GM Family II engine
The Family II is a straight-4 piston engine, developed by Opel in the 1970s, debuting in 1979. Available in a wide range of cubic capacities ranging from 1598 to 2405cc, it replaced the Opel OHV, Opel CIH and Vauxhall Slant-4 engines, was GM Europe's core powerplant design for much of the 1980s; the engine features a cast iron block, an aluminium head, a timing belt driven valvetrain. The timing belt drives the water pump, it was first used in the Opel Kadett D, Ascona B, their corresponding Vauxhall sister models, the Astra and Nova. Many General Motors subsidiaries, including Daewoo, GM do Brasil, GM Powertrain, Holden have used this design. By 1986, the Family II unit had supplanted the CIH engine as Opel's core 4-cylinder powerplant. Although the 6-cylinder versions of the CIH continued in the larger Omega and Senator models until 1995. In 2004, a 2.0 L MultiPower engine was made available for the taxi market which could use gasoline and natural gas. The Family II spawned two diesel variants, the 1.6 L and 1.7 L.
These engines are sometimes referred to as "Big-block" engines by enthusiasts. The development track of these engines split in 1987, with the introduction of the 20XE. Although SOHC versions are still in production in Brazil, most DOHC engines were replaced by the all-aluminium GM Ecotec engine family. Holden made various Family II engines for Opel, GM Daewoo, GM India, GM Uzbekistan and Isuzu Thailand at its Port Melbourne plant. Variations include displacements from 1.8 L to 2.4 L. These engines formed the basis of the modern Family II lineup. Configuration was limited to a single over head cam, two valves per cylinder in a cross flow layout; the 20NE served as the base, where Family II engines evolved. The 1.6-liter iteration has a 80.0 mm bore and a 79.5 mm stroke. Opel began production of the 1.6 L in 1980. A diesel fueled version was available; the diesel produced 54 hp at 70.8 lb ⋅ ft of torque at 2400 rpm. It had a 23:1 compression ratio and a Bosch injection pump; the 1.7-liter iteration has a 82.0 mm bore and a 79.5 mm stroke.
The 1.7 L version uses diesel fuel. The 1.8-liter iteration has a 79.5 mm stroke. It was first available in the facelifted Opel Manta B in May 1982, made its way into a number of other Opel and GM cars, it was available as the 18N and the 18S, for low and high octane petrol respectively. The C18NV was first installed in the Opel Rekord E2 from May 1985 and was one of the first catalysed mass market automobiles sold in Germany. In 1983, the 1.8 L engine was added to certain North American market J-cars. The LA5 is a turbocharged version, optional in the North American market from 1984; the single overhead camshaft 1,998 cc inline four cylinder engines feature a square 86 mm bore and stroke. They feature fuel injection, an aluminum crossflow cylinder head with a belt-driven overhead camshaft, electronic ignition, a six-bolt flywheel, a 6,400 rpm redline. Developed by Opel, these engines have been used in Brazilian market vehicles, Korean market vehicles and North American market vehicles; the North American versions were used in the J-body compact cars from 1983 through 1994 although the turbocharged version did make a brief appearance in the N-body Pontiac Grand Am.
The SOHC version appeared in the Opel Kadett E-based, Daewoo produced, Pontiac LeMans for the US market. In the Brazilian market these engines are still built under the FlexPower name. Differences between the engines are emissions related. However, the 20SEH version was more powerful version produced for Opel's sportier models; the LT3 or C20GET is a turbocharged version produced in Brazil for the North American market. It featured brilliant red powder coating on intake manifold and boost pipe; the engine was equipped with a water-cooled Garrett T-25 turbocharger. Maximum boost at WOT was 9 psi; the 2.2 L or 2,198 cc version has a 94.6 mm stroke. It is codenamed C22NE and 22LE, it was used in the Brazilian market, in the Opel Omega A with 116 hp and the Opel Vectra B with 123 hp. This engine replaced the 2.0 8v C20NE version, considered weak when fitted to cars like Omega and Vectra, by the Brazilian market. Applications: Isuzu Faster FS Lublin, modified C22NED engine The 2,405 cc version has a 87.5 mm bore and a 100 mm stroke.
