The Allgäu is a region in Swabia in southern Germany. It covers the south of southeastern Baden-Württemberg and parts of Austria; the region stretches from the prealpine lands up to the Alps. The main rivers flowing through the Allgäu are the Iller. Allgäu is not an administrative unit; the Allgovian area is notable for its beautiful landscapes and is popular for vacations and therapeutic stays. It is well known in Germany for its farm produce dairy products including Hirtenkäse and Bergkäse, a generic alpine product from Austria and Switzerland. Besides tourism and dairy products, another important economic sector is the building of industrial equipment and machines. Fendt tractors and produced in Marktoberdorf are one of the most famous products of the region. "Allgovia" is used as a synonym for the region. The alpine regions of the Allgäu rise over 2,000 metres in altitude and are popular for winter skiing; the castle of Neuschwanstein is in the eastern part of the Allgäu. The Allgäu is dominated in the south by the Allgäu Alps, which are not part of the Allgäu themselves.
The Allgäu is formed by glaciers and glacial debris. Many hills and lakes are remnants of former glaciers. Michael Bredl, a singer and collector of traditional German Volksmusik Official tourist information Non-commercial Allgäu Information Alpine Club Oy/Allgäu Recipes from Allgäu
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
National Gallery of Canada
The National Gallery of Canada, located in the capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, is Canada's premier art gallery. The Gallery is now housed in a glass and granite building on Sussex Drive with a notable view of the Canadian Parliament buildings on Parliament Hill; the building was designed by Moshe Safdie and opened in 1988. The Gallery's former director, Jean Sutherland Boggs, was chosen by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to oversee construction of the national gallery and museums. Marc Mayer was named the museum's director, succeeding Pierre Théberge, on 19 January 2009; the Gallery was first formed in 1880 by Canada's Governor General, John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, and, in 1882, moved into its first home on Parliament Hill in the same building as the Supreme Court. In 1911, the Gallery moved to the Victoria Memorial Museum, now the home of the Canadian Museum of Nature. In 1913, the first National Gallery Act was passed. In 1962, the Gallery moved to the Lorne Building site, a rather nondescript office building on Elgin Street.
Adjacent to the British High Commission, the building has since been demolished for a 17-storey office building, to house the Federal Finance Department. The museum moved into its current building beside Nepean Point. In 1985, the newly created Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography the Stills Photography Division of the National Film Board of Canada, was affiliated to the National Gallery; the CMCP's mandate and staff moved to its new location in 1992, at 1 Rideau Canal, next to the Château Laurier. In 1998, the CMCP's administration was amalgamated to that of the National Gallery's. In 2000, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada chose the National Gallery as one of the top 500 buildings produced in Canada during the last millennium; the Gallery has a large and varied collection of paintings, drawings and photographs. Although its focus is on Canadian art, it holds works by many noted European artists, it has a strong contemporary art collection with some of Andy Warhol's most famous works.
In 1990 the Gallery bought Barnett Newman's Voice of Fire for $1.8 million, igniting a storm of controversy. Since that time its value has appreciated sharply. In 2005, the Gallery acquired a painting by Italian Renaissance painter Francesco Salviati for $4.5 million. Its most famous painting is The Death of General Wolfe by Anglo-American artist Benjamin West. In 2005, a sculpture of a giant spider, Louise Bourgeois's Maman, was installed in the plaza in front of the Gallery. In 2011 the gallery installed Canadian sculptor Joe Fafard's Running Horses next to the Sussex Drive entrance, American artist Roxy Paine's stainless steel sculpture One Hundred Foot Line in Nepean Point behind the gallery; the Canadian collection, the most comprehensive in Canada, holds works by Louis-Philippe Hébert, Tom Thomson, the Group of Seven, Emily Carr, Alex Colville, Jean-Paul Riopelle and Jack Bush. The Gallery organizes its own exhibits which travel across Canada and beyond, hosts shows from around the world co-sponsored with other national art galleries and museums.
