The Global System for Mobile Communications is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as mobile phones and tablets. It was first deployed in Finland in December 1991. By the mid-2010s, it became a global standard for mobile communications achieving over 90% market share, operating in over 193 countries and territories.2G networks developed as a replacement for first generation analog cellular networks. The GSM standard described a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony; this expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit-switched transport by packet data transport via General Packet Radio Service, Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution. Subsequently, the 3GPP developed third-generation UMTS standards, followed by fourth-generation LTE Advanced standards, which do not form part of the ETSI GSM standard.
"GSM" is a trade mark owned by the GSM Association. It may refer to the most common voice codec used, Full Rate. In 1983, work began to develop a European standard for digital cellular voice telecommunications when the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations set up the Groupe Spécial Mobile committee and provided a permanent technical-support group based in Paris. Five years in 1987, 15 representatives from 13 European countries signed a memorandum of understanding in Copenhagen to develop and deploy a common cellular telephone system across Europe, EU rules were passed to make GSM a mandatory standard; the decision to develop a continental standard resulted in a unified, standard-based network, larger than that in the United States. In February 1987 Europe produced the first agreed GSM Technical Specification. Ministers from the four big EU countries cemented their political support for GSM with the Bonn Declaration on Global Information Networks in May and the GSM MoU was tabled for signature in September.
The MoU drew in mobile operators from across Europe to pledge to invest in new GSM networks to an ambitious common date. In this short 38-week period the whole of Europe had been brought behind GSM in a rare unity and speed guided by four public officials: Armin Silberhorn, Stephen Temple, Philippe Dupuis, Renzo Failli. In 1989 the Groupe Spécial Mobile committee was transferred from CEPT to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute. In parallel France and Germany signed a joint development agreement in 1984 and were joined by Italy and the UK in 1986. In 1986, the European Commission proposed reserving the 900 MHz spectrum band for GSM; the former Finnish prime minister Harri Holkeri made the world's first GSM call on July 1, 1991, calling Kaarina Suonio using a network built by Nokia and Siemens and operated by Radiolinja. The following year saw the sending of the first short messaging service message, Vodafone UK and Telecom Finland signed the first international roaming agreement.
Work began in 1991 to expand the GSM standard to the 1800 MHz frequency band and the first 1800 MHz network became operational in the UK by 1993, called and DCS 1800. That year, Telecom Australia became the first network operator to deploy a GSM network outside Europe and the first practical hand-held GSM mobile phone became available. In 1995 fax, data and SMS messaging services were launched commercially, the first 1900 MHz GSM network became operational in the United States and GSM subscribers worldwide exceeded 10 million. In the same year, the GSM Association formed. Pre-paid GSM SIM cards were launched in 1996 and worldwide GSM subscribers passed 100 million in 1998. In 2000 the first commercial GPRS services were launched and the first GPRS-compatible handsets became available for sale. In 2001, the first UMTS network was launched, a 3G technology, not part of GSM. Worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded 500 million. In 2002, the first Multimedia Messaging Service was introduced and the first GSM network in the 800 MHz frequency band became operational.
EDGE services first became operational in a network in 2003, the number of worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded 1 billion in 2004. By 2005 GSM networks accounted for more than 75% of the worldwide cellular network market, serving 1.5 billion subscribers. In 2005, the first HSDPA-capable network became operational; the first HSUPA network launched in 2007. Worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded three billion in 2008; the GSM Association estimated in 2011 that technologies defined in the GSM standard served 80% of the mobile market, encompassing more than 5 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories, making GSM the most ubiquitous of the many standards for cellular networks. GSM is a second-generation standard employing time-division multiple-Access spectrum-sharing, issued by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute; the GSM standard does not include the 3G Universal Mobile Telecommunications System code division multiple access technology nor the 4G LTE orthogonal frequency-division multiple access technology standards issued by the 3GPP.
