TsUM — Central Universal Department Store is a high end department stores in Moscow. The store is in a six-story historical Gothic Revival style building on Petrovka Street at Theatre Square in the Tverskoy District of central Moscow; the TsUM interiors have been refurbished many times, most in 2007. TsUM is a part of the Mercury Group. TsUM is the largest fashion department store in Eastern Europe, it carries more than 1000 brands of apparel, a perfumery and jewelry, as well as “TsUM Globus Gourmet”, a fusion restaurant, a cigar room, a café, champagne bar “Veuve Clicquot”. TsUM seasonal collections have been supported by advertising campaigns featuring fashion stars Cindy Crawford, Milla Jovovich, Naomi Campbell, Daria Werbowy, Malgosia Bela, Mathias Lauridsen. Notable couturiers Roland Mouret, Ralph Rucci, Carolina Herrera, Dennis Basso, Michael Kors and Victoria Beckham have participated in TsUM events, introducing their newest collections to TsUM clients in person. TsUM offers clients additional services, including VIP shopping and professional stylists’ advice, cosmetic procedures and lectures on modern art.
In 1857 merchants Andrew Muir and Archibald Mirrielees, who had arrived in St. Petersburg separately, founded the “Muir and Mirrielees” Trading Company. Archibald Mirrielees was resident in St. Petersburg from 1822. In 1843 he established one of the most significant Anglo-Russian merchant houses. In the 1880s the company transferred from St. Petersburg to Moscow and acquired a building for their haberdashery shop in Theatre Square, their new building was erected there in 1908 in the Gothic Revival style with some modern elements. The project was designed by the famous Russian architect Roman Klein. “Muir and Mirrielees” was the first and the largest department store in the last days of the Russian Empire. The store attracted the highest public interest: “In the eyes of the Muscovites “Muir and Mirrielees” is a kind of exhibition of everything, on sale in the capital, be it for the rich and the high society, or for the middle-class customers" wrote one of the contemporaries; the store delivered throughout the Russian empire.
The company established other stores. The company was nationalised during the Russian Revolution and the assets confiscated in 1918 by the Bolsheviks, who renamed "Muir & Mirrielees", first to "MosTorg" in 1922 and to TsUM. In 2013 the European Capital Investment Fund, owner of the majority of TsUM's shares, forced a buyout from minority shareholders; the TsUM branch in Barvikha Luxury Village opened in April 2008. The TsUM Outlet opened in June 2009 in Mega Teply Stan, is a discount store carrying the preceding season's collections of TsUM brands. TsUM has participated in a number of charitable projects: in September 2009 TsUM organized an action to support orphans, in March 2010 a photo-project to support the struggle against cancer was presented. Exhibitions and art projects are supported by TsUM Art Foundation; as a part of the II Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art in 2007 TsUM presented the “American video-art” project. It was followed by Yoko Ono’s solo exhibition “The Odyssey of Cockroach”, the exhibition of Chinese art “China, forward!”, Oleg Kulik’s “MOSCOW.
TsUM” installation project in 2009. Official TsUM website
Red Square is a city square in Moscow, Russia. It separates the Kremlin, the former royal citadel and now the official residence of the President of Russia, from a historic merchant quarter known as Kitai-gorod. Red Square is considered to be the central square of Moscow since the city's major streets, which connect to Russia's major highways, originate in the square; the name Red Square originates neither from the pigment of the surrounding bricks nor from the link between the colour red and communism. Rather, the name came about because the Russian word красная, which means "red" is related to the word красивая meaning "beautiful," was applied to a small area between St. Basil's Cathedral, the Spassky Tower of the Kremlin, the herald's platform called Lobnoe Mesto, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich extended the name to the entire square, called Pozhar, or "burnt-out place", in reference to the fact that several buildings had to be burned down to make place for the square. Several ancient Russian towns, such as Suzdal and Pereslavl-Zalessky, have their main square named Krasnaya ploshchad.