C24SE – 2.4 L SOHC – Isuzu Rodeo X24XF— 2.4 L MPFI SOHC 8V FlexPower The aspirated 16-valve version of the 2.0 L— 1,998 cc —cast-iron-block engine is the successor to the OHC-engines and a predecessor to the 16-valve Ecotec-line of engines. The 20XE evolved into the X20XEV with 136 hp and taking on the GM Ecotec name and it evolved into the X20XER; this lineup features the same block as the OHC based engines with an 86 mm bore & stroke and a Coscast-developed timing belt-driven double overhead camshaft y16 valve cylinder head. The cylinder heads were manufa
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work. The concept was applied to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy; the heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine. Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking, or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration, where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy. Hydrocarbons and related oxygen-containing molecules are by far the most common source of fuel used by humans, but other substances, including radioactive metals, are utilized. Fuels are contrasted with other substances or devices storing potential energy, such as those that directly release electrical energy or mechanical energy.
The first known use of fuel was the combustion of wood or sticks by Homo erectus nearly two million years ago. Throughout most of human history fuels derived from plants or animal fat were only used by humans. Charcoal, a wood derivative, has been used since at least 6,000 BCE for melting metals, it was only supplanted by coke, derived from coal, as European forests started to become depleted around the 18th century. Charcoal briquettes are now used as a fuel for barbecue cooking. Coal was first used as a fuel around 1000 BCE in China. With the energy in the form of chemical energy that could be released through combustion, but the concept development of the steam engine in the United Kingdom in 1769, coal came into more common use as a power source. Coal was used to drive ships and locomotives. By the 19th century, gas extracted from coal was being used for street lighting in London. In the 20th and 21st centuries, the primary use of coal is to generate electricity, providing 40% of the world's electrical power supply in 2005.
Fossil fuels were adopted during the Industrial Revolution, because they were more concentrated and flexible than traditional energy sources, such as water power. They have become a pivotal part of our contemporary society, with most countries in the world burning fossil fuels in order to produce power; the trend has been towards renewable fuels, such as biofuels like alcohols. Chemical fuels are substances that release energy by reacting with substances around them, most notably by the process of combustion. Most of the chemical energy released in combustion was not stored in the chemical bonds of the fuel, but in the weak double bond of molecular oxygen. Chemical fuels are divided in two ways. First, by their physical properties, as a solid, liquid or gas. Secondly, on the basis of their occurrence: primary and secondary. Thus, a general classification of chemical fuels is: Solid fuel refers to various types of solid material that are used as fuel to produce energy and provide heating released through combustion.
Solid fuels include wood, peat, hexamine fuel tablets, pellets made from wood, wheat and other grains. Solid-fuel rocket technology uses solid fuel. Solid fuels have been used by humanity for many years to create fire. Coal was the fuel source which enabled the industrial revolution, from firing furnaces, to running steam engines. Wood was extensively used to run steam locomotives. Both peat and coal are still used in electricity generation today; the use of some solid fuels is restricted or prohibited in some urban areas, due to unsafe levels of toxic emissions. The use of other solid fuels as wood is decreasing as heating technology and the availability of good quality fuel improves. In some areas, smokeless coal is the only solid fuel used. In Ireland, peat briquettes are used as smokeless fuel, they are used to start a coal fire. Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy producing kinetic energy, it is the fumes of liquid fuels.
