AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power is an international direct action advocacy group working to impact the lives of people with AIDS and the AIDS pandemic to bring about legislation, medical research and treatment and policies to bring an end to the disease by mitigating loss of health and lives. ACT UP was formed in March 1987 at the Lesbian and Gay Community Services Center in New York. Larry Kramer was asked to speak as part of a rotating speaker series, his well-attended speech focused on action to fight AIDS. Kramer spoke out against the Gay Men's Health Crisis. Kramer had co-founded the GMHC but had resigned from its board of directors in 1983. According to Douglas Crimp, Kramer posed a question to the audience: "Do we want to start a new organization devoted to political action?" The answer was "a resounding yes". 300 people met two days to form ACT UP. The following chronological accounts of New York ACT UP actions are drawn from Douglas Crimp's history of ACT UP, the ACT UP Oral History Project, the online Capsule History of ACT UP, New York.
On March 24, 1987, 250 ACT UP members demonstrated at Wall Street and Broadway to demand greater access to experimental AIDS drugs and for a coordinated national policy to fight the disease. An Op/Ed article by Larry Kramer published in The New York Times the previous day described some of the issues ACT UP was concerned with. Seventeen ACT UP members were arrested during this civil disobedience. On March 24, 1988, ACT UP returned to Wall Street for a larger demonstration in which over 100 people were arrested. On September 14, 1989, seven ACT UP members infiltrated the New York Stock Exchange and chained themselves to the VIP balcony to protest the high price of the only approved AIDS drug, AZT; the group displayed a banner that read, "SELL WELLCOME" referring to the pharmaceutical sponsor of AZT, Burroughs Wellcome, which had set a price of $10,000 per patient per year for the drug, well out of reach of nearly all HIV positive persons. Several days following this demonstration, Burroughs Wellcome lowered the price of AZT to $6,400 per patient per year.
ACT UP held their next action at the New York City General Post Office on the night of April 15, 1987, to an audience of people filing last minute tax returns. This event marked the beginning of the conflation of ACT UP with the Silence=Death Project, which created a poster consisting of a right side up pink triangle on a black background with the text "SILENCE = DEATH". Douglas Crimp said this demonstration showed the "media savvy" of ACT UP because the television media "routinely do stories about down-to-the-wire tax return filers"; as such, ACT UP was guaranteed media coverage. On October 11, 1988, ACT UP had one of its most successful demonstrations when it shut down the Food & Drug Administration for a day. Media reported that it was the largest such demonstration since demonstrations against the Vietnam War; the AIDS activists shut down the large facility by blocking doors, walkways and a road as FDA workers reported to work. Police told some workers to go home rather than wade through the throng.
"Hey, hey, FDA, how many people have you killed today?" Chanted the crowd, estimated by protest organizers at between 1,100 and 1,500. The protesters hoisted a black banner that read "Federal Death Administration". Police officers, wearing surgical gloves and helmets, started rounding up the hundreds of demonstrators and herding them into buses shortly after 8:30 a.m. Some protesters blocked the buses from leaving for 20 minutes. Authorities arrested at least 120 protesters, demonstration leaders said they were aiming for 300 arrests by day's end." At this action, activists demonstrated their thorough knowledge of the FDA drug approval process. ACT UP presented precise demands for changes that would make experimental drugs available more and more fairly. "The success of SEIZE CONTROL OF THE FDA can best be measured by what ensued in the year following the action. Government agencies dealing with AIDS the FDA and NIH, began to listen to us, to include us in decision-making to ask for our input."
In January 1988, Cosmopolitan magazine published an article by Robert E. Gould, a psychiatrist, entitled "Reassuring News About AIDS: A Doctor Tells Why You May Not Be At Risk." The main contention of the article was that in unprotected vaginal sex between a man and a woman who both had "healthy genitals" the risk of HIV transmission was negligible if the male partner was infected. Women from ACT UP, having informal "dyke dinners" met with Dr. Gould in person, questioning him about several misleading facts and questionable journalistic methods, demanded a retraction and apology; when he refused, in the words of Maria Maggenti, they decided that they "had to shut down Cosmo." According to those who were involved in organizing the action, it was significant in that it was the first time the women in ACT UP organized separately from the main body of the group. Additionally, filming the action itself, the preparation and the aftermath were all consciously planned and resulted in a video short directed by Jean Carlomusto and Maria Maggenti, titled, "Doctor and Women: AIDS Activists Say No To Cosmo."
