The Royal Medal known as The King's Medal and The Queen's Medal, is a silver-gilt medal, of which three are awarded each year by the Royal Society, two for "the most important contributions to the advancement of natural knowledge" and one for "distinguished contributions in the applied sciences", done within the Commonwealth of Nations. The award was created by George IV and awarded first during 1826. There were two medals awarded, both for the most important discovery within the year previous, a time period, lengthened to five years and shortened to three; the format was endorsed by William IV and Victoria, who had the conditions changed during 1837 so that mathematics was a subject for which a Royal Medal could be awarded, albeit only every third year. The conditions were changed again during 1850 so that:... the Royal Medals in each year should be awarded for the two most important contributions to the advancement of Natural Knowledge, published in Her Majesty's dominions within a period of not more than ten years and not less than one year of the date of the award, subject, of course, to Her Majesty's approval.... in the award of the Royal Medals, one should be given in each of the two great divisions of Natural Knowledge.
During 1965, the system was changed to its current format, in which three Medals are awarded annually by the Monarch on the recommendation of the Royal Society Council. Because of its dual nature the award winners are chosen by both the A- and B-side Award Committees. Since its establishment during 1826 the medal has been awarded 405 times
The Franklin Medal was a science award presented from 1915 through 1997 by the Franklin Institute located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U. S, it was founded in 1914 by Samuel Insull. The Franklin Medal was the most prestigious of the various awards presented by the Franklin Institute. Together with other historical awards, it was merged into the Benjamin Franklin Medal, initiated in 1998. Recipients are listed in a database on The Franklin Institute website; the Franklin Institute Awards
In physics, a shock wave, or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance that moves faster than the local speed of sound in the medium. Like an ordinary wave, a shock wave carries energy and can propagate through a medium but is characterized by an abrupt, nearly discontinuous, change in pressure and density of the medium. For the purpose of comparison, in supersonic flows, additional increased expansion may be achieved through an expansion fan known as a Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan; the accompanying expansion wave may approach and collide and recombine with the shock wave, creating a process of destructive interference. The sonic boom associated with the passage of a supersonic aircraft is a type of sound wave produced by constructive interference. Unlike solitons, the energy and speed of a shock wave alone dissipates quickly with distance; when a shock wave passes through matter, energy is preserved but entropy increases. This change in the matter's properties manifests itself as a decrease in the energy which can be extracted as work, as a drag force on supersonic objects.
Shock waves can be: Normal At 90° to the shock medium's flow direction. Oblique At an angle to the direction of flow. Bow Occurs upstream of the front of a blunt object when the upstream flow velocity exceeds Mach 1; some other terms Shock front: The boundary over which the physical conditions undergo an abrupt change because of a shock wave. Contact front: In a shock wave caused by a driver gas, the boundary between the driver and the driven gases; the Contact Front trails the Shock Front. The abruptness of change in the features of the medium, that characterize shock waves, can be viewed as a phase transition: the pressure-time diagram of a supersonic object propagating shows how the transition induced by a shock wave is analogous to a dynamic phase transition; when an object moves faster than the information can propagate into the surrounding fluid the fluid near the disturbance cannot react or "get out of the way" before the disturbance arrives. In a shock wave the properties of the fluid change instantaneously.
Measurements of the thickness of shock waves in air have resulted in values around 200 nm, on the same order of magnitude as the mean free gas molecule path. In reference to the continuum, this implies the shock wave can be treated as either a line or a plane if the flow field is two-dimensional or three-dimensional, respectively. Shock waves are formed when a pressure front moves at supersonic speeds and pushes on the surrounding air. At the region where this occurs, sound waves travelling against the flow reach a point where they cannot travel any further upstream and the pressure progressively builds in that region. Shock waves are not conventional sound waves. Shock waves in air are heard as "snap" noise. Over longer distances, a shock wave can change from a nonlinear wave into a linear wave, degenerating into a conventional sound wave as it heats the air and loses energy; the sound wave is heard as the familiar "thud" or "thump" of a sonic boom created by the supersonic flight of aircraft.
