General Motors Company, formally the GMC Division of General Motors LLC, is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors that focuses on trucks and utility vehicles. GMC sells pickup and commercial trucks, vans, military vehicles, sport utility vehicles marketed worldwide by General Motors. In North America, GMC dealerships are always Buick dealerships, allowing the same dealer to market both upscale cars and trucks. GMC traces its history to the 1902 founding of the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company in Michigan. In 1909 William C. Durant gained control of Rapid Motor Vehicle Company and made it a subsidiary of his General Motors Company. In 1908 Durant gained control of Reliance Motor Car Company, another early commercial vehicle manufacturer. In 1911 General Motors formed the General Motors Truck Company and folded Rapid and Reliance into it. In 1912 the Rapid and Reliance names were dropped in favor of “GMC.” All General Motors truck production was consolidated at the former Rapid Motor Plant 1 in Pontiac, Michigan.
GMC maintained three manufacturing locations in Pontiac, Oakland and Saint Louis, Missouri. In 1916, a GMC Truck crossed the country from Seattle to New York City in thirty days, in 1926, a 2-ton GMC truck was driven from New York to San Francisco in five days and 30 minutes. During the Second World War, GMC Truck produced 600,000 trucks for use by the United States Armed Forces. In 1925, GM purchased a controlling interest in Yellow Coach, a bus and taxicab manufacturer based in Chicago, Illinois, founded by John D. Hertz; the company was renamed Yellow Truck & Coach Manufacturing Company, an affiliated subsidiary of General Motors. All manufacturing operations of General Motors Truck Company were placed under YT&CMC. In 1928 Plant 2 opened and all headquarters staff moved to the administration building at 660 South Boulevard E in Pontiac, MI. In 1943, GM renamed it GMC Truck and Coach Division. In 1981, GMC Truck & Coach Division became part of GM Worldwide Bus Group. Bus production ended in May 1987 and the division name was changed from GMC Truck & Coach to GMC Truck Division.
The Canadian plant produced buses from 1962 until July 1987. GM withdrew from the bus and coach market because of increased competition in the late 1970s and 1980s. Rights to the RTS model were sold to Transportation Manufacturing Corporation, while Motor Coach Industries of Canada purchased the Classic design. In 1998, GMC's official branding on vehicles was shortened from "GMC Truck" to "GMC". In 1996, GM merged GMC Truck Division with the Pontiac Motor Division in order to "give the combined division a brand image projecting physical power and outdoor activity"; this coincided with many GMC dealerships merging with Pontiac dealerships, allowing a single dealer to offer both trucks and entry-to-mid-level cars. While many GMC and Chevrolet trucks are mechanically identical, GMC is positioned as a premium offering to the mainstream Chevrolet brand, with luxury vehicles such as the Denali series. In 2002, GMC celebrated its 100 anniversary and released a book entitled GMC: The First 100 Years, a complete history of the company.
In 2007, GMC introduced the Acadia, a crossover SUV, the division's first unibody vehicle whose predecessor, the GMT-360 based Envoy, was discontinued with the closure of GM's Moraine, Ohio plant on December 23, 2008. In 2009, GMC ended production of medium-duty commercial trucks after over 100 years. In the same year, GMC introduced the Terrain, a mid-size crossover SUV based on the GM Theta platform shared with the Chevrolet Equinox, it replaced the Pontiac Torrent after the brand's demise. GMC manufactures SUVs, pickup trucks and light-duty trucks, catered to a premium-based market. In the past, GMC produced fire trucks, heavy-duty trucks, military vehicles, transit buses, medium duty trucks. Beginning in 1920, GMC and Chevrolet trucks became similar, built as variants of the same platform, sharing much the same body sheetwork, except for nameplates and grilles – though their differences engines, have varied over the years. GMC advertising marketed its trucks to commercial buyers and businesses, whereas Chevrolet's advertising was directed towards private owners.