Most liquid fuels in widespread use are derived from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals by exposure to heat and pressure inside the Earth's crust. However, there are several types, such as hydrogen fuel, jet fuel and bio-diesel which are all categorized as a liquid fuel. Emulsified fuels of oil-in-water such as orimulsion have been developed a way to make heavy oil fractions usable as liquid fuels. Many liquid fuels play a primary role in the economy; some common properties of liquid fuels are that they are easy to transport, that can be handled easily. They are easy to use for all engineering applications, home use. Fuels like kerosene are rationed in some countries, for example available in government subsidized shops in India for home use. Conventional diesel is similar to gasoline in that it is a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons extracted from petroleum. Kerosene is used in kerosene lamps and as a fuel for cooking and small engines. Natural gas, composed chiefly of methane, can only exist as a liquid at low temperatures, which limits its direct use as a liquid fuel in most applications.
LP gas is a mixture of propane and butane, both of which are compressible gases under standard atmospheric conditions. It offers many of the advantages of compressed natural gas (CN
Opel is a German automobile manufacturer, a subsidiary of French automaker Groupe PSA since August 2017. From 1929 until 2017, Opel was owned by American automaker General Motors. Opel vehicles are sold in the United Kingdom under the Vauxhall brand; some Opel vehicles are badge-engineered in Australasia under the Holden brand, in North America and China under the Buick brand. Opel traces its roots to a sewing machine manufacturer founded by Adam Opel in 1862 in Rüsselsheim am Main; the company began manufacturing bicycles in 1886 and produced its first automobile in 1899. After listing on the stock market in 1929, General Motors took a majority stake in Opel and full control in 1931, establishing the American reign over the German automaker for nearly 90 years. In March 2017, Groupe PSA agreed to acquire Opel from General Motors for €2.2 billion, making the French automaker the second biggest in Europe, after Volkswagen. Opel is headquartered in Rüsselsheim am Main, Germany; the company designs, engineers and distributes Opel-branded passenger vehicles, light commercial vehicles, vehicle parts and together with its British sister brand Vauxhall they are present in over 50 countries around the world.
The company was founded in Rüsselsheim, Germany, on 21 January 1862, by Adam Opel. In the beginning, Opel produced sewing machines. In 1888, production was relocated from a cowshed to a more spacious building in Rüsselsheim. Opel launched a new product in 1886: he began to sell high-wheel bicycles known as penny-farthings. Opel's two sons participated in high-wheel bicycle races, thus promoting this means of transportation; the production of high-wheel bicycles soon exceeded the production of sewing machines. At the time of Opel's death in 1895, he was the leader in both markets; the first cars were produced in 1899 after Opel's wife Sophie and their two eldest sons entered into a partnership with Friedrich Lutzmann, a locksmith at the court in Dessau in Saxony-Anhalt, working on automobile designs for some time. These cars were not successful and the partnership was dissolved after two years, following which Opel signed a licensing agreement in 1901 with the French Automobiles Darracq France to manufacture vehicles under the brand name Opel Darracq.
These cars consisted of Opel bodies mounted on Darracq chassis, powered by two-cylinder engines. The company first showed cars of its own design at the 1902 Hamburg Motor Show, started manufacturing them in 1906, with Opel Darracq production being discontinued in 1907. In 1909, the Opel 4/8 PS model, known as the Doktorwagen was produced, its reliability and robustness were appreciated by physicians, who drove long distances to see their patients back when hard-surfaced roads were still rare. The Doktorwagen sold about half as much as the luxury models of its day. In 1911, the company's factory was destroyed by fire and a new one was built with more up-to-date machinery. In the early 1920s, Opel became the first German car manufacturer to incorporate a mass-production assembly line in the building of their automobiles. In 1924, they used their assembly line to produce a new open two-seater called the Laubfrosch; the Laubfrosch was finished in green lacquer. The car sold for an expensive 4,500 marks, but by the 1930s, this type of vehicle would cost a mere 1,990 marks – due in part to the assembly line, but due to the skyrocketing demand for cars.
