University of New South Wales
The University of New South Wales is an Australian public research university located in the Sydney suburb of Kensington. Established in 1949, it is ranked 4th in Australia, 45th in the world, 2nd in New South Wales according to the 2018 QS World University Rankings; the university comprises nine faculties, through which it offers bachelor and doctoral degrees. The main campus is located on a 38-hectare site in the Sydney suburb of Kensington, 7 km from the Sydney central business district; the creative arts faculty, UNSW Art & Design, is located in Paddington, UNSW Canberra is located at the Australian Defence Force Academy in Canberra and sub-campuses are located in the Sydney CBD, the suburbs of Randwick and Coogee. Research stations are located throughout the state of New South Wales. UNSW is one of the founding members of the Group of Eight, a coalition of Australian research-intensive universities, of Universitas 21, a global network of research universities, it has international research partnerships with over 200 universities around the world.
The origins of the university can be traced to the Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts established in 1833 and the Sydney Technical College established in 1878. These institutions were established to meet the growing demand for capabilities in new technologies as the New South Wales economy shifted from its pastoral base to industries fueled by the industrial age; the idea of founding the university originated from the crisis demands of World War II, during which the nation's attention was drawn to the critical role that science and technology played in transforming an agricultural society into a modern and industrial one. The post-war Labor government of New South Wales recognised the increasing need to have a university specialised in training high-quality engineers and technology-related professionals in numbers beyond that of the capacity and characteristics of the existing University of Sydney; this led to the proposal to establish the Institute of Technology, submitted by the New South Wales Minister for Education Bob Heffron, accepted on 9 July 1946.
The university named the "New South Wales University of Technology", gained its statutory status through the enactment of the New South Wales University of Technology Act 1949 by the Parliament of New South Wales in Sydney in 1949. In March 1948, classes commenced with a first intake of 46 students pursuing programs including civil engineering, mechanical engineering, mining engineering and electrical engineering. At that time the thesis programs were innovative; each course embodied a specified and substantial period of practical training in the relevant industry. It was unprecedented for tertiary institutions at that time to include compulsory instruction in humanities; the university operated from the inner Sydney Technical College city campus in Ultimo as a separate institution from the College. However, in 1951, the Parliament of New South Wales passed the New South Wales University of Technology Act 1951 to provide funding and allow buildings to be erected at the Kensington site where the university is now located.
In 1958, the university's name was changed to the "University of New South Wales" to reflect its transformation from a technology-based institution to a generalist university. In 1960, it established faculties of arts and medicine and shortly after decided to add the Faculty of Law, which came into being in 1971; the university's first director was Arthur Denning, who made important contributions to founding the university. In 1953, he was replaced by Philip Baxter, who continued as vice-chancellor when this position's title was changed in 1955. Baxter's dynamic, if authoritarian, management was central to the university's first 20 years, his visionary, but at times controversial, energies saw the university grow from a handful to 15,000 students by 1968. The new vice-chancellor, Rupert Myers, brought consolidation and an urbane management style to a period of expanding student numbers, demand for change in university style and challenges of student unrest; the stabilising techniques of the 1980s managed by the vice-chancellor, Michael Birt, provided a firm base for the energetic corporatism and campus enhancements pursued by the subsequent vice-chancellor, John Niland.
The 1990s saw the addition of fine arts to the university. The university established colleges in Newcastle and Wollongong, which became the University of Newcastle and the University of Wollongong in 1965 and 1975 respectively; the former St George Institute of Education amalgamated with the university from 1 January 1990, resulting in the formation of a School of Teacher Education at the former SGIE campus at Oatley. A School of Sports and Leisure Studies and a School of Arts and Music Education were subsequently based at St George; the campus was closed in 1999. In 2012 private sources contributed 45% of the University's annual funding; the university is home to the Lowy Cancer Research Centre, one of Australia's largest cancer research facilities. The centre, costing $127 million, is Australia's first facility to bring together researchers in childhood and adult cancer. In 2003, the university was invited by Singapore's Economic Development Board to consider opening a campus there. Following a 2004 decision to proceed, the first phase of a planned $200 m campus opened in 2007.
