GIMP is a free and open-source raster graphics editor used for image retouching and editing, free-form drawing, converting between different image formats, more specialized tasks. GIMP is released under GPLv3+ licenses and is available for Linux, macOS, Microsoft Windows. GIMP was released as the General Image Manipulation Program. In 1995 Spencer Kimball and Peter Mattis began developing GIMP as a semester-long project at the University of California, Berkeley for the eXperimental Computing Facility. In 1996 GIMP was released as the first publicly available release. In the following year Richard Stallman visited UC Berkeley where Spencer Kimball and Peter Mattis asked if they could change General to GNU. Richard Stallman approved and the definition of the acronym GIMP was changed to be the GNU Image Manipulation Program; this reflected its new existence as being developed as Free Software as a part of the GNU Project. The number of computer architectures and operating systems supported has expanded since its first release.

The first release supported UNIX systems, such as Linux, SGI IRIX and HP-UX. Since the initial release, GIMP has been ported to many operating systems, including Microsoft Windows and macOS. Following the first release, GIMP was adopted and a community of contributors formed; the community began developing tutorials and shared better work-flows and techniques. A GUI toolkit called GTK was developed to facilitate the development of GIMP. GTK was replaced by its successor GTK+ after being redesigned using object-oriented programming techniques; the development of GTK+ has been attributed to Peter Mattis becoming disenchanted with the Motif toolkit GIMP used. GIMP 0.54 was released in January 1996. It required X11 displays, an X-server that supported the X shared memory extension and Motif 1.2 widgets. It supported 8, 15, 16 and 24-bit color depths, dithering for 8-bit displays and could view images as RGB color, grayscale or indexed color, it could edit multiple images and pan in real-time, supported GIF, JPEG, PNG, TIFF and XPM images.

At this early stage of development GIMP could select regions using rectangle, free, fuzzy and intelligent selection tools, rotate, scale and flip images. It had bucket and airbrush painting tools, could clone and blend images, it had text tools, effects filters, channel and color operations. The plugin system allowed for addition of new effect filters, it supported multiple redo operations. It ran on Linux 1.2.13, Solaris 2.4, HP-UX 9.05, SGI IRIX operating systems. It was adopted by users, who created tutorials, displayed artwork and shared techniques. An early success for GIMP was the Linux penguin Tux, as drawn by Larry Ewing using GIMP 0.54. By 5 July 1996 the volume of messages posted to the mailing list had risen and the mailing list was split into two lists, gimp-developer and gimp-user. User questions are directed to the gimpnet IRC channel. GIMP 0.60 was released on 6 June 1997 using the GNU General Public License. According to the release notes, Peter Mattis was working for Hewlett-Packard and Spencer Kimball was working as a Java programmer.

GIMP 0.60 no longer depended on the Motif toolkit. Improvements had been made to the painting tools, channel operations, blend tool modes, image panning and transformation tools; the editing work flow was improved by enabling rulers and pasting between all image types, cloning between all image types and ongoing development of a layers dialog. New tools included new brushes, grayscale and RGB transparency,"Bucket fill" patterns and a pattern selection dialog, integrated paint modes, border and color selectors, a pencil and eraser paint tool, gamma adjustments and a limited layer move tool; the new widgets were managed by Peter Mattis and were called GTK for GIMP toolkit and GDK for GIMP drawing kit. Sometime in 1998, after a few humorous suggestions of a gimp compile on Microsoft Windows, Tor Lilqvist began the effort of the initial port of GIMP for Windows. At the time it was considered a code fork, it would be merged into the main development tree. Support was, continues to be, offered through a yahoogroups email list.

The biggest change in the GIMP 0.99 release was in the GIMP toolkit. GTK was redesigned to be object oriented and renamed from GTK to GTK+; the pace of development slowed when Spencer Peter Mattis found employment. GIMP 1.0.0 was released on 2 June 1998 GIMP and GTK+ split into separate projects during the GIMP 1.0 release. GIMP 1.0 included a new tile based memory management system which enabled editing of larger images and a change in the plug-in API allowed scripts to be safely called from other scripts and to be self documenting. GIMP 1.0 introduced a native file format with support for layers and selections. An official website was constructed for GIMP during the 1.0 series, designed by Adrian Likins and Jens Lautenbacher, now found at which provided introductory tutorials and additional resources. On 13 April 1997, GIMP News was started by Zach Beane, a site that announced plug-ins and articles written about GIMP. May 1997, Seth Burgess started GIMP Bugs, the first'electronic bug list'.