The Gallery's collection has been built up through purchase and donations. Much of the collection was donated, notably the British paintings donated by former Governor General Vincent Massey and that of the Southam family; the museum features Canadian and Inuit art and European painting, sculpture and drawings, modern and contemporary art and photographs. The largest work in the Gallery is the entire interior of the Rideau Street Chapel, which formed part of the Convent of Our Lady Sacred Heart, The interior decorations of the Rideau Street Chapel were designed by Georges Couillon in 1887. After the convent was demolished in 1972, the chapel was dismantled and reconstructed within the gallery as a work of art in 1988. Auguste Rodin, Age of Bronze, 1875–1876, cast in 1901. M. C. Escher, Stars, 1948. Barnett Newman, Voice of Fire, 1967; the Museum is affiliated with: CMA, Ontario Association of Art Galleries, CHIN, Virtual Museum of Canada. Ord, The National Gallery of Canada: ideas, architecture, McGill-Queen's University Press, ISBN 0-7735-2509-2 Robert Fulford, "Turning the absurd into an art form: Canada's National Gallery has a history filled with bizarre decisions," National Post, 9 September 2003, http://www.robertfulford.com/2003-09-09-gallery.html Official website
Rotterdam is the second-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands. It is located in the province of South Holland, at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta at the North Sea, its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte, after which people settled around it for safety. In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland. A major logistic and economic centre, Rotterdam is Europe's largest port, it has a population of 633,471. Rotterdam is known for its Erasmus University, its riverside setting, lively cultural life and maritime heritage; the near-complete destruction of the city centre in the World War II Rotterdam Blitz has resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including sky-scrapers designed by renowned architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom and Ben van Berkel. The Rhine and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the industrialized Ruhr; the extensive distribution system including rail and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nicknames "Gateway to Europe" and "Gateway to the World".
The settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte dates from at least 900 CE. Around 1150, large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte was located at the present-day Hoogstraat. On 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, whose population was only a few thousand. Around the year 1350, a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie was completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local trans-shipment centre between the Netherlands and Germany, to urbanize; the port of Rotterdam grew but into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six "chambers" of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, the Dutch East India Company. The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872.
The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Château-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success; when completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m. During World War I the city was the world's largest spy centre because of Dutch neutrality and its strategic location in between Great-Britain and German-occupied Belgium. Many spies who were arrested and executed in Britain were led by German secret agents operating from Rotterdam. MI6 had its main European office on de Boompjes. From there the British occupied Belgium. During World War I, an average of 25,000 Belgian refugees lived in the city, as well as hundreds of German deserters and escaped Allied prisoners of war. During World War II, the German army invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. Adolf Hitler had hoped to conquer the country in just one day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance.
The Dutch army was forced to capitulate on 15 May 1940, following the bombing of Rotterdam on 14 May and the threat of bombing of other Dutch cities. The heart of Rotterdam was completely destroyed by the Luftwaffe; some 80,000 civilians were made homeless and 900 were killed. The City Hall survived the bombing. Ossip Zadkine attempted to capture the event with his statue De Verwoeste Stad; the statue stands near the Leuvehaven, not far from the Erasmusbrug in the centre of the city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas. Rotterdam was rebuilt from the 1950s through to the 1970s, it remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of apartments, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more'livable' city centre with a new skyline. In the 1990s, the Kop van Zuid was built on the south bank of the river as a new business centre. Rotterdam was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism.