Adam Opel led the way for motorised transportation to become not just a means for the rich, but a reliable way for people of all classes to travel. Opel had a 37.5% market share in Germany and was the country's largest automobile exporter in 1928. The "Regent" – Opel's first eight-cylinder car – was offered; the RAK 1 and RAK 2 rocket-propelled cars made sensational record-breaking runs. In March 1929, General Motors, impressed by Opel's modern production facilities, bought 80% of the company, increasing this to 100% in 1931; the Opel family gained $33.3 million from the transaction. Subsequently, during 1935, a second factory was built at Brandenburg for the production of "Blitz" light trucks. In 1935, Opel became the first German car manufacturer to produce over 100,000 vehicles a year; this was based on the popular Opel "P4" model. The selling price was a mere 1,650 marks and the car had a 23 hp 1.1 L four-cylinder engine and a top speed of 85 km/h. Opel produced the first mass-production vehicle in Germany with a self-supporting all-steel body following the 1934 Citroën Traction Avant.
This was one of the most important innovations in automotive history. They called the car, launched in 1935, the Olympia. With its small weight and aerodynamics came an improvement in both performance and fuel consumption. Opel received a patent on this technology; the 1930s was a decade of growth, by 1937, with 130,267 cars produced, Opel's Rüsselsheim plant was Europe's top car plant in terms of output, while ranking seventh worldwide.1939 saw the presentation of the successful Kapitän. With a 2.5 L six-cylinder engine, all-steel body, front independent suspension, hydraulic shock absorbers, hot-water heating, central speedometer. 25,374 Kapitäns left the factory before the intensification of World War II brought automotive manufacturing to a temporary stop in the Autumn of 1940, by order of the government. World War II brought to Rüsselsheim the only year in the history of Opel – 1945 – in which it produced fewer vehicles since that first Lutzmann-authored Opel was made in 1899. Before the conflict broke out, the Adam Opel AG had established itself as the largest motor vehicle manufa
A carburetor or carburettor is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper air–fuel ratio for combustion. It is sometimes colloquially shortened to carby in Australia. To carburate or carburet means to mix the air and fuel or to equip with a carburetor for that purpose. Carburetors have been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection, they are still common on small engines for lawn mowers and other equipment. The word carburetor comes from the French carbure meaning "carbide". Carburer means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the more specific meaning of increasing the carbon content of a fluid by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon; the first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in 1826. The first person to patent a carburetor for use in a petroleum engine was Siegfried Marcus with his 6 July 1872 patent for a device which mixes fuel with air. A carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components.
Early carburetors were of the surface type, in which air is combined with fuel by passing over the surface of gasoline. In 1885, Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor based on the atomizer nozzle; the Daimler-Maybach carburetor was copied extensively. British courts rejected the Daimler company's claim of priority in favor of Edward Butler's 1884 spray carburetor used on his Petrol Cycle. Hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki patented a carburetor for a stationary engine in 1893. Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, experimented with the wick carburetor in cars. In 1896, Frederick and his brother built a gasoline-driven car in England, a single cylinder 5 hp internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the car's performance and power, they re-designed the engine the following year using two horizontally-opposed cylinders and a newly designed wick carburetor. Carburetors were the common method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline engines until the late 1980s, when fuel injection became the preferred method.
This change was dictated by the requirements of catalytic converters and not due to an inherent inefficiency of carburation. A catalytic converter requires that there be more precise control over the fuel / air mixture in order to control the amount of oxygen remaining in the exhaust gases. In the U. S. market, the last cars using carburetors were: 1990: Oldsmobile Custom Cruiser, Buick Estate Wagon, Cadillac Brougham, Honda Prelude, Subaru Justy 1991: Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor with the 5.8 L V8 engine. 1991: Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC 360 cu in V8 engine. 1993: Mazda B2200 1994: IsuzuIn Australia, some cars continued to use carburetors well into the 1990s. Low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors into the 2000s, the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003. Elsewhere, certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006. Many motorcycles still use carburetors for simplicity's sake, since a carburetor does not require an electrical system to function.