The rich history of Red Square is reflected in many paintings by Vasily Surikov, Konstantin Yuon and others. The square was meant to serve as Moscow's main marketplace, it was the site of various public ceremonies and proclamations, a coronation for Russia's Tsars would take place. The square has been built up since that point and has been used for official ceremonies by all Russian governments since it was established; the East side of the Kremlin triangle, lying adjacent to Red Square and situated between the rivers Moskva and the now underground Neglinnaya River was deemed the most vulnerable side of the Kremlin to attack, since it was neither protected by the rivers, nor any other natural barriers, as the other sides were. Therefore, the Kremlin wall was built to its greatest height on this side, the Italian architects involved in the building of these fortifications convinced Ivan the Great to clear the area outside of the walls to create a field for shooting; the relevant decrees were issued in 1493 and 1495.
They called for the demolition of all buildings within 110 sazhens of the wall. From 1508 to 1516, the Italian architect Aloisio the New arranged for the construction of a moat in front of the Eastern wall, which would connect the Moskva and Neglinnaya and be filled in with water from Neglinnaya; this moat, known as the Alevizov moat having a length of 541 metres, width of 36 metres, a depth of 9.5–13 m was lined with limestone and, in 1533, fenced on both sides with low, 4‑metre thick cogged brick walls. Three square gates existed on this side of the wall, which in the 17th century, were known as: Konstantino-Eleninsky, Nikolsky; the last two are directly opposite Red Square, while the Konstantino-Elenensky gate was located behind Saint Basil's Cathedral. In the early 19th century, the Arch of Konstantino-Elenensky gate was paved with bricks, but the Spassky Gate was the main front gate of the Kremlin and used for royal entrances. From this gate and stone bridges stretched across the moat. Books were sold on this bridge and stone platforms were built nearby for guns – "raskats".
The Tsar Cannon was located on the platform of the Lobnoye mesto. The square was called Veliky Torg or Torg Troitskaya by the name of the small Troitskaya Church, burnt down in the great fire during the Tatar invasion in 1571. After that, the square held the name Pozhar, which means "burnt", it was not until 1661 -- 62. Red Square was the landing trade centre for Moscow. Ivan the Great decreed that trade should only be conducted from person to person, but in time, these rules were relaxed and permanent market buildings began appearing on the square. After a fire in 1547, Ivan the Terrible reorganised the lines of wooden shops on the Eastern side into market lines; the streets Ilyinka and Varvarka were divided into the Upper lines, Middle lines and Bottom lines, although Bottom Lines were in Zaryadye). After a few years, the Cathedral of Intercession of the Virgin known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, was built on the moat under the rule of Ivan IV; this was the first building. In 1595, the wooden market lines were replaced with stone.
By that time, a brick platform for the proclamation of the tsar's edicts, known as Lobnoye Mesto, had been constructed. Red Square was considered a sacred place. Various festive processions were held there, during Palm Sunday, the famous "procession on a donkey" was arranged, in which the patriarch, sitting on a donkey, accompanied by the tsar and the people went out of Saint Basil's Cathedral in the Kremlin. During the expulsion of Poles from Moscow in 1612, Prince Dmitry Pozharsky entered the Kremlin through the square. In memory of this event, he built the Kazan Cathedral – in honour of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God, followed his army in a campaign. At the same time, Spasskaya tower received contemporary tent roofs; this was done on the proposal and the draught of Christopher Galloway from Scotland, summoned to design the new tower's clock and suggeste
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
William Craft Brumfield
William Craft Brumfield is a contemporary American historian of Russian architecture, a preservationist and an architectural photographer. Brumfield is Professor of Slavic studies at Tulane University. Brumfield grew up in the deep American South, where he became interested in Russia by reading Russian novels. After receiving a BA from Tulane University in 1966 and an MA from the University of California, Berkeley in 1968, he arrived in the former Soviet Union for the first time in 1970 as a graduate student starting work in architectural photography, although he did not study the craft of photography until 1974. Brumfield earned a Ph. D in Slavic studies at the University of California, Berkeley in 1973 and held a position of assistant professor at Harvard University in 1974–1980. In 1983 Brumfield a generalist of Slavic studies, established himself in the history of architecture with his first book, Gold in azure: one thousand years of Russian architecture, it was followed by The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture, Russian housing in the modern age: design and social history, A History of Russian Architecture, Lost Russia: Photographing the Ruins of Russian Architecture, Landmarks of Russian Architecture: A Photographic Survey and Commerce in Russian urban culture: 1861-1914.