A Guardian profile of Rem Koolhaas begins "If you put the last 50 years of architecture in a blender, spat it out in building-sized chunks across the skyline, you would end up with something that looked a bit like Rotterdam."'Rotterdam' is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas, connected by: the Beneluxtunnel. The former railway lift bridge De Hef is preserved as a monument in lifted position between the Noordereiland and the south of Rotterdam; the city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the centre to parts of southern Rotterdam known as De Kop van Zuid. From its inland core, Rotterdam reaches the North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbour area. Built behind di
Museum für Moderne Kunst
The Museum für Moderne Kunst, or short MMK, in Frankfurt, was founded in 1981. The museum was designed by the Viennese architect Hans Hollein; because of its triangular shape, it is called "piece of cake". The newest of Frankfurt’s museums was founded in 1981. In 1983, Hollein won the competition for the Museum für Moderne Kunst; the ground-breaking was delayed until 1987, the new museum was built at a cost of about $38 million. It opened in 1991; the MMK Zollamt is a satellite exhibition site that belongs to the MMK and is located in a building directly opposite the museum that once was home to the City of Frankfurt's Main Customs Office. The building has been modernized and artistic positions by younger artists or “unknowns” have been presented here since 2007; the core of the museum is the legacy of German collector Karl Ströher with some 65 works of Pop art and Minimalism. The manufacturer Ströher had bequeathed to his native city of Darmstadt on condition that a museum be built to house them.
When funds for the project were not approved, Ströher's heirs sold the choice ensemble to Frankfurt. Major artists since the 1950s from the Ströher Collection displayed, including Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol, George Segal, with his Jazz Combo. Between 1981 and 1987, the museum's co-founder Peter Iden expanded the collection by adding works from the seventies and eighties. Parts of the collection have been amassed by the museum's first director, Jean-Christophe Ammann. In 2006 the Museum für Moderne Kunst, along with the Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein and the Kunstmuseum St. Gallen, acquired the private collection of Cologne art dealer Rolf Ricke, comprising works by Richard Artschwager, Bill Bollinger, Donald Judd, Gary Kuehn, und Steven Parrino. Today, the permanent collection includes over 4,500 works of international art, ranging from the 1960s to the present; the museum and its director, Susanne Gaensheimer, were commissioned to curate the German Pavilion at the Venice Biennale in 2011 and 2013.
Hollein molded a building to the three-sided space, so that the large rooms at the narrow end are wedge-shaped, producing 4,000 square meters of exhibition space. Conley, Patrick. "Jean-Christophe Ammann. Fragen an den Direktor des Museums für Moderne Kunst". ART Position. 1: 7–9. ISSN 0937-440X. Publikationsliste des MMK, July 2004 edition Kiefer, Theresia: Architektur und Konzeption eines zeitgenössischen Museums am Beispiels des Museums für moderne Kunst in Frankfurt am Main. 1995 Bee, Andreas: Zusammengedrängt zwischen zwei Buchdeckeln. In: Zehn Jahre Museum für Moderne Kunst Frankfurt am Main. Köln 2003 Hollein, Hans: Ausstellen, Abstellen Überlegungen zur Aufgabe des Museums für Moderne Kunst. In: Museum für Moderne Kunst. Schriftreihe des Hochbauamtes zu Bauaufgaben der Stadt Frankfurt am Main. Der Magistrat der Stadt Frankfurt am Main. Frankfurt 1991 Ammann, Jean-Christophe. Frankfurt 1992 Iden, Peter: Bilder für Frankfurt. Bestandskatalog des Museums für Moderne Kunst. München 1985 Lauter, Rolf: Kunst in Frankfurt.