Carburetors are still found in small engines and in older or specialized automobiles, such as those designed for stock car racing, though NASCAR's 2011 Sprint Cup season was the last one with carbureted engines. In Europe, carburetor-engined cars were being phased out by the end of the 1980s in favor of fuel injection, the established type of engine on more expensive vehicles including luxury and sports models. EEC legislation required all vehicles sold and produced in member countries to have a catalytic converter after December 1992; this legislation had been in the pipeline for some time, with many cars becoming available with catalytic converters or fuel injection from around 1990. However, some versions of the Peugeot 106 were sold with carburettor engines from its launch in 1991, as were versions of the Renault Clio and Nissan Primera and all versions of Ford Fiesta range except the XR2i when it was launched in 1989. Luxury car manufacturer Mercedes-Benz had been producing mechanically fuel-injected cars since the early 1950s, while the first mainstream family car to feature fuel injection was the Volkswagen Golf GTI in 1976.
Ford's first fuel-injected car was the Ford Capri RS 2600 in 1970. General Motors launched its first fuel-injected car in 1957 as an option available for the first generation Corvette. Saab switched to fuel injection across its whole range from 1982; the carburetor works on Bernoulli's principle: the faster air moves, the lower its static pressure, higher the dynamic pressure is. The throttle linkage does not directly control the flow of liquid fuel. Instead, it actuates carburetor mechanisms which meter the flow of air being carried into the engine; the speed of this flow, therefore its pressure, determines the amount of fuel drawn into the airstream. When carburetors are used in aircraft with piston engines, special designs and features are needed to prevent fuel starvation during inverted flight. Engines used an early form of fuel injection known as a pressure carburetor. Most production carbureted engines, as opposed to fuel-injected, h
Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any of various substances comprising base oils enhanced with additives antiwear additive plus detergents, dispersants and, for multi-grade oils viscosity index improvers. Motor oil is used for lubrication of internal combustion engines; the main function of motor oil is to reduce friction and wear on moving parts and to clean the engine from sludge and varnish. It neutralizes acids that originate from fuel and from oxidation of the lubricant, improves sealing of piston rings, cools the engine by carrying heat away from moving parts. In addition to the basic constituents noted in the preceding paragraph all lubricating oils contain corrosion and oxidation inhibitors. Motor oil may be composed of only a lubricant base stock in the case of non-detergent oil, or a lubricant base stock plus additives to improve the oil's detergency, extreme pressure performance, ability to inhibit corrosion of engine parts. Motor oils today are blended using base oils composed of petroleum-based hydrocarbons, that means organic compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen, or polyalphaolefins or their mixtures in various proportions, sometimes with up to 20% by weight of esters for better dissolution of additives.
On September 6, 1866 American John Ellis founded the Continuous Oil Refining Company. While studying the possible healing powers of crude oil, Dr. Ellis was disappointed to find no real medicinal value, but was intrigued by its potential lubricating properties, he abandoned the medical practice to devote his time to the development of an all-petroleum, high viscosity lubricant for steam engines – using inefficient combinations of petroleum and animal and vegetable fats. He made his breakthrough when he developed an oil that worked in high temperatures; this meant corroded cylinders or leaking seals. Motor oil is a lubricant used in internal combustion engines, which power cars, lawnmowers, engine-generators, many other machines. In engines, there are parts which move against each other, the friction wastes otherwise useful power by converting the kinetic energy to heat, it wears away those parts, which could lead to lower efficiency and degradation of the engine. This increases fuel consumption, decreases power output, can lead to engine failure.
Lubricating oil creates a separating film between surfaces of adjacent moving parts to minimize direct contact between them, decreasing heat caused by friction and reducing wear, thus protecting the engine. In use, motor oil transfers heat through conduction. In an engine with a recirculating oil pump, this heat is transferred by means of air flow over the exterior surface of the, airflow through an oil cooler and through oil gases evacuated by the Positive Crankcase Ventilation system. While modern recirculating pumps are provided in passenger cars and other engines similar or larger in size, total loss oiling is a design option that remains popular in small and miniature engines. In petrol engines, the top piston ring can expose the motor oil to temperatures of 160 °C. In diesel engines the top ring can expose the oil to temperatures over 315 °C. Motor oils with higher viscosity indices thin less at these higher temperatures. Coating metal parts with oil keeps them from being exposed to oxygen, inhibiting oxidation at elevated operating temperatures preventing rust or corrosion.