Marc Lehmann develope

Thornton Watlass

Thornton Watlass is a small village and civil parish within the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire, England. It is located north of Masham and south of Bedale on the eastern slopes of the Ure Valley at the entrance to Wensleydale and the Yorkshire Dales National Park, it is 11 miles North of Ripon, 4 miles from the A1, 11 miles from the main railway line at Northallerton and 18 miles from Teesside Airport. Its population was 180 in 2000, 190 in 2005, 224 in 2011 and 240 in 2016; the village lies at the junction of Watlass Moor Lane. At the centre of the village is the triangular village green with its trees, cricket pitch and children's playground, surrounded by houses, some of which are built from local stone. Thornton Watlass Church dates from the 11th century and the village has a primary school and a public house called the Buck Inn; the village forms part of the Thornton Watlass Estate, Thornton Watlass Hall, an ancient two-storey gabled stone house, lies just to the north of the village.

A prehistoric feature in the Thornton Watlass area is Gospel Hill tumulus, a Scheduled Ancient Monument, at grid reference SE228862 about 1 km northwest of the village. The site of the priory is now a scheduled ancient monument. Saxon remains of two cross-heads are evidence that people lived in the area before the Norman conquest in 1066, they are on display in Thornton Watlass Church. The Domesday book of 1086 mentions the separate villages of Watlass. Before the Norman conquest the Saxon owners of these villages were Stan. Thornton Watlass Hall and estate has been owned by the Dodsworth family since 1415; the Anglican Church of St Mary the Virgin stands a little way outside the village to the southwest. It was rebuilt, in 1868 in the Perpendicular style; the tower contains some living accommodation and was used as a place of safety in times of strife. The village school was built in 1872. Today the village has about fifty houses and a few farms, with a population of 222 at the 2011 Census; the Church of England primary school is federated with Snape Community School and had 41 children on the roll in 2007 aged between 4 and 11 years, taught in two mixed-age classes.

By 2016, the pupil numbers had dropped to 25. There is provision for under-5s in the village hall; the village public house and hotel, The Buck Inn overlooks the village green. Specialities include locally brewed real ale, Sunday lunchtime jazz, a large room for conferences and functions. Just to the north of the village, Thornton Watlass Hall is a private home, but provides hotel accommodation; the Hall has been featured over the years on several television dramas, including All Creatures Great and Small, Wuthering Heights and Heartbeat where it has featured as Ashfordly Hall and Websters Hotel for the past nine years. Images of St. Mary's Church


Nenga is a monoecious genus of flowering plant in the palm endemic to Southeast Asia called pinang palm. N. gajah is the aberration in the genus with its short internodes, marcescent leaves and interfoliar inflorescence, a combination of traits seen in a few species of the related Pinanga and Areca palms. The genus name is based on a corruption of a Javanese term for a plant now classified within Pinanga, their trunks may be clustering or solitary from 5 to 15 cm wide exceeding 5 m in height. The stems are ringed by distinct leaf scars and supported by stilt roots. A distinct crownshaft is present in all but N. gajah, the petioles are well developed and bear pinnate leaves up to 2 m long. The leaflets are to spaced arranged, with one to several folds, they may be acute to acuminate, S-shaped to linear, the terminal pair obscurely lobed corresponding to the fold count. The rachis and crownshaft may be to densely covered in hairy, brown tomentum; the inflorescence is branched to one order to two, erect or pendulous, emerges below the crownshaft in all but N. gajah which emerges within the leaf crown.

The fleshy male and female flowers share the same branches, proximally arranged in triads and distally in pairs or singles. They produce an obpyriform to ovoid fruit with a fibrous endocarp. Colored red, purple or black the fruit carries one seed. From southern Vietnam, peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, Nenga palms are purely tropical found in rain forest to 1400 m. N. pumila is found in peat swamp forest. SpeciesNenga banaensis Burret - Vietnam Nenga gajah J. Dransf - Sabah, Sumatra Nenga grandiflora Fernando - Johor Nenga macrocarpa Scort. Ex Becc. - southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia Nenga pumila H. Wendl. - southern Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Sumatra Nenga on NPGS/GRIN Fairchild Guide to Palms Fairchild images GBIF portal