The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. Some other methods are isentropic compressions, including Prandtl–Meyer compressions; the method of compression of a gas results in different temperatures and densities for a given pressure ratio which can be analytically calculated for a non-reacting gas. A shock wave compression results in a loss of total pressure, meaning that it is a less efficient method of compressing gases for some purposes, for instance in the intake of a scramjet; the appearance of pressure-drag on supersonic aircraft is due to the effect of shock compression on the flow. In elementary fluid mechanics utilizing ideal gases, a shock wave is treated as a discontinuity where entropy increases over a nearly infinitesimal region. Since no fluid flow is discontinuous, a control volume is established around the shock wave, with the control surfaces that bound this volume parallel to the shock wave; the two surfaces are separated by a small depth such that the shock itself is contained between them.
At such control surfaces, mass flux and energy are constant. It is assumed the system is adiabatic and no work is being done; the Rankine–Hugoniot conditions arise from these considerations. Taking into account the established assumptions, in a system where the downstream properties are becoming subsonic: the upstream and downstream flow properties of the fluid are considered isentropic. Since the total amount of energy within the system is constant, the stagnation enthalpy remains constant over both regions. Though, entropy is increasing; when analyzing shock waves in a flow field, which are still attached to the body, the shock wave, deviating at some arbitrary angle from the flow direction is termed oblique shock. These shocks require a component vector analysis of the flow.
Wilhelm Exner Medal
The Wilhelm Exner Medal has been awarded by the Austrian Industry Association, Österreichischer Gewerbeverein, for excellence in research and science since 1921. The medal is dedicated to Wilhelm Exner, former president of the Association, who initialized the chamber of commerce in Austria, the Vienna Technical Museum and the World Exhibition in Vienna. According to Wilhelm Exner the combination of science and economy formed the groundwork for economical growth and wealth. Wilhelm Exner considered the radical changes in the economic and social framework of the 20th century to be a opportunity and aimed to tackle the issues arising offensively and constructively, he represented the cosmopolitan Austrian liberalism with a commitment to modernization and transformation of the economy and society. Throughout his career, he has taken a variety of key initiatives and has been involved by helping economy and business; the Wilhelm Exner Medal is awarded to scientists and researchers that have had a direct impact on business and industry through their scientific achievements and contributions.
The award was created to honor the 60th anniversary of Wilhelm Exner`s association with ÖGV. The selection of the scientist to be honored takes place at the suggestion and consultation of the former medalists and is confirmed by the board of the Wilhelm Exner Foundation and by the board of the Austrian Entrepreneur´s Association. Since the Wilhelm Exner Medal was established, over 230 inventors and scientists have been honored, including 21 Nobel Prize awardees; the medal is made of bronze. It bears on the front of the picture and the signature Wilhelm Exner, on the back the inscription: "Wilhelm Exner Medal of the Austrian Trade Association in Vienna". In order to honor the new Wilhelm Exner Medalists, the Exner Lectures offer a symposium where the awarded scientists present their current topics of research; the lectures complement the festive ceremony of the medal and offer an opportunity to bring the economic and scientific communities together. Each year, the Association sends out a signal that the cooperative interaction between researchers and entrepreneurs is the basis for prosperity and growth.
Source: "Awardees". Wilhelm Exner Medal Foundation. Gregor Weihs, 2018 Thomas Jennewein, 2018 Zhenan Bao, 2018 A. Paul Alivisatos, 2018 Fabiola Gianotti, 2017 Chad Mirkin, 2017 Emmanuelle Charpentier, 2016 Gero Miesenböck, 2016 Stefan Hell, 2016 Johann Eibl, 2016 Sir Gregory Winter, 2015 Thomas J. R. Hughes, 2014 Joseph M. Jacobson, 2013 Heinz Redl, 2013 Ted Hänsch, 2012 Robert Langer, 2012 Friedrich Prinz, 2012 Michael Grätzel, 2011 Manfred Eigen, 2011 Bertil Andersson, 2010 Ada Yonath, 2010 Not awarded, due to World War II Wilhelm Exner Medal awardees at Wilhelm Exner Medal
Middlesex is an ancient county in southeast England. It is now within the wider urbanised area of London, its area is now mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in other neighbouring ceremonial counties. It was established in the Anglo-Saxon system from the territory of the Middle Saxons, existed as an official unit until 1965; the historic county includes land stretching north of the River Thames from 17 miles west to 3 miles east of the City of London with the rivers Colne and Lea and a ridge of hills as the other boundaries. The low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, was the second smallest county by area in 1831; the City of London was a county in its own right from the 12th century and was able to exert political control over Middlesex. Westminster Abbey dominated most of the early financial and ecclesiastical aspects of the county; as London grew into Middlesex, the Corporation of London resisted attempts to expand the city boundaries into the county, which posed problems for the administration of local government and justice.