Corrosion inhibitors may be added to the motor oil. Many motor oils have detergents and dispersants added to help keep the engine clean and minimize oil sludge build-up; the oil is able to trap soot from combustion in itself, rather than leaving it deposited on the internal surfaces. It is a combination of this, some singeing that turns used oil black after some running. Rubbing of metal engine parts produces some microscopic metallic particles from the wearing of the surfaces; such particles could circulate in the grind against moving parts, causing wear. Because particles accumulate in the oil, it is circulated through an oil filter to remove harmful particles. An oil pump, a vane or gear pump powered by the engine, pumps the oil throughout the engine, including the oil filter. Oil filters can be a full bypass type. In the crankcase of a vehicle engine, motor oil lubricates rotating or sliding surfaces between the crankshaft journal bearings, rods connecting the pistons to the crankshaft; the oil collects in sump, at the bottom of the crankcase.
In some small engines such as lawn mower engines, dippers on the bottoms of connecting rods dip into the oil at the bottom and splash it around the crankcase as needed to lubricate parts inside. In modern vehicle engines, the oil pump takes oil from the oil pan and sends it through the oil filter into oil galleries, from which the oil lubricates the main bearings holding the crankshaft up at the main journals and camshaft bearings operating the valves. In typical modern vehicles, oil pressure-fed from the oil galleries to the main bearings enters holes in the main journals of the crankshaft. From these holes in the main journals, the oil moves through passageways inside the crankshaft to exit holes in the rod journals to lubricate the rod bearings and connecting rods; some simpler designs relied on these moving parts to splash and lubricate the contacting surfaces between the piston rings and interior surfaces of the cylinders. However, in modern designs, there are passageways through the rods which carry oil from the rod bearings to the rod-piston connections and lubricate the contacting su
Toluca called Toluca de Lerdo, is the state capital of the State of Mexico as well as the seat of the Municipality of Toluca. It is the center of a growing urban area, now the fifth largest in Mexico, it is located 63 kilometres west-southwest of Mexico City, about 40 minutes by car to the western edge of the city. According to the 2010 census, the city of Toluca has a population of 819,561; the city is the fifth largest in Mexico by population. The municipality of Toluca, along with thirteen other municipalities, make up the metropolitan population of 2,116,506 in Greater Toluca as of 2015, making it the fifth most populous metropolitan area in Mexico; when Toluca was founded by the Matlatzincas, its original name was Nepintahihui. The current name is based on the Náhuatl name for the area when it was renamed by the Aztecs in 1473; the name has its origin in the word tollocan that comes from the name of the god, plus the locative suffix, can, to denote "place of Tolo". It is referred to in a number of Aztec codices as Tolutépetl, meaning hill of the god, Tolo, an allusion to the nearby volcano.
The name Toluca de Lerdo was adopted in 1861 in honor of President Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada. The Valley of Toluca was known as Matlatzinco Valley in ancient times and home to at least four linguistic groups: the Matlatzinca, Otomi and Nahua peoples. In the Postclassic period, the valley was ruled by a large powerful capital city whose ruins are located today in the village of Calixtlahuaca, just north of the city of Toluca. In 1478 the Mexica emperor Axayacatl conquered the Toluca Valley; the capital was stripped of its dynasty and power and some lands were distributed to kings and nobles from the Valley of Mexico. One of the rivals of Calixtlahuaca was Tollocan, a minor city-state before 1478; when Axayacatl destroyed Calixtlahuaca, he placed the imperial provincial capital in Tollocan. Calixtlahuaca and other towns in the Toluca Valley paid tribute to the Aztec Empire through Tollocan. After the Spanish conquest, the name Tollocan was changed to Toluca. Archaeologists have not yet located a major Postclassic settlement within the modern city.