Beginning in 1928, GMCs used Pontiac's 186 cu in six-cylinder engines in their lighter trucks. Medium-duty trucks relied on Buick engines, while the heaviest trucks used GMC's own "Standard Big Brute" engine. From 1939 to 1974 GMC had its own line of six-cylinder engines, first the inline sixes known as "Jimmy's" from 1939 to 1959, their own V6 from 1960 until 1974, of which a V8 and a V12 version existed. Additionally, from 1955 through 1959, the less than 2-ton, domestic GMC gasoline trucks were equipped with Pontiac and Oldsmobile V8s—whereas the Canadian models used Chevrolet engines. New Chevrolet vehicles are sold at Chevrolet dealerships, GMC vehicles are sold alongside Buick and Cadillac dealerships. Stand alone GMC franchises exist for sales of the entire GMC line up and includes medium and light-duty commercial models as well; this crossover allowed GM dealers that did not sell Chevrolets to offer full lineups of both cars, SUVs by offering GMC's trucks and SUVs. Between 1962 and 1972, most GMC vehicles were equipped with quad-headlights, while their Chevrolet clones were equipped with dual-headlights.
Carlo Roberto Polli is a Swiss footballer who plays for Mendrisio-Stabio. Polli began his career with the youth team of AC Lugano. In mid-2006 he was promoted to the first team, he made his professional debut for Lugano before leaving abroad. On 1 September 2008 Polli was signed by Genoa for their youth team, which plays in Campionato Nazionale Primavera. In the same season he won Coppa Italia Primavera against AS Roma and Supercoppa Primavera against Palermo. On 5 February 2010 Genoa loaned him to Swiss club FC Locarno until the end of the season 2010. In the 2010–11 season Polli was loaned to FC Chiasso and in July 2011, he signed with Maltese club Ħamrun Spartans. On 1 May 2016, he made his debut for Stallion in a 4-2 defeat against 2016 UFL Cup Champions, Global. Polli signed with Mendrisio-Stabio on 2 January 2019
The Ford Orion was a small family car, produced by Ford Europe from 1983-1993. A total of 3,534,239 units were sold during the car's ten-year production life; the Ford Orion was based on the Ford Escort, but instead of the Ford Escort's hatchback, the Ford Orion had a separate boot, making it a four-door saloon. Visually, the Ford Orion's notchback rear end and greater rear overhang made it distinguishable from the Escort. In the early-1980s, Ford's model line-up and image was changing, reflecting shifting patterns in the new car market across Western Europe at this time, as front-wheel drive became more popular than rear-wheel drive and hatchbacks began to eclipse traditional saloons and estates; the company's older saloon line-up was replaced by hatchbacks, starting with the Escort MK3 in 1980 and the new Sierra in 1982. By 1985 the top-of-the-range Granada would offer a hatchback bodystyle, with the saloon and estate models not being released until 1990 and 1992 while a booted version of the Sierra was launched in 1987.
The Orion was developed under the codename "Apollo." Launched in September 1983, the Orion was designed to fill the market demand for a traditional four-door saloon, absent from the Escort range since the end of MK2 production in 1980, in larger cars by the demise of the hugely popular Cortina in 1982. The Orion looked similar to a contemporary Escort at the front apart from the different grille design, but the rear of the Orion had a long flat boot rather than a hatchback or estate body like the Escort. Although the Orion's length was similar to that of the contemporary Ford Sierra it had more rear legroom and a larger boot; this concept was similar to the Volkswagen Jetta, the saloon version of the Golf hatchback, on sale since 1979. Ford offered the Orion in only GL and Ghia trim levels, missing out on the lower specification levels available on the Escort, as well as the basic 1100cc engine. Only 1300 cc and 1600 cc CVH engine options were available from launch. A lower specification L model was introduced in 1984, as was the option of a 1.6 diesel engine on L and GL models.
The Orion Ghia 1.6i standard features included: central locking, sport front seats, electric windows, rear head restraints, tachometer and an information binnacle informing the driver when the vehicle needed maintenance. All of these features were rare equipment on a small family car in the 1980s, giving the Orion upmarket pretensions; the Orion 1.6i shared an engine with the Escort XR3i and offered similar performance and handling without the insurance unfriendly tag that the XR badge started to command in the late-1980s due to its popularity with car thieves - and it was less targeted by thieves than the Escort XR3i or RS Turbo. The 1.6i was topped by a luxury limited edition called the 1600E in the autumn of 1988, the 1600E name harking back to the Mark II Ford Cortina 1600E from twenty years earlier, as both were considered to be well-equipped saloon cars with decent performance for the working man. The Orion 1600E was available in black and metallic grey and had RS alloys, wood cappings on the dashboard and doors, grey leather seats.