GSM, for the first time, set a common standard for Europe for wireless networks. It was adopted by many countries outside Europe; this allowed subscribers to use other GSM networks. The common standard reduced research and development costs, since hardware
Alheim is a community in Hersfeld-Rotenburg district in northeastern Hesse, Germany. It is named after nearby Alheimer Mountain. Alheim consist of 10 former souverain villages situated on both banks of the river Fulda; the community lies in Hersfeld-Rotenburg district some 35 km southeast of Kassel and a few kilometres northwest of Rotenburg an der Fulda. It stretches along both banks of the Fulda into the Stölzinger Gebirge. In this latter range the community’s landmark can be found, the 549 m-high Alheimer. Alheim’s Ortsteile are Baumbach, Hergershausen, Niederellenbach, Oberellenbach, Obergude and Heinebach; the population is some 5,300, of whom more than 2,500 live in Heinebach, the biggest of the ten constituent communities and Alheim’s economic hub. Alheim borders in the north on the community of Morschen and the town of Spangenberg, in the east on the town of Rotenburg an der Fulda, in the south on the community of Ludwigsau and in the west on the community of Knüllwald; the municipal election held on 26 March 2006 yielded the following results: The last mayoral elections yielded the following results: In the last mayoral election on 14 September 2008, the incumbent mayor Georg Lüdtke was reëlected with 65.6% of the vote against independent Lothar Schäfer, who got 26.0%, Michael Werner, who got 8.4%.
Zandhoven, Antwerp province, Belgium since 2001The partnership began in 1971 when one came into being between Heinebach, now Alheim’s biggest centre, Pulle, which has since become part of Zandhoven. Within the framework of municipal reform, the villages named above were merged into the new community of Alheim on 1 August 1972. Walking loops, each based on a theme, have been built. Foremost among these are the mining history learning and adventure path, the water adventure path and the cultural history hiking loop A popular outing or hiking destination is the Alheimer-Turm on the like-named mountain in the Stölzinger Gebirge; the churches in some of the community’s centres have been preserved with their mediaeval defensive walls. On the Heineberg, remains of a wall are preserved stemming from fortifications built in the 8th or 10th century. During digs in 1974, an early mediaeval church’s foundation was unearthed. Franz Christian Gundlach, fashion photographer and curator Manfred Siebald, Christian songwriter Sterkelshausen Heinebach Obergude Alheim at Curlie
Sky Ireland Limited is a subsidiary of Comcast-owned Sky and supplies television and telephony services in Ireland. Its corporate headquarters are in Dublin which were opened by Taoiseach Enda Kenny on 18 January 2013. Sky's broadband services are unlimited. Sky Ireland employs around 900 staff in Dublin. In 1998 Sky Digital launched its digital television services within Ireland. Sky Ireland provides opt-out feeds of key Sky television channels which includes Sky One, Sky Sports, Sky News and Sky Atlantic. Sky Media Ireland is the media sales arm of Sky Ireland, they sell advertising opportunities across all of Sky's wholly owned channels including Sky One, Sky Living, Sky Atlantic, Sky News and Sky Sports. In addition, they sell on behalf of media partners including Viacom International Media Networks Europe and Discovery Networks Northern Europe. Sky operated an Irish version of Sky News called Sky News Ireland from 2004 to 2006; as of January 2013: The company has 500 workers that work from its contact centre with a possible increase of 1,000 by year end.
BSkyB chief executive Jermey Darroch announced on 18 January 2013 that Sky Ireland will invest a further €1 billion over the next five years in Ireland. As of September 2013: Sky Ireland now employ 800 people at its Dublin base. Sky Ireland have confirmed they expect to invest €1.25 billion with expansion into the Irish market with Irish specific productions and further expansion of its existing Irish telecommunications company. In October 2013 Sky Ireland Launched the On Demand service to its Irish customers. December 2013 Sky launched Ireland's biggest Catch-up TV Service. In 2017 Now TV was launched in the Republic of Ireland; when Sky Digital was launched in 1998 the new service used the Astra 2A satellite, located at the 28.5°E orbital position, unlike the analogue service, broadcast from 19.2°E. This was subsequently followed by more Astra satellites as well as Eutelsat's Eurobird 1 at 28.5°E), enabled the company to launch a new all-digital service, with the potential to carry hundreds of television and radio channels.