Either the pre-Hispanic city of Tollocan was destroyed and covered over by the expansion of Toluca, or else the remains of Tollocan could lie outside of the modern city. A small Postclassic site was discovered on the hill called Tolochi, in the north of the modern city, but the remains seem too insubstantial to have been a major provincial capital; the tree of "Las Manitas Rojas", which means "little red hands", was planted before the Spanish Conquest in what is now the monastery of Nuestra Señora del Carmen. This tree is significant because it shows that Toluca was important enough for the Aztecs to create a botanical garden. In 1521, the Spanish conquered the Valley of Toluca. Leading the troops was Gonzalo de Sandoval, one of Cortes' many sergeants. Toluca’s first governor was Pedro Cortés Coyotzin; the valley of Toluca and what is now the city of Toluca were included in the concession made by King Carlos V of Spain to Hernán Cortés. In 1524, the evangelization process started in Toluca; the most notable figure of this effort is Fray Andrés Castro, from Burgos, the old capital of Castile, by making a great number of improvements to the city and being the first one to learn the native Matlatzincan language.
The friar was well loved by the Matlzinca people, as he worked to protect them from the injustices of the early colonial period. He is remembered to this day with a plaza that bears his name which includes a sculpture depicting him. A Spanish community was established in 1530, but it was not until 1677 that Toluca was categorized as a town. In 1793, the construction of a road to Mexico City was started. Although Toluca was recognized as a city as early as 1662, only in 1799, was Toluca named a city by the King Carlos IV of Spain on September 12. In 1810, at the beginning of the independence movement, Miguel Hidalgo stayed in Toluca for a few days on his way to the Battle of Monte de las Cruces. In 1811, a group of indigenous natives of Mexico was killed by Spanish royalists. In memorial to those who were killed in this incident, the place where this occurred was named "Plaza of the Martires". In 1812, the first city council of Toluca was installed. In 1821, independence was proclaimed by the local authorities.
After the creation of the State of Mexico in 1825, the state capital moved to different cities several times. Until in 1830, Toluca was designated as the constitutional capital of the State of Mexico. In 1832, the building of "Los Portales" was started in downtown Toluca. In 1836, because of the centralization of the Mexican federal government, all branches of government were relocated to Mexico City after some were in Toluca for several years. In 1847, thanks to Ignacio Ramírez, "El Nigromante" or the Institute of Literature opened. In 1851, the "Teatro Principal" was built by González Arratia. Mariano Riva Palacio was named governor of the state and he started the most important modernization process of the city in the 19th century. In 1881, The Industrial Union was founded, the railroad was opened and the Bank of State of Mexico created the first bills in the country. In 1882, the Teachers College was founded. In 1910, people celebrated a century of Independence, the Plaza España was inaugurated.
The municipality of Toluca, which has a geographical extent of 420.14 km2, includes numerous communities other than Toluca de Lerdo, the largest of which are the municipalities of San Pablo Autopan and San José Guadalupe Otzacatipan. The municipality is bordered by the municipalities of Almoloya de Juárez, Otzolotepec, Xonacatlán, San Mateo Atenco, Metepec, C
Family 1 is a group of Greek Gospel manuscripts, varying in date from the 12th to the 15th century. The group takes its name from the minuscule codex 1, now in the Basel University Library. "Family 1" is known as "the Lake Group", symbolized as f1. Hermann von Soden calls the group Ih. Aland lists it as Category III in the Gospels and Category V elsewhere. Family 1 was discovered in 1902, when Kirsopp Lake published Codex 1 of the Gospels and its Allies, established the existence of a new textual family; this group of manuscripts was based on four minuscules, but now we consider 205, 205abs, 872, 884, 1582, 2193, 2542 to be members of the family. The most obvious characteristic of the Lake Group is that these manuscripts placed Pericope adulterae after John 21:25. Manuscripts of this family include the Longer ending of Mark to the text, but the manuscripts 1 and 1582 contain a scholion that brings into question the authenticity of Mark 16:9-20: Εν τισι μεν των αντιγραφων εως ωδε πληρουται ο ευαγγελιστης εως ου και Ευσεβιος ο Παμφιλου εκανονισεν εν πολλοις δε και ταυτα φερεται.