In the 18th and 19th centuries the population density was high in the southeast of the county, including the East End and West End of London. From 1855 the southeast was administered, with sections of Kent and Surrey, as part of the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works; when county councils were introduced in England in 1889 about 20% of the area of Middlesex, along with a third of its population, was transferred to the new County of London and the remainder became an administrative county governed by the Middlesex County Council that met at the Middlesex Guildhall in Westminster, in the County of London. The City of London, Middlesex, became separate counties for other purposes and Middlesex regained the right to appoint its own sheriff, lost in 1199. In the interwar years suburban London expanded further, with improvement and expansion of public transport, the setting up of new industries. After the Second World War, the population of the County of London and inner Middlesex was in steady decline, with high population growth continuing in the outer parts.
After a Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London all of the original area was incorporated into an enlarged Greater London in 1965, with the rest transferred to neighbouring counties. Since 1965 various areas called. Middlesex was the former postal county of 25 post towns; the name refers to the tribal origin of its inhabitants. The word is formed from the Old English,'middel' and'Seaxe'. In 704, it is recorded as Middleseaxon in an Anglo-Saxon chronicle, written in Latin, about land at Twickenham; the Latin text reads: "in prouincia quæ nuncupatur Middelseaxan Haec". The Saxons derived their name from a kind of knife for which they were known; the seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, both of which feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem. Their names, along with those of Sussex and Wessex, contain a remnant of the word "Saxon". There were settlements in the area of Middlesex that can be traced back thousands of years before the creation of a county.
Middlesex was part of the Kingdom of Essex It was recorded in the Domesday Book as being divided into the six hundreds of Edmonton, Gore, Hounslow and Spelthorne. The City of London has been self-governing since the thirteenth century and became a county in its own right, a county corporate. Middlesex included Westminster, which had a high degree of autonomy. Of the six hundreds, Ossulstone contained the districts closest to the City of London. During the 17th century it was divided into four divisions, along with the Liberty of Westminster took over the administrative functions of the hundred; the divisions were named Finsbury, Holborn and Tower. The county had parliamentary representation from the 13th century; the title Earl of Middlesex was created twice, in 1622 and 1677, but became extinct in 1843. The economy of the county was dependent on the City of London from early times and was agricultural. A variety of goods were provided for the City, including crops such as grain and hay and building materials.
Recreation at day trip destinations such as Hackney, Islington and Twickenham, as well as coaching, inn-keeping and sale of goods and services at daily shops and stalls to the considerable passing trade provided much local employment and formed part of the early economy. However, during the 18th century the inner parishes of Middlesex became suburbs of the City and were urbanised; the Middlesex volume of John Norden's Speculum Britanniae of 1593 summarises: This is plentifully stored, as it seemeth beautiful, with many fair and comely buildings of the merchants of London, who have planted their houses of recreation not in the meanest places, which they have cunningly contrived, curiously beautified with divers devices, neatly decked with rare inventions, environed with orchards of sundry, delicate fruits, gardens with delectable walks, alleys and a great variety of pleasing dainties: all of which seem to be beautiful ornaments unto this country. Thomas Cox wrote in 1794: We may call it all London, being chiefly inhabited by the citizens, who fill the towns in it with their country houses, to which they resort that they may breathe a little sweet air, free from the fogs and smoke of the City.
In 1803 Sir John Sinclair, president of the Board of Agr
The Copley Medal is an award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the biological sciences. Given every year, the medal is the oldest Royal Society medal awarded and the oldest surviving scientific award in the world, having first been given in 1731 to Stephen Gray, for "his new Electrical Experiments: – as an encouragement to him for the readiness he has always shown in obliging the Society with his discoveries and improvements in this part of Natural Knowledge"; the medal was created following a donation of £100 to be used for carrying out experiments by Sir Godfrey Copley, for which the interest on the amount was used for several years. The conditions for the medal have been changed several times. A second donation of £1666 13s. 4d. was made by Sir Joseph William Copley in 1881, the interest from that amount is used to pay for the medal. The medal in its current format is awarded with a £ 25,000 prize. Since its inception, it has been awarded to many notable scientists, including 52 winners of the Nobel Prize: 17 in Physics, 21 in Physiology or Medicine, 14 in Chemistry.