The old position was shared with broadcasters from several European countries, while the new position at 28.5°E came to be used exclusively for channels that broadcast to the United Kingdom and Ireland. New Astra satellites joined the position in 2000 and 2001, the number of channels available to customers increased accordingly; this trend continued with the launch of Eurobird 1 in 2001. Additionally, some channels received new numbering — However, in early 2006, the majority of channels received new numbering, with some receiving single digit changes, whilst others received new numbers entirely. Sky is transmitted from the Astra satellites located at 28.2° east and Eutelsat's Eutelsat 28A satellite at 28.5°E. Sky's standard definition broadcasts are in DVB-compliant MPEG-2, with the Sky Movies and Sky Box Office channels including optional Dolby Digital soundtracks for recent films, although these are only accessible with a Sky+ box. Sky+ HD material is broadcast using MPEG-4 and most of the HD material uses the DVB-S2 standard.
Interactive services and 7-day EPG use the proprietary OpenTV system, with set-top boxes including modems for a return path. Sky News, amongst other channels, provides a pseudo-video on demand interactive service by broadcasting looping video streams. Sky utilises the VideoGuard pay-TV scrambling system owned by a Cisco Systems company. There are tight controls over use of VideoGuard decoders. Sky has design authority over all digital satellite receivers capable of receiving their service; the receivers, though designed and built by different manufacturers, must conform to the same user interface look-and-feel as all the others. This extends to the Personal video recorder offering. Sky maintains an electronic programme guide which provides information about upcoming programmes and a list of channels. Channels available on Sky are assigned a three digit logical channel number which can be entered on a remote control to access the channel and determines in what order channels are listed; the EPG in Ireland gives priority to Irish channels.
All channels are grouped into categories depending on their content. What section of the EPG a channel gets allocated is determined by rules set up by Sky Ireland. Sky Ireland has no veto over the presence of channels on their EPG. Any channel which can get carriage on a suitable beam of a satellite at 28° East is entitled to access to Sky's EPG for a fee. Third-party channels which opt for encryption receive discounts ranging from reduced price to free EPG entries, free carriage on a Sky leased transponder, or actual payment for being carried; however in this case, Sky does not carry any control over the channel's content or carriage issues such as picture quality. In October 2007, Sky's parent company Sky plc announced that they would not accept new applications to launch channel on their EPG, citing "very significant memory constraints" on many of its older digiboxes. In June 2012, Sky Ireland launched a new EPG for Sky+ HD boxes; the update boasts improved functionality. The Sky EPG lists. Many channels are free, others are available only with a subscription.
Channels on this list are owned by Sky and broadcast adverstising for the Irish market. Sky One Sky Two Sky Atlantic Sky Witness Sky News Pick Challenge TV Sky Sports Racing Sky SportsSome other channels available on the Sky platform carry Irish advertising, such as the channels provided by Channel 4. Sky subscribers in Ireland have
Frank Stockwell was an Irish sportsman who played Gaelic football with his local club Tuam Stars and was a member of the Galway and London inter-county teams at various periods from 1949 until 1960. Stockwell is regarded as Galway's greatest-ever full forward. Stockwell began his inter-county career in 1949, at the age of 19, he continued to play for Galway until 1950. This led to Stockwell playing for the Louth seniors in 1950 and 1951, he returned to Galway for the 1952 Championship and revived a devastating attacking partnership with his Tuam Stars teammate and friend, Sean Purcell. Lining out at full forward, his ability to finish the chances created by Purcell brought considerable success to Galway in their overall consistency during the 1950s. In 1956, he won an All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, beating Cork in the final by 2–13 to 3–07; the final was most notable for Stockwell scoring a then-record 2-05. He was unlucky not to add to that tally. Although this scoring tally was surpassed in years, his achievement was more remarkable given that it occurred during a 60-minute final, a record that seems unlikely to be broken.
He retired from inter-county football in 1960. At club level and Purcells partnership proved to be more effective on the county scene as Tuam Stars dominated Galway football during the 50s. Having won a Minor title in 1946, Stockwell went on to win 9 senior county titles with Tuam, including an amazing 7 in a row from 1954 to 1960. Aside from his football career, Stockwell was a Connacht Champion Boxer. After retiring from playing, Stockwell remained in the game, he was a selector and contributor to the Galway 3 in a row team during 1964–66 and again from 1980–81. As well being selector twice for his home club, Stockwell became president of Tuam Stars in 2006 remaining in the position before his death. In 1999, a new road in Tuam was named after both Stockwell. In April 2007, special plaques honouring three legendary Tuam GAA figures were unveiled at Tuam Stadium; the plaques were erected to mark the lifetime of dedicated service to the stadium by the late Miko Kelly, the honour and glory brought to the famous venue, to their town and county by the "Terrible Twins", Stockwell and Purcell.
