A luxury vehicle is intended to provide passengers with increased comfort, a higher level of equipment and increased perception of quality than regular cars for an increased price. The term is subjective and can be based on either the qualities of the car itself or the brand image of its manufacturer. Luxury brands are considered to have a higher status than premium brands, however there is no fixed differentiation between the two. Traditionally, luxury cars have been large vehicles, however contemporary luxury cars range in size from compact cars to large sedans and SUVs; some car manufacturers market their luxury models using the same marque as the rest of their models. Other manufacturers market their luxury models separately under a different marque, for example Lexus and Bentley. A luxury car is sold under a mainstream marque and is re-branded under a specific luxury marque. For mass-produced luxury cars, sharing of platforms or components with other models is common, as per modern automotive industry practice.
Several car classification schemes which include a luxury category, such as: Australia: Since the year 2000, the Federal Government's luxury car tax applies to new vehicles over a certain purchase price, with higher thresholds applying for cars considered as fuel efficient. As of 2019, the thresholds were AU$66,000 for normal cars and AU$76,000 for fuel efficient cars. Europe: Luxury cars are classified as F-segment vehicles in the European Commission classification scheme. France: The term "voiture de luxe" is used for luxury cars. Germany: The term German: Oberklasse is used for luxury cars. Russia: The term (автомобиль представительского класса is used for luxury cars. Rental cars: The ACRISS Car Classification Code is a system used by many car rental companies to define equivalent vehicles across brands; this system includes "Luxury" and "Luxury Elite" categories. The criteria for a vehicle to be considered "luxury" is not published; the premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars.
It became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples include the Alfa Romeo Giulietta, Audi A3, Buick Verano, BMW 1 Series, Lexus CT 200h, Infiniti Q30, Mercedes-Benz A-Class, Mercedes-Benz B-Class, Volvo C30, Volvo V40, BMW i3. Premium compacts compete with well-equipped mid-size cars, optioned premium compact cars can have pricing and features that operlaps with compact executive cars. A compact executive car is a premium car smaller than an executive car. In European classification, compact executive cars are part of the D-segment. In North American terms, close equivalents are "compact premium car", "compact luxury car", "entry-level luxury car" and "near-luxury car". Executive car is a British term for an automobile larger than a large family car. In official use, the term is adopted by Euro NCAP, a European organization founded to test for car safety.
It is a passenger car classification defined by the European Commission. The next category of luxury cars is known in Great Britain as a luxury saloon or luxury limousine, is known in the United States as a full-size luxury sedan or large luxury sedan, it is the equivalent of the European German Oberklasse segment. Many of these luxury saloons are the flagship for the marque and therefore include the newest automotive technology. Several models are available in long-wheelbase versions, which provide additional rear legroom and a higher level of standard features. Examples of luxury saloons / full-size luxury sedans include the BMW 7 Series, Cadillac CT6 Genesis G90, Mercedes-Benz S-Class, Lexus LS, Porsche Panamera. Luxury cars costing over US$100,000 can be considered as "ultra-luxury cars". Examples include Maybach 57 and Bentley Arnage. Exotic cars which are targeted towards performance rather than luxury are not classified as ultra-luxury cars when their cost is greater than US$100,000. Several entry-level models from low-volume luxury car manufacturers, such as the Bentley Continental GT and the Rolls-Royce Ghost have been described as "entry-opulent" cars.
Many ultra-luxury cars are produced by brands with a long history of manufacturing luxury cars. The history of a brand and the exclusivity of a particular model can result in price premiums compared to luxury cars with similar features from less prestigious manufacturers. V12 engines are common in ultra-luxury cars. Long before the luxury SUV segment became popular in the 1990s, the vehicle in this segment was the 1966 Jeep Super Wagoneer, marketed at the time as a station wagon, it was the first off-road SUV to offer a V8 engine, automatic transmission, luxury car trim and equipment. Standard equipment included bucket seating, a center console, air conditioning, seven-position tilt steering wheel, a vinyl roof and gold colored trim panels on the body sides and tailgate. By the late 1970s, optional equipment included an electric sunroof, The 1978 Jeep Wagoneer Limited was the spiritual successor to the Super Wagoneer and was the first four-wheel drive car to use leather upholstery. Another precursor to the luxury SUV is the Range Rover, released in 1970.