The action consisted of 150 activists protesting in front of the Hearst building chanting "Say n
Neil G. Giuliano is an American politician who served as mayor of Tempe, Arizona for four terms, from 1994 to 2004. After serving in elected office he served as president of the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation from 2005 to 2009, served as President/CEO of the San Francisco AIDS Foundation from December 2010 to December 2015. Giuliano was the first directly-elected gay mayor in the United States, Tempe was the largest city in America with an gay mayor for nearly six years, 1996- 2001. Since January 2016 he has served as President/CEO of Greater Phoenix Leadership, the premiere organization of CEO business leadership talent in the metropolitan Phoenix region. Www.gplinc.org Giuliano graduated with a BA degree from what is now the Hugh Downs School of Communication at Arizona State University in 1979, received a master's degree in Higher Education Administration in 1983. While a student, he served as Student Body President as well as the 1977–78 International President of Circle K International.
He worked professionally at ASU from 1981 to 2005 in numerous student affairs and university relations roles. He taught a 3-credit hour course in Personal Leadership Development during most of his tenure at the university, he remains an active member of the Kiwanis Club of Tempe, which he joined in February 1981, served as president of the club from 1986 to 1987. He served as president of Tempe Leadership and on numerous non-profit boards of directors including the Tempe Community Council, Big Brothers-Big Sisters and the Friends of the Tempe Center for the Arts, he serves on the board of director for the Valley of the Sun United Way and was a founding member of the Friends of Tempe Center for the Arts board of directors. Giuliano began his political career as a city councilmember, elected in May 1990, was appointed vice-mayor of Tempe, Arizona for 1992–94, he was elected mayor of Tempe four times, serving from 1994 to 2004. After he first came out as gay in August 1996, political opponents tried to initiate a recall election to remove him from office, but that effort failed.
Following a controversy over city funds being directed to the Boy Scouts of America in 2000, a successful recall effort proceeded to the ballot. The recall election was held on September 11, 2001. Giuliano won in a landslide, defeating a campaign, called "blatantly homophobic", he co-chaired the planning the third debate of the 2004 United States presidential elections. Upon retiring from elected office in 2004 and a 24-year career at Arizona State University in 2005, where he served as director of federal relations among other positions, Giuliano received praise from Senator John McCain and then-Governor Janet Napolitano. In 2008, Giuliano changed his registration from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party and The Arizona Republic reported that he has considered running for governor of Arizona in 2010 as a Democrat but he declined to run, he was again speculated about running for governor in 2014 but endorsed Fred DuVal for the Democratic nomination. Giuliano served as president of the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation, a national LGBT organization dedicated to ensuring fair and inclusive representation of LGBT people and events in the media, from 2005 to 2009.
He initiated LGBT media advocacy programs and awareness in the areas of sports and religion/faith/values, helping bridge the divide about LGBT issues in these critical communities. During his tenure the GLAAD Media Awards were first broadcast on the BRAVO Network, reaching over 80 million homes with LGBT affirming messages. Giuliano was featured on CBS Sunday Morning in 1999 and has appeared on CNN, ABC World News Tonight, Showbiz Tonight, Access Hollywood, he has been quoted in Newsweek, TIME, USA Today and numerous state and regional media outlets discussing LGBT images in the media and issues as well as the state of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Giuliano was named one of the Top 25 of 2005 by Instinct Magazine. In 2004, he received the Individual Achievement Award from the Arizona Human Rights Fund, he was named to the OUT 100 by OUT Magazine, which notes the top 100 people in gay culture in the US. While he was mayor in 2003, Tempe was named an "All American-City," an award honoring local governments demonstrating success in problem solving.