Frank Stockwell died on 9 March 2009 at his home in Tuam, County Galway, from undisclosed causes, aged 80. A large crowd turned out in Tuam for the funeral, similar as it was for Purcell who predeceased Stockwell in 2005. John Joe Holleran, Galway football board chairmen said, "He was an iconic figure during what turned out to be a glorious period for Galway football. Generations have grown up in Galway hearing about their exploits and it was an privilege for us to see them in action." 1956 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship
The Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of Georgia is a governmental body responsible for education system and children's services in Georgia. Ministry of Education works under the Minister of Science of Georgia; the ministry is located on Uzandze street in Tbilisi in a historical building built in Mauritanic style. Giorgi Laskhishvili, 26 May 1918 – 21 March 1919 Noe Ramishvili, 21 March 1919 – 1920 Grigol Lortkipanidze, 1920 – 1921 Mamia Orakhelashvili, 1921 – 1922 David Kandelaki, 1922 – 1929 Gaioz Devdariani, 1929 – 1931 Mamia Orakhelashvili, 1931 – 1933 Ermillo Bedia, 1933 – 1934 Akaki Tatarashvili, 1934 – 1936 Malakia Toroshelidze, 1936 – 1937 Kote Chkuaseli, 1937 Ermile Burchuladze, 1937 – 1938 George Kiknadze, 1938 – 1944 Viktor Kupradze, 1944 – 1953 Giorgi Jibladze, 1953 – 1960 Tamar Lashkarashvili, 1960 – 1976 Otar Kinkladze, 1976 – 1986 Natela Vasadze, 1986 – 1988 Guram Enukidze, 1988 – 1990 Lia Andguladze, 1990 – 1991 Elizbar Javelidze, 1991 – 1992 Gucha Kvaratskhelia, 13 January, 1992 – 20 December, 1992 Kote Gabashvili, 1992 – 1993 Tamaz Kvachantiradze, 1993 – 1998 Aleksandre Kartozia, 6 August, 1998 – 17 February, 2004 Alexander Lomaia, 17 February 2004 – 19 November 2007 Maia Miminoshvili, 22 November 2007 – 31 January 2008 Ghia Nodia, 31 January 2008 – 27 October 2008 Nika Gvaramia, 27 October 2008 – 8 December 2009 Dimitri Shashkin, 8 December 2009 – 4 July 2012 Khatia Dekanoidze, 4 July 2012 – 25 October 2012 Giorgi Margvelashvili, 25 October 2012 – 18 July 2013 Tamar Sanikidze, 18 July 2013 – 3 June 2016 Aleksandre Jejelava, 3 June 2016 – 20 June 2018 Mikheil Chkhenkeli, 20 June 2018 – 14 July 2018 Mikheil Batiashvili, 12 July 2018 – 7 November 2019 Mikheil Chkhenkeli, 13 November 2019 – Present Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia
Raymundo Cuesta Veloz was a Mexican Luchador or professional wrestler best known under the ring name Kung Fu. As Kung Fu he made a name for himself as part of Trio Fantásticos along with Kato Kung Lee and Black Man, a popular tecnico trio in the early 1980s. Raymundo Cuesta made his professional wrestling debut in 1968, using the ring name Ray Acosta, working low card matches while gaining experience. On August 4, 1974 Cuesta lost a Luchas de Apuesta, or bet match, to Villano III and had his hair shaved off after the match per. Lucha libre traditions. In the early 1970s Cuesta adopted a new ring persona, an enmascarado character called El Estudiante. In 1975 Cuesta changed ring characters once again, although he would reprise his role as "El Estudiente" from time to time. Cuesta drew on his interest in martial arts and came up with the ring character "Kung Fu", an enmascarado inspired by the martial art and its practitioners. Cuesta had a black and orange mask created that would become his trademark for many years, he wore martial artist pants and jackets and started to incorporate various kicks and chops into his wrestling style.