It was the first road-going vehicle to have a permanent four-wheel drive system, split
The GAZelle NEXT is a product improved version of the original GAZelle series of medium duty vans and trucks produced by the Russian automotive giant GAZ. It is produced alongside the original GAZelle now known as the GAZelle Business; the first available model is equipped with a four-cylinder turbo diesel motor from Cummins,which has 129 horsepower at 3600 revolutions a minute, with a fuel consumption of urban: 10,5 l/100 km, extra-urban: 8.5 l/100 km and combined. 9.0 l/100 km The engine meets the Euro 4 and Euro 5 emission standards. On 10 April 2013, series production of GAZelle Next was started; the original price of the GAZelle Next to the basic equipment 650,000 rubles.7 March 2014, the serial production of Gazelle NEXT with a double cab began. 24 March, the production of Gazelle NEXT Cityline bus In May 2014 GAZ received Single European vehicle type approval, which allowed them to sell the Gazelle NEXT in the European Union. In September 2015, the Comtrans exhibition in Moscow included a panel van and minibus on this base.
Sales of the panel van started in April 2016 and the minibus in November 2016. GAZ-А21R22-20 flatbed truck GAZ-А21R32-10 flatbed truck with extended wheelbase GAZ-А22R22-10 flatbed truck with double cab GAZ-А22R32-20 flatbed truck with double cab and extended wheelbase GAZ-А23R22-0011-26 refrigerator truck GAZ-А23R32-0011-26 refrigerator truck with extended wheelbase GAZ-А23R32-0011-18-641 manufactured goods van GAZ-А23R32-0011-18-041 manufactured goods van with extended wheelbase Ambulance car modular class "B" Ambulance car modular class "C" GAZ-А64R42 small urban bus GAZ-А63R42 small suburban bus There are 3 items: Basic version, Comfort 1 and Comfort 2. Basic version include power steering, cruise control, alarm door open position, stabilizers front and rear, adjustable lighting of the dashboard, on-board computer, heated side mirrors, electric power windows, washer tank capacity of 5 liters. central locking, driver's seat with adjustable and armrest, steering column with height adjustment, heater radiator, tool kit.
In Comfort 1 added fog lights, electric power door mirrors, seat "Lux" heated and lumbar support. In Comfort 2 added preheater of engine, high capacity battery 85 Ah. For all trim levels are available as options differential lock, brake system with ABS, air conditioning. GAZelle - the original mid-sized trucks and buses made by Russian car manufacturer GAZ. GAZelle Business GAZelle NEXT official page Configurator on the official website GAZ
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary in size and configuration. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks, concrete mixers, suction excavators. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US, Mexico. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles, those over as large goods vehicles. Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s; the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to short hauls from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France and the United States until the eve of World War I, 1935 in the United Kingdom, when a change in road tax rules made them uneconomic against the new diesel lorries.
In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine. That year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history. A year in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler. Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing built their own versions; the first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors. Trucks of the era used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910, 25000 in 1914. After World War I, several advances were made: pneumatic tires replaced the common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes, 4, 6, 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, electric lighting followed; the first modern semi-trailer trucks appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market.
Although it had been invented in 1897, the diesel engine did not appear in production trucks until Benz introduced it in 1923. The diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, Autocar introduced engines for heavy applications in the mid-1930s. Demand was high enough Autocar launched the "DC" model in 1939. However, it took much longer for diesel engines to be broadly accepted in the US: gasoline engines were still in use on heavy trucks in the 1970s. Truck is used in American English, is common in Canada, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and South Africa, while lorry is the equivalent in British English, is the usual term in countries like the United Kingdom, Malaysia and India; the word "truck" might come from a back-formation of "truckle", meaning "small wheel" or "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea. Another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning "iron hoop". In turn, both sources emanate from trekhein; the first known usage of "truck" was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships' cannon carriages.
In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads, a meaning known since 1771. Its expanded application to "motor-powered load carrier" has been in usage since 1930, shortened from "motor truck", which dates back to 1901."Lorry" has a more uncertain origin, but has its roots in the rail transport industry, where the word is known to have been used in 1838 to refer to a type of truck a large flat wagon. It derives from the verb lurry of uncertain origin, its expanded meaning, "self-propelled vehicle for carrying goods", has been in usage since 1911. Before that, the word "lorry" was used for a sort of big horse-drawn goods wagon. In the United States and the Philippines "truck" is reserved for commercial vehicles larger than normal cars, includes pickups and other vehicles having an open load bed. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the word "truck" is reserved for larger vehicles. In the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong lorry is used instead of truck, but only for the medium and heavy types.
Produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive, these are used for off-highway use on estates, golf courses, parks. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. A few manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicle, while Zap Motors markets a version of their xebra electric tricycle. Popular in Europe and Asia, many mini trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles with monocoque bodies. Specialized designs with substantial frames such as the Italian Piaggio shown here are based upon Japanese designs and are popular for use in "old town" sections of European cities that have narrow alleyways. Regardless of name, these smal
The Volga GAZ-31105 is an automobile manufactured by the Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod from 2004 to 2009 as a generation of its Volga marque. GAZ-31105 was a second stage of the GAZ-3110's modernisation, though the designation was applied to cars produced from January 2004, the mechanical features were introduced a year earlier, certain external ones were available in separate batches as standard or optional in others; the most striking difference was the new fascia which now featured a drooping hood with the radiator grille integrated into it as a single unit. New block headlights, inspired by the 3111 surrounded it; this restored the nostalgic corporate look that GAZ was re-fitting to its model range. Inside the car featured a new digital instrument cluster on the dashboard; the steering column became more horizontal and greater headroom was made possible due to thinner seats. It was the GAZ-31105 the final 24-derived Volga. Despite its obvious age, assembly quality of these final cars reached acceptable level.
In 2006 the standard engine selection was added with a Chrysler DOHC 2.4 litre engine. In 2005 GAZ introduced a long-wheelbase 311055 luxury model, with a new interior that included wooden trim; the latter feature became standard on models produced from 2007 onwards when GAZ gave the car a minor facelift. Among the changes were new taillights and a conversion to Euro III standard with the introduction of its new 2.4 litre 123 hp ZMZ-40525 engine, complementing the Chrysler engine, with which the archaic ZMZ-4021 and 4062.10 were phased out. The 31105 was available with the estate continuing with the old 3110 styling. Following the introduction of the Volga Siber in 2008 GAZ hoped to finish production on both the -3102 and the -31105 by 2010; the base design of both cars still traced its roots to the GAZ-24, thus ending a successful production run of 40 years. Official page on the GAZ website
GAZ-53 is a 3.5 tonne 4x2 truck produced by GAZ between 1961 and 1993. Introduced first as GAZ-53F, it was joined by the identical 2.5-ton GAZ-52 in 1962, produced until 1989. The GAZ-52 and GAZ-53 trucks are distinguished by different lighting systems, wheel rims and tonnage: the GAZ-52 was able to carry up to 2.5 tonnes of cargo, whereas the GAZ-53A could carry up to 4 tonnes. Given the long production run of GAZ-52/53 and their variants, the series is a common sight in Eastern Europe, although they shouldn't be mistaken for the broadly similar 5-6 ton ZIL-130, also painted light blue with white on the front; the GAZ grille is fluted vertically, the direction indicators are located above the headlamps. The ZIL has flashers below the headlamps and its grille is horizontally slated; the main variant of GAZ-53 with no suffix letter was released in 1964, manufactured until 1993. It featured a brand-new 4254 cc light-alloy V8 ZMZ-53 engine, producing 120 hp SAE Gross @ 3200 rpm, giving a top speed of 90 km/h.
Early versions of GAZ-53 were powered by an old 75-hp SAE Gross 6-cylinder engine from the GAZ-51 truck. Payload was increased to 4 tons in a model, called GAZ-53A. All variants use a four-speed gearbox, synchronised on fourth; the GAZ-53A was license-built by KTA Madara in Shumen, Bulgaria beginning in 1967. They were called the Madara 400 series and were fitted with locally built four-cylinder 3.9 liter Perkins diesel or turbodiesel engines. These engines had either 80 or 100 PS. AutoClub GAZ-53/52
The GAZ-13 is an automobile manufactured by the Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod from 1959 to 1981 as a generation of its Chaika marque. The GAZ M13, debuted in 1958, it was produced from 1959 with 3,179 built in all. The M13 was powered by a 195-hp SAE gross 5.5 L V8 and driven through a push-button automatic transmission of a similar design to the Chrysler PowerFlite unit. It was offered as a saloon and four-door cabriolet with an electrohydraulic top; the cabriolet was made in 1962 for official parades. RAF in Riga produced an estate, in the 1960s in Riga. Produced for a few years in the 1960s, it is the lowest-volume Chaika variant. Small numbers were built for Mosfilm; as a limousine-class car, Chaikas were available only to the Soviet government, could not be purchased by average citizens. However, citizens were allowed to rent Chaikas for weddings. Chaikas were used by Soviet ambassadors and Communist Party First Secretaries in East Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary and Finland, among others, he presented one limousine version each to both King Sisavang Vatthana of Laos and Prime Minister, Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia on their visits to the Soviet Union.
For their larger size and more powerful V8, Chaikas were ordered in some quantity by the KGB. Top speed was 99 mph. Most Chaikas were saloons; the M13B was built for only two years 1961 and 1962. The GAZ 13 was discontinued in 1981; the M14 debuted in 1977, ran to the end of Chaika production in 1988. Enthusiasts point to the 1955-56 U. S. Packards as the inspiration for the early Chaika's styling. Packards of 1955-56 are have a lot in common with earlier Soviet concept ZIS-112 "Odnoglazka"