He was named Tempe Humanitarian of the year in 2014
Wanda Sykes is an American actress and writer. She was first recognized for her work as a writer on The Chris Rock Show, for which she won a Primetime Emmy Award in 1999. In 2004, Entertainment Weekly named Sykes as one of the 25 funniest people in America, she is known for her role as Barb Baran on CBS' The New Adventures of Old Christine and for appearances on HBO's Curb Your Enthusiasm. Aside from her television appearances, Sykes has had a career in film, appearing in Monster-in-Law, My Super Ex-Girlfriend, Evan Almighty and License to Wed, as well as voicing characters in the animated films Over the Hedge, Brother Bear 2, Ice Age: Continental Drift, Ice Age: Collision Course, the upcoming animated film UglyDolls. Born in Portsmouth, Sykes' family moved to Maryland when she was in third grade, her mother, Marion Louise, worked as a banker, her father, Harry Ellsworth Sykes, was a U. S. Army colonel employed at the Pentagon. Sykes' family history was researched for an episode of the 2012 PBS genealogy program Finding Your Roots With Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Her ancestry was traced back to a 1683 court case involving her paternal ninth great-grandmother Elizabeth Banks, a free white woman and indentured servant, who gave birth to a biracial child, Mary Banks, fathered by a slave, who inherited her mother's free status. According to historian Ira Berlin, a specialist in the history of American slavery, the Sykes family history is "the only such case that I know of in which it is possible to trace a black family rooted in freedom from the late 17th century to the present."Sykes attended Arundel High School in Gambrills and went on to graduate from Hampton University, where she earned a bachelor of science degree in marketing and became a member of Alpha Kappa Alpha. After college, her first job was as a contracting specialist at the National Security Agency, where she worked for five years. Not satisfied with her role with the NSA, Sykes began her stand-up career at a Coors Light Super Talent Showcase in Washington, DC, where she performed for the first time in front of a live audience in 1987.
She continued to hone her talents at local venues while at the NSA until 1992, when she moved to New York City. One of her early TV appearances was Russell Simmons' Def Comedy Jam in the early 1990s, where she shared the stage with Adele Givens, J. B. Smoove, D. L. Hughley, Bernie Mac, & Bill Bellamy. Working for the Hal Leonard publishing house, she edited a book entitled Polyrhythms – The Musician's Guide, by Peter Magadini, her first big break came. In 1997, she joined the writing team on The Chris Rock Show and made many appearances on the show; the writing team was nominated for four Emmys, in 1999, won for Outstanding Writing for a Variety, Music, or Comedy Special. Since that time, she has appeared in such films as Pootie Tang and on TV shows such as Curb Your Enthusiasm. In 2003, she starred in Wanda at Large; the same year, Sykes appeared in Tongue Untied. That network ranked her No. 70 on its list of the 100 greatest all-time stand ups. She served as a correspondent for HBO's Inside the NFL, hosted Comedy Central's popular show Premium Blend, voiced a recurring character named Gladys on Comedy Central's puppet show Crank Yankers.
She had a short-lived show on Comedy Central called Wanda Does It. In addition to her film and television work, she is an author, she wrote Yeah, I Said It, a book of humorous observations on various topics, published in September 2004. In 2006, she landed a recurring role as Barb, opposite Julia Louis-Dreyfus, on the sitcom The New Adventures of Old Christine, she guest starred in the Will & Grace episode "Buy, Buy Baby" in 2006. She provided voices for the 2006 films Over the Hedge and Brother Bear 2, she had a part in My Super Ex-Girlfriend and after playing in Evan Almighty, had a bit part in License to Wed. Sykes' first HBO Comedy Special, entitled Wanda Sykes: Sick & Tired, premiered on October 14, 2006. In 2008, she performed as part of Cyndi Lauper's True Colors Tour for LGBT rights. In October 2008, Wanda Sykes appeared in a television ad for the Think Before You Speak Campaign, an advertising campaign by GLSEN aimed at curbing homophobic slang in youth communities. In the 30-second spot, she uses humor to scold a teenager for saying "that's so gay" when he means "that is so bad".
In March 2009, it was announced that Sykes would be the host of a new late-night talk show on Saturdays on Fox, The Wanda Sykes Show, scheduled to premiere November 7, 2009. In April 2009, she was named in Out magazine's "Annual Power 50 List", landing at number 35. In May 2009, Sykes was the featured entertainer for the annual White House Correspondents' Association dinner, becoming both the first African American woman and the first LGBT person to get the role. Cedric the Entertainer had been the first African American to become the featured entertainer in 2005. At this event, Sykes made controversial headlines as she responded to conservative radio talk show host Rush Limbaugh's comments regarding President Barack Obama. Limbaugh, in reference to Obama's presidential agenda, had said "I hope he fails". In response, Sykes quipped: "I hope his kidneys fail, how'bout that? Needs a little waterboarding, that's what he needs."Her second comedy special, Wanda Sykes: I'ma Be Me premiered on HBO in October 2009.
