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G-force

The gravitational force equivalent, or, more g-force, is a measurement of the type of force per unit mass – acceleration – that causes a perception of weight, with a g-force of 1 g equal to the conventional value of gravitational acceleration on Earth, g, of about 9.8 m/s2. Since g-forces indirectly produce weight, any g-force can be described as a "weight per unit mass"; when the g-force is produced by the surface of one object being pushed by the surface of another object, the reaction force to this push produces an equal and opposite weight for every unit of an object's mass. The types of forces involved are transmitted through objects by interior mechanical stresses. Gravitational acceleration is the cause of an object's acceleration in relation to free fall; the g-force experienced by an object is due to the vector sum of all non-gravitational and non-electromagnetic forces acting on an object's freedom to move. In practice, as noted, these are surface-contact forces between objects; such forces cause stresses and strains on objects, since they must be transmitted from an object surface.

Because of these strains, large g-forces may be destructive. Gravity acting alone does not produce a g-force though g-forces are expressed in multiples of the free-fall acceleration of standard gravity. Thus, the standard gravitational force at the Earth's surface produces g-force only indirectly, as a result of resistance to it by mechanical forces, it is these mechanical forces that produce the g-force on a mass. For example, a force of 1 g on an object sitting on the Earth's surface is caused by the mechanical force exerted in the upward direction by the ground, keeping the object from going into free fall; the upward contact force from the ground ensures that an object at rest on the Earth's surface is accelerating relative to the free-fall condition.. Stress inside the object is ensured from the fact that the ground contact forces are transmitted only from the point of contact with the ground. Objects allowed to free-fall in an inertial trajectory under the influence of gravitation only feel no g-force, a condition known as zero-g.

This is demonstrated by the "zero-g" conditions inside an elevator falling toward the Earth's center, or conditions inside a spacecraft in Earth orbit. These are examples of coordinate acceleration without a sensation of weight; the experience of no g-force, however it is produced, is synonymous with weightlessness. In the absence of gravitational fields, or in directions at right angles to them and coordinate accelerations are the same, any coordinate acceleration must be produced by a corresponding g-force acceleration. An example here is a rocket in free space, in which simple changes in velocity are produced by the engines and produce g-forces on the rocket and passengers; the unit of measure of acceleration in the International System of Units is m/s2. However, to distinguish acceleration relative to free fall from simple acceleration, the unit g is used. One g is the force per unit mass due to gravity at the Earth's surface and is the standard gravity, defined as 9.80665 metres per second squared, or equivalently 9.80665 newtons of force per kilogram of mass.

The unit definition does not vary with location—the g-force when standing on the Moon is exactly ​1⁄6 that on Earth. The unit g is not one of the SI units. "g" should not be confused with "G", the standard symbol for the gravitational constant. This notation is used in aviation in aerobatic or combat military aviation, to describe the increased forces that must be overcome by pilots in order to remain conscious and not G-LOC. Measurement of g-force is achieved using an accelerometer. In certain cases, g-forces may be measured using suitably calibrated scales. Specific force is another name, used for g-force; the term g-force is technically incorrect. While acceleration is a vector quantity, g-force accelerations are expressed as a scalar, with positive g-forces pointing downward, negative g-forces pointing upward. Thus, a g-force is a vector of acceleration, it is an acceleration that must be produced by a mechanical force, cannot be produced by simple gravitation. Objects acted upon only by gravitation experience no g-force, are weightless.

G-forces, when multiplied by a mass upon which they act, are associated with a certain type of mechanical force in the correct sense of the term force, this force produces compressive stress and tensile stress. Such forces result in the operational sensation of weight, but the equation carries a sign change due to the definition of positive weight in the direction downward, so the direction of weight-force is opposite to the direction of g-force acceleration: Weight = mass × −g-forceThe reason for the minus sign is that the actual force on an object produced by a g-force is in the opposite direction to the sign of the g-force, since in physics, weight is not the force that produces the acceleration, but rather the equal-and-opposite reaction force to it. If the direction upward is taken as positive positive g-force produces a force/weight on any mass, that acts dow

Beaches—Woodbine (provincial electoral district)

Beaches—Woodbine was a provincial electoral district in Ontario, Canada. It was created in 1967 by merging the former ridings of Beaches; the riding was created prior to the 1967 election by combining the ridings of Beaches. The boundaries of the new riding were as follows: From the southwest point where Coxwell Avenue met Lake Ontario the boundary followed Coxwell north to Queen Street East, it went west a short distance to Rhodes Avenue. It followed Rhodes Avenue north to Danforth Avenue, it went back east along Danforth to Coxwell. It went north along Coxwell to the city limits. Along the north it followed, it went south along Victoria Park and along the same line until it reached Lake Ontario. In 1974 the eastern boundary with Riverdale was altered; the border now consisted of Coxwell Avenue from Lake Ontario north to the railway right-of-way just south of Hanson Street. The boundary followed the right-of-way west until Greenwood Avenue, it went north along Greenwood until it met the city limits.

