Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Interstate 95 in Virginia
Interstate 95 runs 179 miles within the Commonwealth of Virginia between its borders with Maryland and North Carolina. I-95 is concurrent with I-64 for 3 miles in Richmond, meets the northern terminus of I-85 in Petersburg. Although I-95 was planned as a highway through Washington, D. C. it was rerouted along the eastern portion of the Capital Beltway. From Petersburg to Richmond, I-95 was most of the Richmond-Petersburg Turnpike It enters the Capital Beltway at the Springfield Interchange known as the Mixing Bowl. I-95 continues over the Woodrow Wilson Bridge into Washington, D. C. and into Maryland on the Beltway. The route between Fredericksburg and Springfield, Virginia, is one of the most congested routes of highway in the United States during holidays and rush hours, because of the lack of alternative routes, there are fewer lanes than needed, the spread-out suburbs of the Washington D. C. area. Interstate 95 continues the pattern of being a four-lane highway from North Carolina; the welcome center forbids trucks, but truck stops at the first two interchanges provides a substitute place for truckers to stay before reaching Emporia.
North of here, I-95 and US 301 are intertwined with each other as they encounter interchanges with Virginia Secondary State Routes. In the Owens-Stony Creek area in Sussex County, the road not only runs parallel to US 301 but shares bridges with I-95, many of which have access to Route 301 from connecting roads; this pattern ends at Exit 33 at the corner of a popular truck stop and travel center. Crossing the Sussex-Prince George County Line, the first site along I-95 is another rest area that serves as the Petersburg Area Tourist Information Center; the road makes a slight northeast turn between Carson and Templeton turns straight north again before approaching the south end of Interstate 295 just before crossing the southern border of the City of Petersburg at Exit 47. A series of frontage roads connect the interchanges with US 460, US 301 and the northern terminus of Interstate 85. After the interchange with Interstate 85, remnants of the former toll booths for the Richmond–Petersburg Turnpike can be found.
North of Petersburg, I-95 crosses the Appomattox River and enters the City of Colonial Heights and Chesterfield County. Pocahontas Parkway and an extraordinarily high Vietnam Veterans Memorial Bridge over I-95 and the James River just south of the Richmond City Limits. A CSX railroad line runs parallel to the northbound lane in the vicinity of the Port of Richmond, the Commerce Road Industrial Area, a region that includes a Philip Morris office and an old bridge manufacturing plant; as I-95 itself crosses the James River, Main Street Station can be seen on the north bank, the road winds around the station itself. The first interchange after it crosses the James River is the tolled State Route 195 and from there the road winds towards the multiplex with Interstate 64. I-64/95 curves to the northwest to cross under US 1/301, only to turn back north and curve northwest again, as it approaches VA 161; this pattern ends when I-64 turns west at the same interchange as the northern terminus of I-195.
From here I-95 curves back to the northeast and has two interchanges with US 1, US 301 separately, the latter of which has separate carriageways on both side of I-95. Another interchange with Interstate 295 exists in Glen Allen. However, I-295 does not terminate there, the south-to-eastbound and west-to-northbound off-ramps between the two can be accessed in the medians of both roads. Throughout much of central Virginia, I-95 climbs a series of hills, contains wide tree-lined medians. Near mile marker 100 in Doswell, signs for the Kings Dominion amusement park are blended in with standard destination signs. US 17 overlaps I-95 from Massaponax at exit 126 to Falmouth at exit 133; the wide tree-line divider resumes north of here. At Exit 143 in Aquia, the northbound off and on ramps connect directly to US 1 though the interchange is for VSR 610. Crossing over the Chopawamsic Creek takes I-95 through the Quantico Marine Base, which includes restrictive interchanges. Northbound, the bi-directional HOT lane begins in Stafford, runs through the center of I-95 through most of the rest of its journey toward D.