Students and staff were sent home and the campus closed after one semester following substantial financial losses. In 2019, the university moved to a trimester timetable as part of UNSW's 2025 Strategy; the Grant of Arms was made by the College of Arms on
A flood wall is a vertical artificial barrier designed to temporarily contain the waters of a river or other waterway which may rise to unusual levels during seasonal or extreme weather events. Flood walls are used on locations where space is scarce, such as cities or where building levees or dikes would interfere with other interests, such as existing buildings, historical architecture or commercial use of embankments. Flood walls are nowadays constructed from pre-fabricated concrete elements. Flood walls have floodgates which are large openings to provide passage except during periods of flooding, when they are closed; as a flood wall consist of short elements compared to dikes, the connections between the elements are critical to prevent the failure of the flood wall. The substantial costs of flood walls can be justified by the value of commercial property thus protected from damage caused by flooding. Flood walls are solely used in cities, notably: Cincinnati, Ohio Cologne, Germany Columbus, Ohio Coralville, Iowa Deventer, the Netherlands East Grand Forks, Minnesota Grand Forks, North Dakota Huntington, West Virginia Kampen, the Netherlands Kansas City, Missouri Louisville, Kentucky Memphis, Tennessee Morgan City, Louisiana New Orleans, Louisiana Nijmegen, the Netherlands Paducah, Kentucky Parkersburg, West Virginia Portsmouth, Ohio Richmond, Virginia Scranton, Pennsylvania South Williamson, Kentucky St. Louis, Missouri Williamson, West Virginia Woodland, WashingtonIn September 2005, following Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, was flooded after its system of levees and flood walls failed due to soil conditions and poor design.
Floodgate Levee Seawall Gabion Maccaferri gabion DeltaWorks. Org Flood Barriers project in the Netherlands
Batter in architecture is a receding slope of a wall, structure, or earthwork. A wall sloping in the opposite direction is said to overhang; the term is used with buildings and non-building structures to identify when a wall or elelment is intentionally built with an inward slope. A battered corner is an architectural feature using batters. A batter is sometimes used in foundations, retaining walls, dry stone walls, dams and fortifications. Other terms that may be used to describe battered walls are "tapered" and "flared". In a battered wall, the taper provides a wide base to carry the weight of the wall above, with the top resulting in the thinnest part as to ease the weight of wall below; the batter angle is described as a ratio of the offset and height or a degree angle, dependent on the building materials and application. For example, typical dry-stone construction of retaining walls utilizes a 1:6 ratio, for every 1 inch that the wall steps back, it increases 6 inches in height; the batter angle is described as a ratio of the offset and height or a degree angle.
Walls may be battered to provide structural strength or for decorative reasons. In military architecture, they made walls harder to undermine or tunnel, provided some defense against artillery early siege engine projectiles and cannon, where the energy of the projectile might be deflected, on the same principle as modern sloped armor. Siege towers could not be pushed next to the top of a battered wall. Types of fortification using batters glacis. Architectural styles that include battered walls as a stylistic feature include Indo-Islamic architecture, where it was used in many tombs and some mosques, as well as many forts in India. Tughlaqabad Fort in Delhi is a good example, built by Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, whose tomb opposite the fort has a strong batter. In Hindu temple architecture, the walls of the large Gopurams of South India are battered with a slight concave curve. In the Himalayan region, battered walls are one of the typifying characteristics of traditional Tibetan architecture. With minimal foreign influence over the centuries, the region's use of battered walls are considered to be an indigenous creation and part of Tibet's vernacular architecture.