From 1987 to 1999 it consisted of Old Toronto east from where Leslie Street meets the lake north to Queen Street. It followed Queen Street east to Greenwood Avenue and north to the CN railway. Following the CN right of way to Coxwell Avenue it went north to the city limits. In 1999, it was absorbed into the new ridings of Beaches—East York and Toronto—Danforth

Colombian economy and politics 1929–58

Since the year 1929 the Liberal Party period began. It had to fight the global economic crisis. During this period there was great controversy bipartisan, creating many internal conflicts. One of the major problems in the crisis was the dependency of Colombia in the U. S for the purchasing of coffee, the backbone of its economy; the economic crisis in Colombia during the period of 1928 through 1933 was a devastating result of the previous years of prosperity based on high amounts of international loans and credits, high prices in the exporting coffee and a confident country that generated investment and cash flow. The same way that Colombia prospered thanks to the US, it went down parallel to it in their time of crisis; the New York stock market collapsed and the confidence within the country was low and protective, the investment stopped, as well as the loans and Colombia was directly affected by that situation. There was a constant decrease in the exporting potential product of Colombia; the crisis in the U.

S. A. generated within Colombia a cut in urban employment, diminished internal market and among other problematic social and economic situations. From the year 1933 to the year 1939 Colombia began to see a big change in the country's industries, leaving behind the problems of urbanization in the twenties. There was a large agricultural development, therefore strengthening the development of the economy, expansion of the agriculture and livestock. During this period, coffee exports were high. Coffee farmers managed to expand their crops. One of the main reasons for the development of an economic crisis is when a world power country enters in the crisis all countries get affected. A crisis leads a country to debt and economic stagnation, and it's influenced by all kinds of factors such as culture, previous development, political order, internal and external social conflicts. In other words, there is a great deal of ingredients mixture needed for an economic crisis to come across. First of all, to analyze what an economic crisis is, we need to know what the symptoms of a healthy economy are.

There should be progressive increase in the sustainable growth in behalf of the government, the economy and society as a whole. Something crucial for the country is the trade balance, which should mediate the amount of imports with the exports; the currency has to be revalued in order to have a controlled inflation within all the areas. The government has to be careful in the amount of money that runs among the pockets of the people, because that's what determines product prices and inflation. Unemployment rates have to be no more than a digit to be considered a country with healthy economic symptoms in relation to all the population, not a few favored. Now knowing the symptoms of a healthy economy we can take into account what an economic crisis is and how does it become global; when problems are created in different bases, the economy turns to be fragile and that's when the economy crisis occurs. This is given to other things. In these time period, exports fall. If a country's export is not enough, it will affect the rest of the countries including its imports.

There comes a point where it fails to defend currency, when that happens, its value falls and people only think about getting rid of it to buy other. There is the big problem of excess in the credit banking system, creating a situation in which the bank is not paying people and increases poverty; the economic crisis is something. There are more developed countries and the impact is different. In conclusion, the crisis occurs, because panic is formed, just a country loses confidence; this may cause stagnation in investment, leading the country to a slow development. Because of the stagnation, unemployment grows increasing human poverty. From the period of 1922 to 1928 the two main factors that took over and increased Colombia's economy were the rise in external coffee prices and a huge increase in the international credits to the public and the bank system. An incredible amount of money was flowing within the country with prosperity yet to be paid. Therefore, the economic success wasn't internally based and sustained, divergently the economy was holding on the United States credits and investment.