C. Further north in Prince William County, there are four rest areas; the truck rest areas, with weigh stations, are near exit 152. The car rest areas have exit ramps; the southbound car rest area, near exit 156, is accessible only from the southbound collective-distributor road. In Lorton, a scissor interchange exists with US 1, shortly after this Lorton Auto Train Station is located near exit 163. Due to public opposition of efforts to build I-95 through Washington D. C. and College Park, Maryland, I-95 is diverted onto a multiplex with Interstate 495 at the Springfield Interchange. I-95/495 continue east through Franconia, over the WMATA Blue Line and Rose Hill. At Huntington, I-95/495 run under the WMATA Yellow Line, through Alexandria before crossing the Woodrow Wilson Bridge into D. C. and into Maryland. Interstate 195 is a short spur from north of downtown Richmond south into downtown. Interstate 295 is a bypass to the east of Richmond, from I-95 south of Petersburg, across Interstate 64 east of Richmond and I-95 north of Richmond to I-64 west of Richmond.
Interstate 395 is a branch from Springfield north into downtown Washington, D. C, it was part of I-95 until 1977. Interstate 495 is the Capital Beltway, a full loop around Washingto
Broad Street (Richmond, Virginia)
Broad Street is a 15-mile-long road located in the independent city of Richmond and adjacent Henrico County. Broad Street is significant to Richmond due to the many commercial establishments that have been built along it throughout Richmond's history. From downtown through miles into the suburbs, the street is dedicated to retailing and offices, including regional and neighborhood shopping centers and malls; the east end of Broad Street is located at the northeastern edge of Chimborazo Park. It extends through Church Hill to Downtown Richmond. Known as U. S. Route 250 west of Downtown Richmond, it extends west through Richmond's West End all the way to the outermost suburbs of Richmond just beyond Short Pump near the intersection of I-295 and I-64. Continuing west into Goochland County Broad Street becomes Broad Street Rd. U. S. Route 250. Broad Street connects many historical sites in Downtown Richmond, it is home to the lavish Empire Theatre, the state's oldest operating theatre. Theatre IV, the Children's Theatre of Virginia, the second largest children's theatre in the nation, owns the Empire and presents its mainstage season there in downtown Richmond.
Until the late 19th century, the trains of the Richmond and Potomac Railroad ran down the center of the street from the present Harrison Street east to Eighth Street. The area around Sixth and Broad Streets was the center of retailing in the Southeast, with department stores such as Miller & Rhoads, Thalhimers, G. C. Murphy, Raylass, Cohen's and W. T. Grant and niche retailers like Hofheimer's, it was home to "theater row", which included venues such as the National. It has been the site of major institutional structures, including Monumental Church, the Library of Virginia, the present and former city halls, the Virginia Department of Transportation headquarters. In 1919, the Richmond and Potomac Railroad relocated its terminal to the more suburban Broad Street Station; as Richmond moved westward, so did the retail district. Miles away, Short Pump Town Center in western Henrico County on Broad Street has leading retailers including Macy's, Dillard's and Nordstrom. Transportation in Richmond, Virginia
The Shops at Willow Lawn
The Shops at Willow Lawn is a shopping center located in Richmond, United States. It is the first shopping center in the Richmond area; the center is a strip mall now, the remaining enclosed portion having been demolished and rebuilt. The center features over several restaurants. Federal Realty Trust owns the shopping center; the center called Willow Lawn Shopping Center, opened in 1956. The center was anchored by G. C. Murphy, Giant Food, JCPenney, Peoples Drug and Woolworth. Safeway re-located to the former Giant Food space; this Hess's store, over time, was renamed to Leggett, to Belk, which closed in 1998. In 1986, Federal Realty Trust acquired the shopping center; the middle section of the mall was enclosed that year. The enclosed portion featured several more stores, as well as a food court. Miller & Rhoads closed in 1988, was sub-divided into smaller stores and offices. Through the 1980s, Willow Lawn lost many of its key stores. JCPenney closed in the late 1990s and was replaced with a Hannaford Bros. Co. supermarket, until that chain sold its Richmond locations to Kroger.