November 2009 saw the premier of The Wanda Sykes Show, which starts with a mon
Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, United States. The population within the city limits was 195,111 as of the 2010 United States Census, making it the third most populous city in Alabama, the most populous in Mobile County, the largest municipality on the Gulf Coast between New Orleans, St. Petersburg, Florida. Alabama's only saltwater port, Mobile is located on the Mobile River at the head of the Mobile Bay and the north-central Gulf Coast; the Port of Mobile has always played a key role in the economic health of the city, beginning with the settlement as an important trading center between the French colonists and Native Americans, down to its current role as the 12th-largest port in the United States. Mobile is the principal municipality of the Mobile metropolitan area; this region of 412,992 residents is composed of Mobile County. Mobile is the largest city in the Mobile-Daphne−Fairhope CSA, with a total population of 604,726, the second largest in the state; as of 2011, the population within a 60-mile radius of Mobile is 1,262,907.
Mobile was established in 1702 by the French as the first capital of colonial La Louisiane. During its first 100 years, Mobile was a colony of France Britain, lastly Spain. Mobile first became a part of the United States of America in 1813, with the annexation by President James Madison of West Florida from Spain. In 1861, Alabama joined the Confederate States of America, which surrendered in 1865. Considered one of the Gulf Coast's cultural centers, Mobile has several art museums, a symphony orchestra, professional opera, professional ballet company, a large concentration of historic architecture. Mobile is known for having the oldest organized Carnival or Mardi Gras celebrations in the United States, its French Catholic colonial settlers celebrated this festival from the first decade of the 18th century. Beginning in 1830, Mobile was host to the first formally organized Carnival mystic society to celebrate with a parade in the United States; the city gained its name from the Mobile tribe that the French colonists encountered living in the area of Mobile Bay.
Although debated by Alabama historians, they may have been descendants of the Native American tribe whose small fortress town, was used to conceal several thousand native warriors before an attack in 1540 on the expedition of Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto. About seven years after the founding of the French Mobile settlement, the Mobile tribe, along with the Tohomé, gained permission from the colonists to settle near the fort; the European settlement of Mobile began with French colonists, who in 1702 constructed Fort Louis de la Louisiane, at Twenty-seven Mile Bluff on the Mobile River, as the first capital of the French colony of La Louisiane. It was founded by French Canadian brothers Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville and Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, to establish control over France's claims to La Louisiane. Bienville was appointed as royal governor of French Louisiana in 1701. Mobile's Roman Catholic parish was established on July 20, 1703, by Jean-Baptiste de la Croix de Chevrières de Saint-Vallier, Bishop of Quebec.
The parish was the first French Catholic parish established on the Gulf Coast of the United States. In 1704 the ship Pélican delivered 23 French women to the colony. Though most of the "Pélican girls" recovered, numerous colonists and neighboring Native Americans contracted the disease in turn and many died; this early period was the occasion of the importation of the first African slaves, transported aboard a French supply ship from the French colony of Saint-Domingue in the Caribbean, where they had first been held. The population of the colony fluctuated over the next few years, growing to 279 persons by 1708, yet descending to 178 persons two years due to disease; these additional outbreaks of disease and a series of floods resulted in Bienville ordering that the settlement be relocated in 1711 several miles downriver to its present location at the confluence of the Mobile River and Mobile Bay. A new earth-and-palisade Fort Louis was constructed at the new site during this time. By 1712, when Antoine Crozat was appointed to take over administration of the colony, its population had reached 400 persons.
The capital of La Louisiane was moved in 1720 to Biloxi, leaving Mobile to serve as a regional military and trading center. In 1723 the construction of a new brick fort with a stone foundation began and it was renamed Fort Condé in honor of Louis Henri, Duc de Bourbon and prince of Condé. In 1763, the Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Seven Years' War, which Britain won, defeating France. By this treaty, France ceded its territories east of the Mississippi River to Britain; this area was made a part of the expanded British West Florida colony. The British changed the name of Fort Condé to Fort Charlotte, after Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and queen with King George III; the British were eager not to lose any useful inhabitants and promised religious tolerance to the French colonists. The first permanent Jewish settlers came to Mobile in 1763 as a result of the new British rule and religious tolerance. Jews had not been allowed to reside in colonial French Louisiana due to the Code Noir, a decree passed by France's King Louis XIV in 1685 that forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism, ordered all Jews out of France's colonies.