In Mark 6:51, the word εξίσταντο was changed into εξεπλήσσοντο against all other manuscripts. B. H. Streeter, working on the basis of data supplied by Lake, proposed that Family 1, along with the Codex Koridethi, Family 13, the minuscules 28, 565, 700, the Armenian and Georgian versions, were the remnants of what he labelled the Caesarean Text, differing in a number of common respects from the established Byzantine and Alexandrian text-types. Silva Lake discovered that Minuscule 652 in Mark 4:20-6:24 represents text of the f1. Amy Anderson made a new reconstruction of the family tree in 2004 and showed that minuscule 1582 is a more exact representation than 1 of the text of the archetype, she identified the Family 1 manuscripts in Matthew as 1, 22, 118, 131, 205, 209, 872, 1192, 1210, 1278, 1582, 2193 and 2542. Alison Sarah Welsby, in her 2012 doctoral thesis, identified the Family 1 manuscripts in John as 1, 22, 118, 131, 205abs, 205, 209, 565, 872, 884, 1192, 1210, 1278, 1582, 2193, 2372, 2713.
Within the family, there are three manuscripts which may be more related. 209 was part of Cardinal Bessarion's collection by 1438 A. D. and may have served as the exemplar for 2866 and 205. 2866, before receiving its own Gregory-Aland number, was long assumed to be a direct copy of 205 and was thus named 205abs. D. C. Parker rehearsed Lake's views who thought 209 to have been the parent of 205, Parker rehearses Josef Schmid's views who considered 2866 and 205 to be daughters of 209's lost sister. Matthew 1:11 τον Ιωακιμ, Ιωακιμ δε εγεννεσεν — M, U, Θ, Σ, f1, 33, 258 478 661 954 1216 1230 1354 1604 Lectionary 54 syrh and other mss. Matthew 2:18 κλαυθμὸς — 1-22-582, א, B, Z, 0250, 372, ℓ 2211, it, eth θρηνος και — 131-205-209-872-1192-1210-1278-2193, C, D, L, W, f13, 33, 700, 892Matthew 5:44 ευλογειτε τους καταρωμενους υμας, καλως ποιειτε τοις μισουσιν υμας omitted by א, B, f1, k, syrc, s, copsa, bo. Matthew 9:30 ενεβριμηθη — 1, 22, 118, 205, 209, 1582, א, B, 660, 892 ενεβριμησατο — 131, 872, 1192, 1210, 1278, 2193Matthew 10:12 It reads λεγοντες ειρηνη τω οικω τουτω for αυτην.
The reading is supported by manuscripts: Sinaiticus*,2, Regius, Koridethi, 1010, it vgcl. Matthew 19:16 διδασκαλε — א, B, D, L, f1, 892txt, 1010, 1365, ℓ 5, ita, d, e, ff1, eth, Origen, Hilary. Matthew 20:23 και το βαπτισμα ο εγω βαπτιζομαι βαπτισθησεσθε omitted — Sinaiticus, B, D, L, Z, Θ, 085, f1, f13, it, syrs, c, copsa. Matthew 25:41 ο ητοιμασεν ο πατηρ μου τω διαβολω — together Codex Bezae το ητοιμασμενον τω διαβολω as have majority of the manuscripts. Matthew 27:35 τα ιματια μου εαυτοις, και επι τον ιματισμον μου εβαλον κληρον — Δ, Θ, 0250, f13, 537, 1424. Mark 4:37 ωστε αυτο ηδη βυθιζεσθαι — f1 ωστε ηδη γεμιζεσθαι το πλοιον — majority of mssMark 10:40 ητοιμασται υπο του πατρος μου — א*, b, f1 1071 1241 ita, itr1 Diatess