In 1986 Brumfield organized the first exhibit of photographic prints from the Prokudin-Gorsky Collection at the Library of Congress. Since that time Brumfield has been engaged in the study of Prokudin-Gorsky's photographs, including several publications for the site "Russia Beyond the Headlines". Brumfield lived in the former Soviet Union and Russia for a total of thirteen years, doing postgraduate research with Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University, but travelling through the northern country and photographing the surviving relics of vernacular architecture. In a 2005 interview Brumfield, asked to tell which of those journeys stood out, picked a photo survey of Varzuga, a remote village connected to civilization by 150 kilometers of a sandy clay track. Brumfield donated his collection of around 1,100 photographs of Northern Russian architecture taken in 1999–2003 to the Library of Congress, his archives were digitized with assistance of the National Endowment for the Humanities and the University of Washington Library.
The basic collection of Brumfield's photographic work is held in the Department of Images Collections at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. The William C. Brumfield Collection consists of 12,500 black-and-white 8" x10" photographic prints and over 55,000 digital files, most of which are in color. In 2000 Brumfield was elected a Guggenheim Fellow for Humanities - Russian History, he has been a full member of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences since 2002 and an honorary fellow of the Russian Academy of the Arts since 2006. He holds the record for most domes captured in a single photograph. In 2014 the D. S. Likhachev Foundation in St. Petersburg awarded Brumfield the D. S. Likhachev Prize "for outstanding contributions to the preservation of the historic and cultural heritage of Russia." Gold in azure: one thousand years of Russian architecture The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture Russian housing in the modern age: design and social history A History of Russian Architecture Lost Russia: Photographing the Ruins of Russian Architecture Landmarks of Russian Architecture: A Photographic Survey Commerce in Russian urban culture: 1861—1914 Architecture at the End of the Earth: Photographing the Russian North With financial support from the Kennan Institute, the publisher «Три квадрата» began in 2005 to release the series Открывая Россию/Discovering Russia by Brumfield: Totma: Architectural Heritage in Photographs Irkutsk: Architectural Heritage in Photographs Tobolsk: Architectural Heritage in Photographs Solikamsk: Architectural Heritage in Photographs Cherdyn: Architectural Heritage in Photographs Kargopol: Architectural Heritage in Photographs Chita: Architectural Heritage in Photographs Buriatiia: Architectural Heritage in Photographs Solovki: Architectural Heritage in Photographs Kolomna: Architectural Heritage in Photographs Suzdal: Architectural Heritage in Photographs Torzhok: Architectural Heritage in Photographs Usol'e: Architectural Heritage in Photographs Smolensk: Architectural Heritage in Photographs Chukhloma Region: Architectural Heritage in Photographs = Чухломский край: архитектурное наследие в фотографиях.
ISBN 978-5-94607-208-3 Pereslavl-Zalesskii: Architectural Heritage in Photographs = Переславль-Залесский: архитектурное наследие в фотографиях. ISBN 978-5-94607-222-9With financial support from the "Vologodskie Zori" Fund, the publisher «Три квадрата» began in 2005 to release the Vologda series by Brumfield on the architectural heritage of the Vologda region: Vologda Album Velikii Ustiug Kirillov. Ferapontovo Ustiuzhna Belozersk Vologda Cherepovets: Architectural Heritage of the Cherepovets Region, Moscow: Tri Kvadrata Publishers, 2017, ISBN 978-5-94607-218-2. Other publications: Brumfield, William С. Appointment in Dauria: George Kennan, George Frost, the Architectural Context, Harriman Review, 18, New York: Harriman Institute, Columbia University, pp. 3–57, archived from the original on 27 November 201
New Economic Policy
The New Economic Policy was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin in 1921 as a temporary expedient. Lenin characterized the NEP in 1922 as an economic system that would include "a free market and capitalism, both subject to state control", while socialized state enterprises would operate on "a profit basis"; the NEP represented a more market-oriented economic policy to foster the economy of the country, which had suffered since 1914. The Soviet authorities revoked the complete nationalization of industry and introduced a system of mixed economy which allowed private individuals to own small enterprises, while the state continued to control banks, foreign trade, large industries. In addition, the NEP abolished prodrazvyorstka and introduced prodnalog: a tax on farmers, payable in the form of raw agricultural product; the Bolshevik government adopted the NEP in the course of the 10th Congress of the All-Russian Communist Party and promulgated it by a decree on 21 March 1921: "On the Replacement of Prodrazvyorstka by Prodnalog".
