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General Motors

General Motors Company referred to as General Motors, is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, sells financial services, with global headquarters in Detroit's Renaissance Center. It was founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908 as a holding company; the company is the largest American automobile manufacturer, one of the world's largest. As of 2019, General Motors is ranked #13 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. General Motors manufactures vehicles in 15 countries, it either owns or holds a significant stake in foreign brands such as Holden, Wuling and Jiefang. Annual worldwide sales volume reached a milestone of 10 million vehicles in 2016. In addition to its twelve brands, General Motors holds a 20% stake in IMM, a 77% stake in GM Korea, it has a number of joint-ventures, including Shanghai GM, SAIC-GM-Wuling and FAW-GM in China, GM Uzbekistan, General Motors India, General Motors Egypt, Isuzu Truck South Africa.

General Motors does business in more than 140 countries. General Motors is divided into four business segments: GM North America, GM International Operations, GM Financial; the company operates a mobility division called Maven, which operates car-sharing services in the United States, is studying alternatives to individual vehicle ownership. GM Defense is General Motors' military defense division, catering to the needs of the military for advanced technology and propulsion systems for military vehicles. General Motors led global annual vehicle sales for 77 consecutive years from 1931 through 2007, longer than any other automaker, is still among the world's largest automakers by vehicle unit sales. General Motors acts in most countries outside the U. S. via wholly owned subsidiaries, but operates in China through ten joint ventures. GM's OnStar subsidiary provides vehicle safety and information services. In 2009, General Motors shed several brands, closing Saturn and Hummer, emerged from a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization.

In 2010, the reorganized GM made an initial public offering, one of the world's top five largest IPOs to date, returned to profitability that year. William C. Durant's Durant-Dort Carriage Company, of Flint, had become the leading manufacturer of horse-drawn vehicles in the United States by 1900. Durant was averse to automobiles, but fellow Flint businessman James H. Whiting, owner of Flint Wagon Works, sold him the Buick Motor Company in 1904. Durant formed the General Motors Company in 1908 as a holding company, with partner Charles Stewart Mott. GM's first acquisition was Buick, which Durant owned Oldsmobile, on November 12, 1908. In 1909 Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore and the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, Michigan. Durant over-leveraged the fledgling company in making these acquisitions, was removed by the board of directors in 1910 at the behest of the bankers who backed the loans to keep GM in business. Durant re-entered the automotive industry the following year by co-founding the Chevrolet Motor Company with Swiss race car driver Louis Chevrolet.

In 1916 GM was reincorporated in Detroit as General Motors Corporation. By 1917 the Chevrolet Motor Company had become successful enough that Durant, with the backing of McLaughlin and Pierre S. du Pont, reacquired a controlling interest in GM. Chevrolet Motor Company was consolidated into GM on May 2, 1918. Only two years du Pont orchestrated the removal of Durant once again, replaced him with Alfred P. Sloan. Sloan established annual styling changes making previous year's models to be "dated", he implemented the pricing strategy that all car companies use today. The pricing strategy had Chevrolet, Oldsmobile and Cadillac priced from least expensive to most, respectively. General Motors grew in prominence surpassing Ford Motors selling just over 50% of car sales in 1962. With the prominence of the company, president of General Motors, Charlie Wilson said it best - “What’s good for General Motors is good for America”, their industrial dominance was displayed as they manufactured products other than cars and trucks such as Aircraft, Construction equipment, appliances.

On July 10, 2009, following Chapter 11 reorganization after an initial filing on June 8 2009, the original General Motors sold assets and some subsidiaries to an new company including the trademark General Motors. Liabilities were left with the original GM freeing the companies of many liabilites resulting in a new GM. GM emerged from government backed Chapter 11 reorganization after an initial filing on June 8, 2009. Through the Troubled Asset Relief Program the US Treasury invested $49.5 billion in General Motors and recovered $39 billion when it sold its shares on December 9, 2013 resulting in a loss of $10.3 billion. The Treasury invested an additional $17.2 billion into GM's former financing company, GMAC. The shares in Ally were sold on December 2014 for $19.6 billion netting $2.4 billion. A study by the Center for Automotive Research found that the GM bailout saved 1.2 million jobs and preserved $34.9 billion in tax revenue. In 2009 General Motors of Canada Limited was not part of the General Motors Chapter 11 Bankruptcy, the company shed several brands, closing Saturn and Hummer, while selling Saab A

Mahdi Al-Gharrawi

Lt. General Mahdi Sabeh Al-Gharawi is an Iraq police officer, the former Commander of the Iraqi Federal Police in Ninewa Province, Lieutenant General of Iraqi Army. Gharawi, along with several other military leaders, was dismissed from his position by Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki on 17 June 2014 for failing in his "professional and military duty", his dismissal came a week after the fall of much of Northern Iraq to anti-government forces in the 2014 Northern Iraq offensive. He has been sentenced to death by a military tribunal. Iraqi Security Forces Iraq War War on Terrorism

Michael Rankin

Michael L. Rankin is an Senior Judge on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia. Rankin earned his Bachelor of Arts from Lincoln University in 1967 and his Juris Doctor from Howard University School of Law in 1970. President Ronald Reagan nominated Rankin on November 13, 1985, to a 15-year term as an associate judge on the Superior Court of the District of Columbia to the seat vacated by Nicholas S. Nunzio. On December 9, 1985, the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs held a hearing on his nomination. On December 12, 1985, the Committee reported his nomination favorably to the senate floor. On December 16, 1985, the full Senate confirmed his nomination by voice vote. In 2000, again in 2015, the Commission on Judicial Disabilities and Tenure recommended that he be reinstated for another fifteen year term as judge. Rankin is married to fellow D. C. Superior Court judge Zinora Mitchell-Rankin and they have four children