Göttingen is a university city in Lower Saxony, the capital of the eponymous district. It is run through by River Leine. At the start of 2017, the population was 134,212; the origins of Göttingen lay in a village called Gutingi, first mentioned in a document in 953 AD. The city was founded northwest of this village, between 1150 and 1200 AD, adopted its name. In medieval times the city was a member of hence a wealthy town. Today, Göttingen is famous for its old university, founded in 1734 and became the most visited university of Europe. In 1837, seven professors protested against the absolute sovereignty of the kings of Hanover, its alumni include some well-known historical figures: the Brothers Grimm, Heinrich Ewald, Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Georg Gervinus. German Chancellors Otto von Bismarck and Gerhard Schröder attended law school at the Göttingen University. Karl Barth held his first professorship here; some of the most famous mathematicians in history, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Bernhard Riemann and David Hilbert, were professors at Göttingen.

Like other university towns, Göttingen has developed its own quaint traditions. On the day they are awarded their doctorate degrees, students are drawn in handcarts from the Great Hall to the Gänseliesel-Fountain in front of the Old Town Hall. There they have to kiss the statue of the Gänseliesel; this practice is forbidden, but the law is not enforced. The statue is considered the most kissed girl in the world. Nearly untouched by Allied bombing in World War II, the inner city of Göttingen is now an attractive place to live with many shops and bars. For this reason, many university students give Göttingen a youthful feel. In 2003, 45 % of the inner city population was only between 30 years of age. Commercially, Göttingen is noted for its production of optical and precision-engineered machinery, being the seat of the light microscopy division of Carl Zeiss, Inc. and a main site for Sartorius AG which specialises in bio-technology and measurement equipment—the region around Göttingen advertises itself as "Measurement Valley".

Unemployment in Göttingen was 12.6% in 2003 and is now 7%. The city's railway station to the west of the city centre is on Germany's main north-south railway. Göttingen has two professional basketball teams. For the 2007-08 season, both teams will play in the 1st division; the origins of Göttingen can be traced back to a village named Gutingi to the immediate south-east of the eventual city. The name of the village derives from a small stream, called the Gote, that once flowed through it. Since the ending -ing denoted "living by", the name can be understood as "along the Gote". Archaeological evidence points towards a settlement as early as the 7th century, it is first mentioned in a document by the Holy Roman Emperor Otto I in 953 AD, in which the emperor gives some of his belongings in the village to the Moritz monastery in Magdeburg. Archaeological findings point to extensive commercial relations with other regions and a developed craftsmanship in this early period. In its early days, Gutingi was overshadowed by Grona documented from the year 915 AD as a newly built fortress, lying opposite Gutingi on a hill west of the River Leine.

It was subsequently used as an Ottonian imperial palace, with 18 visits of kings and emperors documented between 941 and 1025 AD. The last Holy Roman Emperor to use the fortress of Grona, Heinrich II had a church built in the neighbouring Gutingi, dedicated to Saint Alban; the current church building that occupies this site, the St. Albani Church, was built in 1423; the fortress lost its function as a palace in 1025, after Heinrich II died there, having retreated to it in ill health. It was subsequently used by the lords of Grone; the fortress was destroyed by the citizens of Göttingen between 1323 and 1329, razed to the ground by Duke Otto I during his feuds with the city of Göttingen in 1387. With time, a trading settlement started to form at the river crossing of the Leine to the west of the village, from which it took its name, it is this settlement, given city rights. The original village remained recognisable as a separate entity until about 1360, at which time it was incorporated within the town's fortification.

It is the present city was founded between 1150 and 1180, although the exact circumstances are not known. It is presumed that Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, founded the city; the configuration of the streets in the oldest part of the town is in the shape of a pentagon, it has been proposed that the inception of the town followed a planned design. At this time, the town was known by the name Gudingin or Gotingen, its inhabitants obeyed welfish ownership and ruling rights, the first Göttingen burghers are mentioned, indicating that Göttingen was organised as a true city. It was not, however, a Free Imperial City, but subject to the Welf dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Henry the Elder of Brunswick, eldest son of Henry the Lion and brother of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, is given as the lord over Göttingen between 1201 and 1208; the original Welf residency in the town consisted of a farm building and the stables of the Welf dukes, which occupied the oldest part of the city's fortifications built prior to 1250.