Further decrees refined the policy. Other policies included the attraction of foreign capital; the NEP policy created. Joseph Stalin abolished the NEP in 1928. In November 1917, the Bolsheviks seized control of key centres in Russia; this led to the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922, which pitted the Bolsheviks and their allies against the Whites and other counter-revolutionary forces. During this period the Bolsheviks attempted to administer Russia's economy purely by decree, a policy of the War Communism. Farmers and factory workers were ordered to produce, food and goods were seized and issued by decree. While this policy enabled the Bolshevik regime to overcome some initial difficulties, it soon caused economic disruptions and hardships. Producers who were not directly compensated for their labor stopped working, leading to widespread shortages. Combined with the devastation of the war, these were major hardships for the Russian people and diminished popular support for the Bolsheviks. At the end of the Civil War, the Bolsheviks controlled Russian cities, but 80% of the Russian population were peasants.
Although all the fighting had occurred outside urban areas, urban populations decreased substantially. The war disrupted transportation, basic public services. Infectious diseases thrived typhus. Shipments of food and fuel by railroad and by water decreased. City residents first experienced a shortage of heating oil coal, until they resorted to wood. Populations in northern towns declined an average of 24%. Northern towns received less food than towns in the agricultural south. Petrograd alone lost 850,000 people, half of the urban population decline during the Civil War. Hunger and poor conditions drove residents out of cities. Workers migrated south to get peasants' surpluses. Recent migrants to cities left. Urban workers formed the core of Bolshevik support, so the exodus posed a serious problem. Factory production slowed or halted. Factories lacked 30,000 workers in 1919. To survive, city dwellers sold personal valuables, made artisan craft-goods for sale or barter, planted gardens; the acute need for food drove them to obtain 50–60% of food through illegal trading.
The shortage of cash caused the black market to use a barter system, inefficient. Drought and frost led to the Russian famine of 1921, in which millions starved to death in the Volga region, urban support for the Bolshevik party eroded; when no bread arrived in Moscow in 1921, workers became disillusioned. They organised demonstrations against the Bolshevik Party's policy of privileged rations, in which the Red Army, Party members, students received rations first; the Kronstadt rebellion of soldiers and sailors broke out in March 1921, fueled by anarchism and populism. In 1921 Lenin replaced the food requisitioning policy with a tax, signaling the inauguration of the New Economic Policy; the laws sanctioned the co-existence of private and public sectors, which were incorporated in the NEP, which on the other hand was a state oriented "mixed economy". The NEP represented a move away from full nationalization of certain parts of industries; some kinds of foreign investments were expected by the Soviet Union under the NEP, in order to fund industrial and developmental projects with foreign exchange or technology requirements.
The NEP was a new agricultural policy. The Bolsheviks viewed traditional village life as conservative and backward. With the NEP, the state only allowed private landholdings because the idea of collectivized farming had met strong opposition. Lenin understood that economic conditions were dire, so he opened up markets to a greater degree of free trade, hoping to motivate the population to increase production. Under the NEP, not only were "private property, private enterprise, private profit restored in Lenin's Russia," but Lenin's regime turned to international capitalism for assistance, willing to provide "generous concessions to foreign capitalism." Lenin took the position that in order to achieve socialism, he had to create "the missing material prerequisites" of modernization and industrial development that made it imperative for Soviet Russia to "fall back on a centrally supervised market-influenced program of state capitalism". Lenin was following Karl Marx's p
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was a Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from the mid–1920s until 1953 as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Premier. While presiding over a collective leadership as first among equals, he consolidated enough power to become the country's de facto dictator by the 1930s. A communist ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of Marxism, Stalin helped to formalise these ideas as Marxism–Leninism, while his own policies became known as Stalinism. Born to a poor family in Gori, Russian Empire, Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party as a youth, he edited the party's newspaper and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction via robberies and protection rackets. Arrested, he underwent several internal exiles. After the Bolsheviks seized power during the 1917 October Revolution and created a one-party state under Lenin's newly renamed Communist Party, Stalin joined its governing Politburo.