Kung Fu's debut match was a tag team match where he would team with El Santo against Ángel Blanco and Ray Mendoza, an indicator that the promoters were pushing the new character to the top of the card. His wrestling style of wrestling, martial arts and various comedic elements earned Kung Fu a lot of fans. On September 26, 1977 Kung Fu defeated Fishman to win the Mexican National Welterweight Championship, holding the belt until November 23, 1977 when Fishman regained the title. Kung Fu regained the title from Fishman on April 2, 1978 and went on to hold it for six months before losing the title to Américo Rocca on December 10, 1978. Around the time of his title victory Kung Fu was teamed up with Kato Kung Lee, a Panamanian wrestler who used the same combination of wrestling and martial arts as Kung Fu did. Together the team won the Arena Coliseo Tag Team Championship at least two times; the team won the masks of Los Jaliscos in a Luchas de Apuestas, mask vs. mask match. In 1979 the team was joined by Satoru Sayama, forming a trio known as El Triangulo Oriental, despite only Sayama being from the orient.
In mid 1981 Kung Fu and Kato Kung Lee left Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre and joined the rival promotion Universal Wrestling Association. In the UWA Kung Fu and Kato began teaming with Black Man, forming a trio called Los Tres Fantásticos that would soon become the top tecnico trio of the UWA. Los Tres Fantásticos became the first UWA World Trios Championship on March 18, 1984 when they defeated Solar, Super Astro and Ultraman in the finals of a tournament to crown the first champions, during a time period where the UWA shows in El Toreo were the biggest drawing shows in Mexico. Kung Fu, Kato and Black Man lost the UWA Trios title at some point in 1984. In 1984/85 EMLL and the UWA ran a series of joint shows, sharing wrestlers between the two promotions, including Los Tres Fantásticos; when the cooperation ended Kung Fu decided to stay with EMLL, Black Man remained with the UWA and Kato Kung Lee began wrestling on the independent circuit, ending Los Tres Fantásticos. Several attempts to recreated the Fantásticos have been made since but none had the popularity of success of the original trio.
On October 17, 1986 Kung Fu won the NWA World Middleweight Championship from Gran Cochisse, winning one of the top championships in all of Mexico. Kung Fu held the title for 10 months before losing the title to El Dandy on July 17, 1987. Kung Fu regained the title on October 6, 1987 and held it until July 10, 1988 where he lost it to Atlantis. By the time Kung Fu lost the NWA title Kato Kung Lee had returned to EMLL, he had turned rudo and lost his mask in a match against El Hijo del Santo. Kung Fu and Kato Kung Lee started a storyline feud, old partners who are now enemies; the feud between the two saw Kung Fu win two Luchas de Apuestas in 1988, both times causing Kato Kung Lee to be shaved bald after the match. In 1990 Kung Fu worked a feud with Atlantis, a feud that let to Kung Fu being unmasked on October 26, 1990 as he lost a Luchas de Apuestas match. After losing his mask Kung Fu seemed to have lost a step or two in the ring, losing part of appeal when he lost the mask, something, not uncommon in Lucha libre.
After his mask loss Kung Fu turned rudo. After an initial push as a rudo Kung Fu started to sink in the ranks, being used more and more to help young wrestlers gain experience and make them look good. Kung Fu remained with EMLL until 1994. Around the same time Cuesta introduced "Kung Fu, Jr." to the wrestling world, unlike some family relationships in Lucha libre that are fictional Kung Fu, Jr. is the son of Raymundo Cuesta. After touring with Kung Fu, Jr. for a while Cuesta went into semi-retirement and began working for the Mexican Government instead. He made occasional appearances for years, never retiring from wrestling. On January 3, 2001 Raymundo Cuesta Veloz died from arterial hyper tension, no one had reported that Cuesta had felt ill up to the day he died and he is believed to have died in his sleep. Cuesta was not found until January 5. Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre Arena Coliseo Tag Team Championship – with Kato Kung Lee Mexican National Welterweight Championship NWA World Middle