In its early days, Göttingen became involved in the conflic

List of banned video games

This is a list of video games that have been censored or banned by governments of various states in the world. Governments that have banned video games have been criticized for a correlated increase in digital piracy, limiting business opportunities and violating rights. Brazil has banned many video games since 1999 due to depictions of violence and cruelty, making it illegal to distribute and otherwise sell these games. Additionally, the Brazilian advisory rating system requires that all video games be rated by the organization, where unrated video games are banned from being sold in Brazil. Bans do not extend to digital platforms. A large number of video games are banned in the People's Republic of China. Games that depict drugs, sexual themes, organized crime or defamation of the Chinese government are always banned; because of the large size of the Chinese video game market, many studios edit the content of their games to conform to the government's standards. Home gaming consoles were banned in mainland China from June 2000 until 2013.

As of April 2019, after implementing a new mandatory local rating and approval system and all games containing depictions of violence, blood and imperial history are de facto banned from all accessible platforms in the nation. Notable games banned in this region are: No video games have been banned in Cuba, but few games were sold in that country until 2007 when restrictions were eased. In 2010, the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops generated a lot of controversy as there is a mission where the player attempts to assassinate Fidel Castro, only to end up killing a double. EA Sports MMA was not released in Denmark because of a law prohibiting marketing for energy drinks, which EA chose not to remove from the game. However, distribution is not illegal. A video game can be banned in Germany if it is confiscated by court order because it violates a section of the Strafgesetzbuch. Private possession and acquisition are still legal; the seller would break the law. However, on December 10, 2002, one German court decided that a single sale of a single copy does not qualify as dissemination.

Unlike indexing by the BPjM, which restricts the sale of all content-equal versions, the versions that are confiscated are enumerated in the court order. Being put on the index by the BPjM or, since April 1, 2003, being refused a rating by the USK, does not equal a ban. Rather, it imposes strict trade restrictions on the title. While only few games have been confiscated, the list of indexed games is long. In December 2006, just one month after the Emsdetten school shooting and Lower Saxony proposed legislation, to be presented to the national parliament, that would make playing any game that featured “cruel violence on humans or human-looking characters” banned in the country. § 86a outlaws the use of symbols of unconstitutional organisations, § 130 Volksverhetzung, § 131 instructions for committing crimes. In the official lists, these three sections are always bundled, so any game that contains swastika flags and/or any depiction of Adolf Hitler is listed alongside racist propaganda pieces.

This law was lifted on August 8, 2018. § 131 outlaws representation of excessive violence in media "which describe cruel or otherwise inhuman acts of violence against human or humanoid beings in a manner which expresses a glorification or rendering harmless of such acts of violence or which represents the cruel or inhuman aspects of the event in a manner which injures human dignity".§ 130 and § 131 make it a criminal offence to do the following with corresponding scriptures: distribute/sell them issue in public, demonstrate or otherwise make them available leave them to a person under the age of 18 produce, deliver, offer, praise, import or export them within the meaning of points 1 to 3. This means that import or purchase and possession for personal use of such games is still legal for persons over 18 years of age. In the case of video games that contain pornography with children or minors, where a real or realistic event is depicted, the possession of the video game or working towards possessing it would be illegal under § 184b or §184c StGB.

Otherwise, if the work depicts a fictitious event, the distribution of such material is illegal. In August 2008, Sega confirmed that The House of the Dead: Overkill and MadWorld would not be released in Germany, due to the likelihood that they would be refused to get a rating by the USK. Sega announced in November 2009 that they would not distribute Aliens vs. Predator for similar reasons. A "Beschlagnahmung" is enforced for a minimum of ten years, after which a request for review may be submitted. Although the bans don't extend to the digital versions, local versions are still toned down in depictions of violence and similar content to be classified by the USK without any rulings. No known games have been banned in Greece. A law banning all electronic games in public places was passed in 2002, but disregarded. Iran bans any game that contains violence, depicts cruelty, features strong sexual content, nudity, or portrays the Middle East negatively. Battlefield 3 was banned because it presented a fictional U.