Serving in the Russian Civil War before overseeing the Soviet Union's establishment in 1922, Stalin assumed leadership over the country following Lenin's 1924 death. During Stalin's rule, "Socialism in One Country" became a central tenet of the party's dogma. Under the Five-Year Plans, the country underwent agricultural collectivisation and rapid industrialization, creating a centralized command economy; this led to significant disruptions in food production that contributed to the famine of 1932–33. To eradicate accused "enemies of the working class", Stalin instituted the "Great Purge", in which over a million were imprisoned and at least 700,000 executed between 1934 and 1939. By 1937, he had complete personal control over the state. Stalin's government promoted Marxism–Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported anti-fascist movements throughout Europe during the 1930s in the Spanish Civil War. In 1939, it signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, resulting in the Soviet invasion of Poland.
Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. Despite initial setbacks, the Soviet Red Army repelled the German incursion and captured Berlin in 1945, ending World War II in Europe; the Soviets annexed the Baltic states and helped establish Soviet-aligned governments throughout Central and Eastern Europe and North Korea. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged from the war as the two world superpowers. Tensions arose between the Soviet-backed Eastern Bloc and U. S.-backed Western Bloc which became known as the Cold War. Stalin led his country through its post-war reconstruction, during which it developed a nuclear weapon in 1949. In these years, the country experienced another major famine and an anti-semitic campaign peaking in the Doctors' plot. Stalin died in 1953. Considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Stalin was the subject of a pervasive personality cult within the international Marxist–Leninist movement which revered him as a champion of the working class and socialism.
Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Stalin has retained popularity in Russia and Georgia as a victorious wartime leader who established the Soviet Union as a major world power. Conversely, his totalitarian government has been condemned for overseeing mass repressions, ethnic cleansing, hundreds of thousands of executions, famines which killed millions. Stalin was born in the Georgian town of Gori on 18 December 1878, he was the son of Besarion "Beso" Jughashvili and Ekaterine "Keke" Geladze, who had married in May 1872, had lost two sons in infancy prior to Stalin's birth. They were ethnically Georgian, Stalin grew up speaking the Georgian language. Gori was part of the Russian Empire, was home to a population of 20,000, the majority of whom were Georgian but with Armenian and Jewish minorities. Stalin was baptised on 29 December, he was nicknamed "Soso", a diminutive of "Ioseb". Besarion owned his own workshop; the family found themselves living in poverty, moving through nine different rented rooms in ten years.
Besarion became an alcoholic, drunkenly beat his wife and son. To escape the abusive relationship, Keke took Stalin and moved into the house of a family friend, Fr. Christopher Charkviani, she worked as launderer for local families sympathetic to her plight. Keke was determined to send her son to school, something that none of the family had achieved. In late 1888, aged 10 Stalin enrolled at the Gori Church School; this was reserved for the children of clergy, although Charkviani ensured that the boy received a place. Stalin excelled academically, displaying talent in painting and drama classes, writing his own poetry, singing as a choirboy, he got into many fights, a childhood friend noted that Stalin "was the best but the naughtiest pupil" in the class. Stalin faced several severe health problems. Aged 12, he was injured after being hit by a phaeton, the cause of a lifelong disability to his left arm. At his teachers' recommendation, Stalin proceeded to the Spiritual Seminary in Tiflis, he enrolled at the school in August 1894, enabled by a scholarship that allowed him to study at a reduced rate.
Here he joined 600 trainee priests who boarded at the semina