That was the mistake and, the cause of the future crisis. 1928 was the year of a significant reduction in external credit. Throughout 1929 the international coffee prices continued declining abruptly in addition to the New York stock market, the first manifestations of urban unemployment boost generated an immediate internal market crisis. Deflection from that moment on till 1932 was the result of the international price reduction of Colombian exporting products, it was only until 1932 that the rise in gold production compensated the external dept as well as it created commercial balance preventing the continuous loss in reserves. After Colombia was able to defend its currency, it was in search of a new economic politic; this was based on three pillars. The problem was that a free trade was established and the lack of government intervention in the economy was induced. International imports weren't charged as much taxes to pay off the increase of

Holdrege White Sox

The Holdrege White Sox were a minor league baseball team that played in the short-season Class D Nebraska State League from 1956 to 1959. Based in Holdrege, they were an affiliate of the Chicago White Sox. Holdrege played their home games at Holdrege Fairgrounds Park; the Holdrege White Sox played four seasons in the Class D Nebraska State League and were an affiliate of the Chicago White Sox. Holdrege finished 33-30 in 1956, 33-23 in 1957, 29-34 in 1958 and 39-23 in 1959. There were no playoffs in the seasons. On opening day in 1956, fans came to the Hotel Dale in Holdrege to see Carl Hubbell, a participant in opening day festivities at Fairgrounds Park. Holdrege had a tradition of Saturday night being "shopping night" in the business district; as a result, Holdrege played Saturday games during the afternoon, as the city's electrical system could not support lights in both the business district and the ballpark being on at the same time. The Nebraska State League folded after the 1959 season, along with 1959 league members Hastings Giants, Holdrege White Sox, Grand Island Athletics, Kearney Yankees, McCook Braves and North Platte Indians.

The White Sox played at Holdrege Fairgrounds Park, known as "White Sox Park" during their play there. The field is still in use today at the Phelps County Fairgrounds. On July 24, 1956 the wooden grandstands burned down; the bleachers were replaced and some damaged light poles were replaced at the ballpark. The park was a favorite of hitters, averaging about three home runs per game. Alan Brice Cam Carreon Jim Hicks Jerry McNertney JC Martin Gary Peters 2 x MLB All-Star.

J. Robert Atkinson

J. Robert Atkinson was the founder of the Universal Braille Press in 1919 in Los Angeles known as the Braille Institute of America, published the first Braille edition of the King James Version of the Bible, among other books. Atkinson became an innovator and advocate for the blind, working to enable the sight-impaired to lead normal lives. Born sighted in Galt, Missouri, he dropped out of school and at age 16, went to Montana, where he worked as a cowboy until a gun accident wounded him in the face and eyes. Taken unconscious to the hospital, he remained in critical condition for nearly two weeks, his doctors removed his eyes, which they felt were injured beyond recovery, to prevent infection and save his life. On regaining consciousness and discovering he was blind, Atkinson was beside himself, he said, "I cursed the treacherous weapon for having failed to complete its job. I cursed the doctors for having brought me back to life. I wanted the death, which it seemed to me had been denied me only to force me into a life of never-ending hopelessness and misery..."

Two weeks out of the hospital, he attempted suicide, though his mother and brothers had moved to Los Angeles to help him. He was invited by a family friend to attend church with her. Sitting in the Christian Science church service, he heard the soloist sing words written by Mary Baker Eddy and said he was so inspired, he was permanently lifted out of depression. Decades he described the moment. "...in that one instant, all the inner darkness which had so engulfed me was gone, in its place was a radiant and inexpressible glory of hope and promise so that no night remained and, with the night, vanished all my forebodings of a dark, helpless future..." Atkinson joined The Mother Church in 1915. He began to learn forms of reading for the blind, including Braille, taught other blind people to read. No longer able to live as before, Atkinson decided to resume his education, only to find that there was little published in Braille. With family members dictating to him, he used a Braille typewriter to transcribe educational and other material, filling 16 volumes in Braille.

He received permission from the Christian Science Publishing Society to transcribe books by Mary Baker Eddy into Braille for his own personal use. In 1919, he met Mary Beecher Longyear, a wealthy philanthropist involved in efforts to help the blind, she provided funds to establish a Braille printing press and for Atkinson to produce the King James Version of the Bible. He founded the Universal Braille Press in 1919; as his printing business became established, the Christian Science Publishing Society became a major customer. In 1926, he started a magazine called the Braille Mirror, a sort of Braille Reader's Digest of current articles from other publications. Atkinson spent the next 40 years working to improve the lives of the blind through innovation and practical support, he invented a method of two-sided Braille printing, he recorded books for the blind, made speeches, lobbied legislators and helped blind people find jobs. He resumed riding a horse, sometimes taking along other blind people with him.