S. invasion on Tehran. Before the ban, many retail stores were removing copies of the game from their shelves. Pokémon Go was banned due to security reasons. Valkyrie Drive

Donovan's Echo

Donovan's Echo is a 2011 Canadian supernatural suspense film directed by Jim Cliffe and co-written by Jim Cliffe and Melodie Krieger, starring Danny Glover and Bruce Greenwood. Donovan Matheson is a man trapped in the past. Once an esteemed physicist, Donovan worked on the Manhattan Project. In the years that followed, his regret spilled into his personal life, when he became obsessed with finding a theory for cold fusion to help benefit the world. Donovan's obsession led to the loss of his wife and child in an accident he believes he could have prevented. After a thirty-year absence, Donovan returns to his small town, where he finds himself caught up in events that echo the same tragedy, he witnessed a fatal car accident and somehow foreknew. He walks out of a store and saves a girl, standing under a scaffold from being struck by a falling power tool. Plagued by déjà vu, Donovan is convinced his young neighbor and her mother, Sarah are doomed to die on the anniversary of his family's deaths. Struggling to unlock the pattern, Donovan attempts to decipher a puzzle that he believes ties the past to the present, offers a path to redemption.

Donovan tries to convince his brother-in-law, police Sergeant Finnley, but when his facts don't add up, Donovan's sanity is questioned. Is he losing his mind, or running out of time? Following the success of his Comic-Con award-winning short film, Tomorrow's Memoir, co-writer/director Jim Cliffe began conceiving an idea for a feature-length screenplay, inspired by a moment of déjà vu. Taking a cue from co-writing teams such as husband and wife duo Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh, Jim enlisted the help of his writer girlfriend, Melodie Krieger, to flesh out what would become Donovan's Echo. From the beginning, the two imagined an older protagonist with a tragic past and a lifetime of regret, now experiencing a phenomenon he couldn't comprehend. Donovan's tragic background included the idea. "I thought it might be interesting to have a character with a set of tools to try and dissect what is happening around him." Explains Cliffe. "That was a pretty momentous moment in our history that hasn’t been covered a lot in contemporary film."

In late 2007, the first draft of Donovan's Echo placed quarter-finalist in the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences' Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting. Out of 3000 international screenplays, the script won the Bronze prize for Drama in the PAGE International Screenwriting Awards. While the script gained Hollywood interest, finding producers willing to take a chance on a first-time director proved challenging. Jim approached producer Trent Carlson. Trent agreed to produce and brought on producers Andria Spring and Mary Anne Waterhouse to begin a phase of development and rewrites. Another boon to development was from a former co-worker and friend of Jim's, Lance Priebe, whom Cliffe had met in the late-’90s when they were both artists. Priebe had gone on to develop Club Penguin, a virtual game for children, that in 2007 was sold to Disney. "We both were let go from the same company at the same time. He wanted to create games, I wanted to create films," explained Cliffe. Lance and his wife Kim came on board as executive producers and helped finance the film alongside Telefilm and other Canadian production sources, bringing in a modest budget of around $3M.

"It magically came together. We were able to get all our financing and production done in Canada, as well as distribution with a company out of Toronto," said Cliffe. A casting agent put a list of names together for potential "Donovan's". One name in particular stood out to the filmmakers; that actor was Danny Glover, best known for his roles in The Colour Purple and the Lethal Weapon film franchise. "We could so see him play into this world," said Cliffe, who after hearing that Glover was attached, was soon able to cast Canadian born Bruce Greenwood. Along the way they found the rest of their cast in Natasha Calis, Sonja Bennett, David Lewis, Ian Tracey. With casting in place, Donovan’s Echo went into production in late 2010; the tight 20-day shoot included multiple locations around Vancouver, Maple Ridge, Fort Langley and Pitt Meadows, British Columbia, with the bridge scene being shot near Harrison River. The shoot included various time periods and stunts. With a background in illustration and animation, Cliffe storyboarded the movie as well as some pre-viz animatics.

But as a first-time feature director, Cliffe soon realized that his shots and sequences were a little too ambitious for such a tight schedule. As a result, he condensed his vision to suit a smaller film. Distributed by Union Pictures, Donovan's Echo premiered in Sudbury, Ontario's Cinéfest in September 2011, was the opening film at the Calgary International Film Festival that same month where Bruce Greenwood attended; the film screened at the Edmonton, Pan-African, Vancouver Film Festivals, where VIFF referred to it as "a film that wrings hope out of mystery, love out of grief and miracles out of science". In February 2012, after premiering at the TIFF Bell Light box theatre, Donovan's Echo had a limited theatrical release across Canada; the movie was released on DVD, Blu-ray and digital download in Canada in September 2012 by Anchor Bay Entertainment, will be coming to the U. S. in May 2013. Donovan's Echo received several positive reviews; the Toronto Film Scene Magazine wrote, "With such an interesting mystery, great performances and themes of hope and acceptance, Donovan's Echo is a great debut for Jim Cliffe."

In The Toronto Examiner revie