Das Museum für Moderne Kunst und die Sammlung Ströher. Zur Geschichte einer Privatsammlung, Ausstellungskatalog, Frankfurt am Main, o. J. Klotz, Heinrich. "Das neue Frankfurt". Jahrbuch für Architektur. ISSN 0720-4590. Schoeler, Andreas von: Museum für Moderne Kunst Frankfurt am Main. Ernst & Sohn, 1991 Museum für Moderne Kunst, official webpage
The Brandhorst Museum was opened in Munich on 21 May 2009. It displays about 200 exhibits from collection of modern art of the heirs of the Henkel trust Udo Fritz-Hermann and Anette Brandhorst. In 2009 the Brandhorst Collection comprises more than 700 works. Anette Brandhorst, the great-granddaughter of Henkel’s founder, her husband Udo Fritz-Hermann began collecting art in 1971; when Anette died of cancer in 1999, her husband Udo donated the collection to the state of Bavaria on the proviso that the state build it a fitting home. The construction costs of $67 million were funded by Bavaria; the building with its long, two-storey, rectangular structure and multi-coloured facade composed of 36,000 vertical ceramic louvres in 23 different coloured glazes, was created by Sauerbruch Hutton architects and is located next to the Pinakothek der Moderne in the Kunstareal. The building has three exhibition areas. All galleries have wooden floorboards of Danish oak; the museum displays a comprehensive selection of about 100 works of Andy Warhol and more than 60 works of Cy Twombly, making it the largest Twombly collection outside the US.
The monumental series by Twombly, titled Lepanto, refers to a naval battle in 1571 between the Ottoman and Holy League forces. One of the museum's rooms, an irregular octagon, was created to house the Lepanto cycle, a painting in 12 parts. Cy Twombly: Bacchus. Wo sind meine Scheiben, meine Zaumzeuge? Damien Hirst: Waste; the museum houses a collection of 112 illustrated books of Pablo Picasso since Udo and Anette Brandhorst were not only interested in the fine arts, but in literature. Newer acquisitions include a video work by Isaac Julien, Western Union: Small Boats and the installation Large Red Sphere by Walter De Maria in the nearby Türkentor. Additionally, there exists in 2009 an impressive endowment of €120 million; the interest accruing on it allows an annual acquisition budget of more than €2 million, much more than any other collection in Munich. Museum Brandhorst Museum Brandhorst review by a+t architecture publishers
The Kunstmuseum Bonn or Bonn Museum of Modern Art is an art museum in Bonn, founded in 1947. The Kunstmuseum exhibits its collection, its collection is focused on post-war German art. It is part of Bonn's "Museum Mile"; the present building, which opened in 1992, was created by the BJSS firm and Jürgen Pleuser at a cost of around DM-100 million. It has three entrances, symbolising openness; the design of the staircase has been described as a "precise geometry, cut like jewellery. The conception of light brings the collection to life." The total exhibition area is around 4,000 square metres. The collections of the Kunstmuseum focus on three strongpoints: Rhenish Expressionism, post-war German art, an international collection of post-war prints. German artists on display include Georg Baselitz, Joseph Beuys, Hanne Darboven, Anselm Kiefer, August Macke, Blinky Palermo and Wolf Vostell. Selected non-German artists are integrated into the display, such as Robert Delaunay in the Macke section, Richard Long in combination with Palermo, Lucio Fontana with Beuys, Jannis Kounellis with Gerhard Merz.
August Macke in the Kunstmuseum The prints collection, featuring around 5,000 works from the 20th and 21st centuries, includes so-called "multiples" by Beuys, illustrated books by Max Ernst, printed graphics from the Bolliger Collection. The Oppenheim Collection of video art includes works by Dennis Oppenheim, Joan Jonas, Klaus vom Bruch, Marcel Odenbach and Julian Rosefeldt; the Videonale festival of contemporary video art, now based at the Kunstmuseum, has taken place biennially in Bonn since 1984. In 2005, the museum sold the former Grothe Collection to a married pair of collectors, the Ströhers, for €50m; this triggered a wide-ranging set of changes to the permanent exhibition, beginning in 2007, described by the incoming director Stephan Berg as a "certain rejuvenation". The works on the way out included Degenerate Art by Sigmar Polke and Assisi Cycle by Gotthard Graubner, their place was taken by the work of younger artists. Some of the sculptures in front of the building were acquired by the Ströhers.
List of art museums List of museums in Germany Kunstmuseum Bonn: Deutsche Dokumente – Arbeiten auf Papier im Kunstmuseum Bonn. Die Sammlung. Bonn, 1992. Home page in English