Only 1,600 were made. With the facelift in 1986, Ford brought the styling and engineering of the Orion closer to the Escort's and lower-specification models crept into the range along with equipment levels being brought together between the two cars, helped Orion sales increase further; the Orion gained the new 1.4 "lean burn" petrol engine, added to the Escort at this time. The success of the Orion across Europe in the UK, was followed by several other manufacturers launching saloon versions of their popular hatchbacks. By 1986, General Motors had launched a saloon version of its Opel Kadett/Vauxhall Astra hatchback, sold as the Vauxhall Belmont on the British market. Austin Rover, on the other hand, made use of a Honda design for its new Rover 200 Series saloon, launched in 1984 and gave buyers a booted alternative to the Maestro hatchback, although with a different platform; the Orion was launched around the same time as the Fiat Regata and estate versions of the Ritmo, although the Regata was aimed further upmarket at cars like the Ford Sierra.
The Orion was a strong seller in the UK, peaking as the seventh-best-selling car in 1987 and 1988 with over 70,000 sales each time. March 1986 saw the Orion getting the same facelift as the rest of the Escort range; the Mark II brought the option of a heated front windscreen to the range. The CVH engines were upgraded and were now "lean burn units" and various models in the range could run on unleaded fuel without modifications to the cylinder head or to the fuel system. Improved locks were fitted across the range, a number of other improvements were carried out including new suspension and gearbox mounts, updated interior and trim changes, improved soundproofing and revised steering and suspension settings. Trim levels now included the deleted L, Biscane LX, Equipe GL, GLS, Ghia Injection and from 1988 the 1600E; the final version of the Orion was launched in September 1990, but received the same criticism from the motoring media that the fifth generati
A knowledge engineer integrates knowledge into computer systems in order to solve complex problems requiring a high level of human expertise. Knowledge engineers are employed to translate the information elicited from domain experts into terms which cannot be communicated by the technicalized domain expert. Knowledge engineers organize information on how to make systems decisions; the term "knowledge engineer" first appeared in the 1980s in the first wave of commercialization of AI – the purpose of the job is to work with a client who wants an expert system created for them or their business. Knowledge engineers are involved with verification. Validation is the process of ensuring that something is conforms to a certain standard. A knowledge engineer is required to carry out data collection and data entry, but they must use validation in order to ensure that the data they collect, enter into their systems, fall within the accepted boundaries of the application collecting the data, it is important that a knowledge engineer incorporates validation procedures into their systems within the program code.
After the knowledge-based system is constructed, it can be maintained by the domain expert. Aylett, Ruth.
TGN-Pacific is a submarine telecommunications cable system transiting the Pacific Ocean. The cable system is constructed with one cable from Emi, Japan, to Hillsboro, United States; the cables between Japan and Hillsboro are each constructed with 8 fibre pairs per cable. At construction the cable could support up to 96 10 Gbit/s waves in its 2001 configuration. In 2014 the cable was upgraded to 100G optical transport, it has landing points in: Emi, Kamogawa City, Chiba Prefecture, Japan Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture, Japan Piti, Guam Nedonna Beach, Tillamook County near Hillsboro, Washington County, United States Hermosa Beach, Los Angeles County, United StatesTata Communications acquired the cable from its builder Tyco in May, 2005
Elisa Severi was an Italian actress. Elisa Severi was born in Ravenna, she trained as an actress in Rome. Elisa Severi started as a stage actress, she joined the Drammatica Compagnia Palladini-Talli in 1894, headed a company with Oreste Calabresi for the 1905-1906 season, with Mercedes Brignone as one of the company's other actresses. and became a member of Ettore Berti's Compagnia Stabile Romana in 1912. A reviewer of her stage work called her "una splendida creatura vibrante di passione sentida". Severi appeared in twenty silent films between 1913 and 1921, among them La corsa all'amore, La contessa Fedra, Circe moderna, Il bacio di sirena, Dopo il suicidio, L'erma biffronte, On with the Motley, Sublime rinuncia. Severi had a son and translator Giorgio Monicelli, whose father was journalist Tomaso Monicelli, her son coined the Italian word fantascienza for the science fiction magazine Urania. She died in Rome in 1930, aged 58 years. A park in Ravenna is named for Elisa Severi. Elisa Severi on IMDb