Peoples Drug became CVS/Pharmacy. G. C. Murphy and Woolworth closed. In 1996, Barksdale Theatre, Central Virginia's leading professional theatre, made The Shops at Willow Lawn its new home; the theatre still presents its Signature Season there today. Theatre IV, the Children's Theatre of VA performs at the theatre. Dillard's opened at Willow Lawn in 1998; this Dillard's did not last long and was closed by 2004. The former Dillard's was soon replaced with Gold's Ross Dress For Less. Barnes & Noble, which opened in the 1990s, was replaced with Staples. Federal Realty began a renovation of the mall in 2005, taking a portion of the enclosed mall and returning it to an open-air strip. In 2005, Ben Franklin Crafts and K & G Fashion Superstore moved into the mall, the latter replacing most of the food court. Tower Records closed in 2006 due to Chapter 11 Bankruptcy liquidation. In 2011, Willow Lawn began another renovation, demolishing the remnants of the enclosed mall and food court. In 2012, the central section of Willow Lawn is set to reopen with new stores and an open-air courtyard.
Old Navy and a few other tenants relocated to stores in other central parts of the existing complex. Official website Entry in Malls of America blog
Commuter rail called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis. Trains operate following a schedule at speeds varying from 50 to 225 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used. Non-English names include Treno suburbano in Italian, Cercanías in Spanish, Rodalies in Catalan, Proastiakos in Greek, S-Bahn in German, Train de banlieue in French, Příměstský vlak or Esko in Czech, Elektrichka in Russian, Pociąg podmiejski in Polish and Pendeltåg in Swedish; the development of commuter rail services has become popular, with the increased public awareness of congestion, dependence on fossil fuels, other environmental issues, as well as the rising costs of owning and parking automobiles. Most commuter trains are built to main line rail standards, differing from light rail or rapid transit systems by: being larger providing more seating and less standing room, owing to the longer distances involved having a lower frequency of service having scheduled services serving lower-density suburban areas connecting suburbs to the city center sharing track or right-of-way with intercity or freight trains not grade separated being able to skip certain stations as an express service due to being driver controlled Compared to rapid transit, commuter/suburban rail has lower frequency, following a schedule rather than fixed intervals, fewer stations spaced further apart.
They serve lower density suburban areas, share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours and weekends. Average speeds are high 50 km/h or higher; these higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved. Some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones; the general range of commuter trains' distance varies between 200 km. Sometimes long distances can be explained by. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a terminal station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are available on-board trains and in stations, their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs.
However they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the local standard gauge track; some systems may run on a broader gauge. Examples of narrow gauge systems are found in Japan, Malaysia, Switzerland, in the Brisbane and Perth systems in Australia, in some systems in Sweden, on the Genoa-Casella line in Italy; some countries and regions, including Finland, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the US and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. Metro rail or rapid transit covers a smaller inner-urban area ranging outwards to between 12 km to 20 km, has a higher train frequency and runs on separate tracks, whereas commuter rail shares tracks and the legal framework within mainline railway systems. However, the classification as a metro or rapid rail can be difficult as both may cover a metropolitan area run on separate tracks in the centre, feature purpose-built rolling stock.
The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters. This distinction is most made when there are two systems such as New York's subway and the LIRR and Metro-North Railroad, Paris' Métro and RER along with Transilien, London's tube lines of the Underground and the Overground, Thameslink along with other commuter rail operators, Madrid's Metro and Cercanías, Barcelona's Metro and Rodalies, Tokyo's subway and the JR lines along with various owned and operated commuter rail systems. In Germany the S-Bahn is regarded as a train category of its own, exists in many large cities and in some other areas, but there are differing service and technical standards from city to city. Most S-Bahns behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city; the distances between stations however, are short. In larger systems there is a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into.
Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Frankfurt. S-Bahns do exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and little exclusive trackage. In Berlin, the S-Bahn systems arguably fulfill all considerations of a true metro system (despite the existence of U-Ba
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is the center of the Greater Richmond Region. Richmond was incorporated in 1742 and has been an independent city since 1871; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 204,214. The Richmond Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,260,029, the third-most populous metro in the state. Richmond is located at the fall line of the James River, 44 miles west of Williamsburg, 66 miles east of Charlottesville, 100 miles east of Lynchburg and 90 miles south of Washington, D. C. Surrounded by Henrico and Chesterfield counties, the city is located at the intersections of Interstate 95 and Interstate 64, encircled by Interstate 295, Virginia State Route 150 and Virginia State Route 288. Major suburbs include Midlothian to the southwest, Chesterfield to the south, Varina to the southeast, Sandston to the east, Glen Allen to the north and west, Short Pump to the west and Mechanicsville to the northeast; the site of Richmond had been an important village of the Powhatan Confederacy, was settled by English colonists from Jamestown in 1609, in 1610–1611.
