trot can be difficult for a rider to sit because the body of the horse drops a bit between beats and bounces up again when the next set of legs strike the ground. Each time another diagonal pair of legs hits the ground, the rider can be jolted upwards out of the saddle and meet the horse with some force on the way back down. Therefore, at most speeds above a jog in English riding disciplines, most riders post to the trot, rising up and down in rhythm with the horse to avoid being jolted. Posting is easy on the horse's back, once mastered is easy on the rider. To not be jostled out of the saddle and to not harm the horse by bouncing on its back, riders must learn specific skills in order to sit the trot. Most riders learn to sit a slow jog trot without bouncing. A skilled rider can ride a powerfully extended trot without bouncing, but to do so requires well-conditioned back and abdominal muscles, to do so for long periods is tiring for experienced riders.

A fast, racing trot, such

Roberto Viaux

Roberto Urbano Viaux Marambio was a Chilean Army General and the primary planner of two attempted coup d'états in Chile in 1969 and 1970. The first was against President Eduardo Frei Montalva, the second sought to prevent Socialist Salvador Allende's election. Prior to his involvement in the René Schneider case, Viaux was a well respected and admired military leader, he became famous when he led a small military insurrection on October 21, 1969. In the Tacnazo, Viaux shut himself up with the Tacna regiment inside its barracks and went on a strike, he demanded a pay-raise for the Army and the resignation of both the Defense Minister and the Army Commander-in-Chief. After tense negotiations with the government, he ended his strike when the Commander-in-Chief resigned and the government promised to study his salary demands. On October 22, 1970, coup plotters loyal to Viaux attempted to kidnap constitutionalist Chilean Army Commander-in-chief General René Schneider, adamantly opposed to any prospect of a coup.

General Schneider's official car was ambushed at a street intersection in the capital city of Santiago, Chile. When the general drew a gun to defend himself, he was shot point-blank several times. Though he was rushed to a military hospital, General Schneider's wounds proved fatal and he died three days on October 25. General Viaux was convicted of involvement with the plot and imprisoned. Critics of U. S. policy in Chile at the time, including journalist Christopher Hitchens, have accused former U. S. National Security Advisor and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger of conspiring with Viaux in the murder of General Schneider, yet declassified U. S. documents show that the Central Intelligence Agency had explored the possibility of supporting a Viaux coup but decided that his ideology was "far out" and, while maintaining contact with him, did not provide direct support. In a declassified October 15 conversation with President Richard Nixon, Kissinger said, "This looks hopeless. I turned it off. Nothing could be worse than an abortive coup."Although contact with the Viaux group was ended, a cable from CIA headquarters to the Santiago station reveals that the CIA did arrange the delivery of submachine guns and ammunition to a group led by General Valenzuela.

The weapons, along with $50,000, were recovered by U. S. military attaché to Chile Colonel Wilmert after he "pistol-whipped" General Valenzuela, who at first refused to hand the money over. Wilmert drove to Vina del Mar, where he threw the submachine guns into the Pacific Ocean. In August, 1973, Viaux was exiled to Paraguay, he was not involved in the successful Chilean coup of 1973, was allowed to return to Chile only in 1990, by President Patricio Aylwin. Viaux lived in retirement in Santiago, until his death on September 5, 2005. 1970 Chilean presidential election Carlos Prats Camilo Valenzuela CIA, Cable Transmissions on Coup Plotting, October 18, 1970 information on the plot Obituary El Mercurio Obituary

Neptis nemetes

Neptis nemetes, the Nemetes sailer, is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. It is found in Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Burkina-Faso, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Togo, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Tanzania and Ethiopia; the habitat consists of riverine thicket. The larvae feed on Alchornea cordifolia and Macaranga and Alchornea species. Neptis nemetes nemetes Neptis nemetes margueriteae Fox, 1968 Neptis nemetes obtusa Rothschild & Jordan, 1903