Fifty-one years after the gunshot accident, he and a friend, screenwriter Edwin J. Westrate, wrote a book about his life, Beacon in the Night. Atkinson died in Los Angeles in 1964. In 1967, the town of Cascade, Montana named a park for Atkinson unveiling a statue of him, he was inducted into the Hall of Fame: Leaders and Legends of the Blindness Field in 2002. In 2017, he was honored with the Cascade Medal of Fortitude, a local tradition in his hometown of Cascade, Montana, his great-great granddaughter Esmeralda accepted the award on his behalf. Edwin J. Westrate, Beacon in the Night: The Story of J. Robert Atkinson, Founder of the Braille Institute of America, Inc. Vantage Press

With Sympathy

With Sympathy is the debut studio album by American rock band Ministry, released on May 10, 1983 by Arista Records. The group was formed in 1981 by lead singer and multi-instrumentalist Al Jourgensen, with drummer Stephen George being the most notable member of its initial lineup. In late 1981, Jourgensen was involved in its underground scene, he began to write and record songs in his apartment, using a newly-bought ARP Omni synthesizer, a drum machine, a reel-to-reel tape recorder. At one point, a demo tape featuring the song "I'm Falling" gained the attention of Wax Trax! Records label co-owner Jim Nash. Impressed by the demo, Nash offered to record its material professionally and to assemble the touring band, which Jourgensen named Ministry. In Chicago-based Hedden West studios, with co-producers Jay O'Roarke and Iain Burgess, recorded Ministry's first recording, a twelve-inch single featuring tracks "I'm Falling", "Primental" and "Cold Life". Jourgensen assembled the band's first live line-up, the five-piece group including Jourgensen himself on vocals and guitar, bassist Martin Sorenson, keyboardists Robert Roberts and John Davis, drummer Stephen George.

Jourgensen and Roberts state that their mutual friend Paul Taylor had to perform in the original line-up, according to Jourgensen, refused after getting sick and proposed to invite Roberts instead. While touring the Midwest and the Northeast during 1982, Ministry received some commercial success with "Cold Life"; the band gained attention of Arista label executives, who chose to sign them. With Sympathy was recorded in autumn 1982 with producers Vince Ely and Ian Taylor at the Synchro Sound studios in Boston. On release, With Sympathy received positive critical reviews. Rolling Stone noted that any lack of originality in the synth-pop concept was "hardly worth complaining about, because Ministry manages to do something many far more innovative bands neglect: they write catchy dance songs." The review further observed that Jourgensen's singing was "charged with anger and glee–real emotions instead of the vocal posturing so common in synth-pop." The album achieved commercial success, peaking at number 94 in the Billboard 200 and selling more than 100,000 copies in the United States by 2007.

The album was promoted with three singles—"Work for Love", "I Wanted to Tell Her", "Revenge"—and the three-month tour. A music video was made for the single "Revenge". Following the tour's completion, Jourgensen's dissatisfaction over his record deal led the band to depart Arista in early 1984. Jourgensen disowned the album, maintaining that he was pressured by Arista management into producing the album in the then-popular synthpop style, in contrast to the harder industrial and heavy metal sounds he developed afterward, he further elaborated that Arista prevented songs being featured on the album that were written in 1982, which would be seen on the band's subsequent releases. However, there are reports of Jourgensen saying in the 1980s that when he discovered hardcore music, his musical direction changed, the claimed pressure from Arista is not mentioned, a statement he repeated in the documentary film Industrial Accident: The Story of Wax Trax! Records. Additionally, video of local concerts that Ministry performed in Chicago a few years before to their signing with Arista show them playing synthpop and dressed in new wave styles.

Jourgensen assumes a false English accent for all of the songs, for which he later expressed regret. Former keyboardist Robert Roberts refuted the claims that Jourgensen was forced by Arista to "make the record cheesy", saying that the finished product was watered down and didn't properly capture the band's live sound. After having been long out of print the album was reissued in 2012 by Eastworld Records, with three bonus tracks. All tracks are written by Alain Jourgensen, except "I Wanted to Tell Her" by Jourgensen and Shay Jones."What He Say" was renamed "Do the Etawa" on the European release. The European LP releases has the 7" remix of "I Wanted To Tell Her", instead of the US album version. All CD versions use the US album version. Credits adapted from the liner notes of With Sympathy. Jourgensen, Al & Wiederhorn, Jon. Ministry: The Lost Gospels According To Al Jourgensen. Boston, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 9780306822186. OCLC 811206550 – via the Internet Archive. With Sympathy at Discogs Video for "Revenge" on YouTube