The present city of Richmond was founded in 1737. It became Dominion of Virginia in 1780, replacing Williamsburg. During the Revolutionary War period, several notable events occurred in the city, including Patrick Henry's "Give me liberty or give me death" speech in 1775 at St. John's Church, the passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom written by Thomas Jefferson. During the American Civil War, Richmond served as the second and permanent capital of the Confederate States of America; the city entered the 20th century with one of the world's first successful electric streetcar systems. The Jackson Ward neighborhood is a national hub of African-American culture. Richmond's economy is driven by law and government, with federal and local governmental agencies, as well as notable legal and banking firms, located in the downtown area; the city is home to both the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, one of 13 United States courts of appeals, the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, one of 12 Federal Reserve Banks.
Dominion Energy and WestRock, Fortune 500 companies, are headquartered in the city, with others in the metropolitan area. After the first permanent English-speaking settlement was established in April 1607, at Jamestown, Captain Christopher Newport led explorers northwest up the James River, to an area, inhabited by Powhatan Native Americans; the earliest European settlement in the Central Virginia area was in 1611 at Henricus, where the Falling Creek empties into the James River. In 1619, early Virginia Company settlers struggling to establish viable moneymaking industries established the Falling Creek Ironworks. After decades of territorial conflicts with native tribes, the Falls of the James became more to white settlement in the late 1600s and early 1700s. In 1737, planter William Byrd II commissioned Major William Mayo to lay out the original town grid. Byrd named the city "Richmond" after the English town of Richmond near London, because the view of the James River was strikingly similar to the view of the River Thames from Richmond Hill in England, where he had spent time during his youth.
The settlement was laid out in April 1737, was incorporated as a town in 1742. In 1775, Patrick Henry delivered his famous "Give me Liberty or Give me Death" speech in St. John's Church in Richmond, crucial for deciding Virginia's participation in the First Continental Congress and setting the course for revolution and independence. On April 18, 1780, the state capital was moved from the colonial capital of Williamsburg to Richmond, to provide a more centralized location for Virginia's increasing westerly population, as well as to isolate the capital from British attack; the latter motive proved to be in vain, in 1781, under the command of Benedict Arnold, Richmond was burned by British troops, causing Governor Thomas Jefferson to flee as the Virginia militia, led by Sampson Mathews, defended the city. Richmond recovered from the war, by 1782 was once again a thriving city. In 1786, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom was passed at the temporary capitol in Richmond, providing the basis for the separation of church and state, a key element in the development of the freedom of religion in the United States.
A permanent home for the new government, the Greek Revival style of the Virginia State Capitol building, was designed by Thomas Jefferson with the assistance of Charles-Louis Clérisseau, was completed in 1788. After the American Revolutionary War, Richmond emerged as an important industrial center. To facilitate the transfer of cargo from the flat-bottomed James River bateaux above the fall line to the ocean-faring ships below, an enterprising George Washington helped design the James River and Kanawha Canal from Westham east to Richmond, in the 18th century to bypass Richmond's rapids on the upper James River with the intent of providing a water route across the Appalachian Mountains to the Kanawha River flowing westward into the Ohio eventually to the Mississippi River; the legacy of the canal boatmen is represented by the figure in the center of the city flag. As a result of this and ample access to hydropower due to the falls, Richmond became home to some of the largest manufacturing facilities in the country, including iron works and flour mills, the largest facilities of their kind in The South.
The resistance to the s
Science Museum station (GRTC)
Science Museum station, located at the corner of Broad and Alison, is a bus station site of the GRTC Bus Rapid Transit route. Planned to be the Hermitage-Meadow station, the station was renamed Allison in the planning process, but in January 2018 was renamed again to Science Museum station. Science Museum station