John Theophilus Desaguliers has won the medal the most winning three times, in 1734, 1736 and 1741. In 1976, Dorothy Hodgkin became the first and, the only female recipient. "Royal Society: Copley Medal"
J. J. Thomson
Sir Joseph John Thomson was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron, the first subatomic particle to be discovered. In 1897, Thomson showed that cathode rays were composed of unknown negatively charged particles, which he calculated must have bodies much smaller than atoms and a large charge-to-mass ratio. Thomson is credited with finding the first evidence for isotopes of a stable element in 1913, as part of his exploration into the composition of canal rays, his experiments to determine the nature of positively charged particles, with Francis William Aston, were the first use of mass spectrometry and led to the development of the mass spectrograph. Thomson was awarded the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the conduction of electricity in gases. Joseph John Thomson was born 18 December 1856 in Cheetham Hill, Lancashire, England, his mother, Emma Swindells, came from a local textile family. His father, Joseph James Thomson, ran.
He had a brother, Frederick Vernon Thomson, two years younger than he was. J. J. Thomson was a devout Anglican, his early education was in small private schools where he demonstrated outstanding talent and interest in science. In 1870, he was admitted to Owens College in Manchester at the unusually young age of 14, his parents planned to enroll him as an apprentice engineer to Sharp-Stewart & Co, a locomotive manufacturer, but these plans were cut short when his father died in 1873. He moved on to Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1876. In 1880, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics, he applied for and became a Fellow of Trinity College in 1881. Thomson received his Master of Arts degree in 1883. In 1890, Thomson married Rose Elisabeth Paget, one of his former students, daughter of Sir George Edward Paget, KCB, a physician and Regius Professor of Physic at Cambridge at the church of St. Mary the Less, they had one son, George Paget Thomson, one daughter, Joan Paget Thomson. On 22 December 1884, Thomson was appointed Cavendish Professor of Physics at the University of Cambridge.
The appointment caused considerable surprise, given that candidates such as Osborne Reynolds or Richard Glazebrook were older and more experienced in laboratory work. Thomson was known for his work as a mathematician, he was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1906, "in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases." He was knighted in 1908 and appointed to the Order of Merit in 1912. In 1914, he gave the Romanes Lecture in Oxford on "The atomic theory". In 1918, he became Master of Trinity College, where he remained until his death. Joseph John Thomson died on 30 August 1940. One of Thomson's greatest contributions to modern science was in his role as a gifted teacher. One of his students was Ernest Rutherford, who succeeded him as Cavendish Professor of Physics. In addition to Thomson himself, six of his research assistants won Nobel Prizes in physics, two won Nobel prizes in chemistry. In addition, Thomson's son won the 1937 Nobel Prize in physics for proving the wave-like properties of electrons.
Thomson's prize-winning master's work, Treatise on the motion of vortex rings, shows his early interest in atomic structure. In it, Thomson mathematically described the motions of William Thomson's vortex theory of atoms. Thomson published a number of papers addressing both mathematical and experimental issues of electromagnetism, he examined the electromagnetic theory of light of James Clerk Maxwell, introduced the concept of electromagnetic mass of a charged particle, demonstrated that a moving charged body would increase in mass. Much of his work in mathematical modelling of chemical processes can be thought of as early computational chemistry. In further work, published in book form as Applications of dynamics to physics and chemistry, Thomson addressed the transformation of energy in mathematical and theoretical terms, suggesting that all energy might be kinetic, his next book, Notes on recent researches in electricity and magnetism, built upon Maxwell's Treatise upon electricity and magnetism, was sometimes referred to as "the third volume of Maxwell".
In it, Thomson emphasized physical methods and experimentation and included extensive figures and diagrams of apparatus, including a number for the passage of electricity through gases. His third book, Elements of the mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism was a readable introduction to a wide variety of subjects, achieved considerable popularity as a textbook. A series of four lectures, given by Thomson on a visit to Princeton University in 1896, were subsequently published as Discharge of electricity through gases. Thomson presented a series of six lectures at Yale University in 1904. Several scientists, such as William Prout and Norman Lockyer, had suggested that atoms were built up from a more fundamental unit, but they envisioned this unit to be the size of the smallest atom, hydrogen. Thomson in 1897 was the first to suggest that one of the fundamental units was more than 1,000 times smaller than an atom, suggesting th