Most of these colonial-era Jews in Mobile were merchants and traders from Sephardic Jewish communities in Savannah, Georgia and Ch
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Jewelle Gomez is an American author, poet and playwright. She lived in New York City for 22 years, working in public television, theater, as well as philanthropy, before relocating to the West Coast, her writing—fiction, poetry and cultural criticism—has appeared in a wide variety of outlets, both feminist and mainstream. Her work centers on women's experiences those of LGBTQ women of color, she has been interviewed for several documentaries focused on LGBT rights and culture. Jewelle Gomez was born on September 11, 1948, in Boston, Massachusetts, to Dolores Minor LeClaire, a nurse, John Gomez, a bartender. Gomez was raised by her great-grandmother, born on Indian land in Iowa to an African-American mother and Ioway father. Grace returned to New England before she was 14, when her father died, she was married to John E. Morandus, a Wampanoag and descendant of Massasoit, the sachem for whom Massachusetts was named. Growing up in the 1950s and 1960s Gomez was shaped and politically by the close family ties with her great-grandmother and grandmother Lydia.
Their history of independence as well as marginalization in an African-American community are referenced throughout her work. "Grace A." from the collection Don't Explain is an early example. During her high school and college years Gomez was involved with Black political and social movements, reflected in much of her writing. Subsequent years in New York City she spent in Black theater including work with the Frank Silvera Writers Workshop and many years as a stage manager for off-Broadway productions. During this time she became involved in lesbian feminist magazine publication, she was a member of a lesbian feminist literary magazine. More of her recent writing has begun to reflect her Native American heritage. Describing herself as a possible "foremother of Afrofuturism," Gomez is the author of seven books, including the double Lambda Literary Award-winning novel The Gilda Stories; this novel has been in print since 1991 and reframes traditional vampire mythology by taking a lesbian feminist perspective.
According to scholar Elyce Rae Helford, "Each stage of Gilda's personal voyage is a study of life as part of multiple communities, all at the margins of mainstream white middle-class America."She authored the theatrical adaptation of The Gilda Stories. Entitled Bones and Ash, the play began touring in 1996 and was performed in 13 U. S. cities by the Urban Bush Women Company. The twenty-fifth anniversary edition of The Gilda Stories includes a new forward written by Gomez as well as an afterword written by Alexis Pauline Gumbs, her other books include Don't Explain, a collection of short fiction. Each of these collections feature Gomez' episodic approach, which John Howard has argued is a means of demonstrating the "linkages between current-day freedom struggles and the social/ political movements of prior generations."Her fiction and poetry is included in more than a hundred anthologies, including the first anthology of Black speculative fiction, Dark Matter: A Century of Speculative Fiction from the African Diaspora edited by Sheree R. Thomas.
Gomez has written literary and film criticism for numerous publications including The Village Voice, the San Francisco Chronicle, Ms. and The Black Scholar. She praises The Village Voice for helping her to develop as a writer. Over the past 25 years she has been interviewed in periodicals and journals, including a September 1993 Advocate article where writer Victoria Brownworth discussed her writing origins and political interests. In the Journal of Lesbian Studies she was interviewed for a special issue entitled "Funding Lesbian Activism." This interview linked her career in philanthropy with her political roots. She was interviewed for the 1999 film After Stonewall, her newest work includes a forthcoming comic novel, recounting the lives of survivors of the Black Nationalist movement, excerpted in the 2002 anthology Gumbo, edited by Marita Golden and E. Lynn Harris, she authored a play about James Baldwin, Waiting For Giovanni, in 2010 in collaboration with Harry Waters Jr. an actor and professor in the theatre department at MacAlester College.
Readings have been held in San Francisco at Intersection for the Arts at a seminar on Baldwin at Carleton College in Northfield, Minn. at the Yellow Springs Writers Workshop in Ohio, AfroSolo Festival and the 2009 National Black Theatre Festival. Gomez and Waters were interviewed on the public radio program Fresh Fruit on KFAI by host Dixie Trechel in 2008; the segment includes two short readings from the script. Gomez' activism on behalf of LGBTQ rights is "grounded in the history of race and gender in America." In "The Marches," an essay in Don't Explain, she writes, "o one of us should feel we can leave someone behind in the struggle for liberation."Gomez was on the original staff of Say Brother, one of the first weekly Black television shows, was on the founding board of the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation in 1984. She served on the early boards of the Astraea Lesbian Foundation and the Open Meadows Foundation, both devoted to funding women's organizations and activities. She's been a member of the board of the Cornell Uni