This style of batter wall architecture was the preferred style of construction for much of Inner-Asia, has been used from Nepal to Siberia. The 13-story Potala Palace in Lhasa, is one of the best known examples of this style and was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994. Battered walls are a common architectural feature found in Ancient Egyptian architecture. Constructed from mud brick for residential applications, sandstone, or granite was used in the construction of temples and tombs. In terms of monumental architecture, the Giza pyramid complexin Cairo utilized different grades of battered walls to achieve great heights with relative stability; the Pyramid of Djoser is an archeological remain in the Saqqara necropolis, northwest of the city of Memphis, a quintessential example of battered walls used in sequence to produce a step pyramid. In the Americas, battered walls are seen as a common aspect of Mission style architecture, where Spanish design was hybridized with Native American adobe building techniques.
As exemplified by the San Estevan del Rey Mission Church in Acoma, New Mexico, c.1629-42, the heights desired by Spanish Catholic Mission design was achieved through battering adobe bricks to achieve structural stability
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Retaining walls are rigid walls used for supporting the soil mass laterally so that the soil can be retained at different levels on the two sides. Retaining walls are structures designed to restrain soil to a slope that it would not keep to, they are used to bound soils between two different elevations in areas of terrain possessing undesirable slopes or in areas where the landscape needs to be shaped and engineered for more specific purposes like hillside farming or roadway overpasses. A retaining wall that retains soil on the backside and water on the frontside is called a seawall or a bulkhead. A retaining wall is a structure designed and constructed to resist the lateral pressure of soil, when there is a desired change in ground elevation that exceeds the angle of repose of the soil. A basement wall is thus one kind of retaining wall, but the term refers to a cantilever retaining wall, a freestanding structure without lateral support at its top. These are cantilevered from a footing and rise above the grade on one side to retain a higher level grade on the opposite side.
The walls must resist the lateral pressures generated by loose soils or, in some cases, water pressures. Every retaining wall supports a "wedge" of soil; the wedge is defined as the soil which extends beyond the failure plane of the soil type present at the wall site, can be calculated once the soil friction angle is known. As the setback of the wall increases, the size of the sliding wedge is reduced; this reduction lowers the pressure on the retaining wall. The most important consideration in proper design and installation of retaining walls is to recognize and counteract the tendency of the retained material to move downslope due to gravity; this creates lateral earth pressure behind the wall which depends on the angle of internal friction and the cohesive strength of the retained material, as well as the direction and magnitude of movement the retaining structure undergoes. Lateral earth pressures are zero at the top of the wall and – in homogenous ground – increase proportionally to a maximum value at the lowest depth.
Earth pressures will overturn it if not properly addressed. Any groundwater behind the wall, not dissipated by a drainage system causes hydrostatic pressure on the wall; the total pressure or thrust may be assumed to act at one-third from the lowest depth for lengthwise stretches of uniform height. Unless the wall is designed to retain water, It is important to have proper drainage behind the wall in order to limit the pressure to the wall's design value. Drainage materials will reduce or eliminate the hydrostatic pressure and improve the stability of the material behind the wall. Drystone retaining walls are self-draining; as an example, the International Building Code requires retaining walls to be designed to ensure stability against overturning, excessive foundation pressure and water uplift. Gravity walls depend on their mass to resist pressure from behind and may have a'batter' setback to improve stability by leaning back toward the retained soil. For short landscaping walls, they are made from mortarless stone or segmental concrete units.
Dry-stacked gravity walls do not require a rigid footing. Earlier in the 20th century, taller retaining walls were gravity walls made from large masses of concrete or stone. Today, taller retaining walls are built as composite gravity walls such as: geosynthetics such as geocell cellular confinement earth retention or with precast facing. Cantilevered retaining walls are made from an internal stem of steel-reinforced, cast-in-place concrete or mortared masonry; these walls cantilever loads to a large, structural footing, converting horizontal pressures from behind the wall to vertical pressures on the ground below. Sometimes cantilevered walls are buttressed on the front, or include a counterfort on the back, to improve their strength resisting high loads. Buttresses are short wing walls at right angles to the main trend of the wall; these walls require rigid concrete footings below seasonal frost depth. This type of wall uses much less material than a traditional gravity wall. Sheet pile retaining walls are used in soft soil and tight spaces.
Sheet pile walls are driven into the ground and are composed of a variety of material including steel, aluminum, fiberglass or wood planks. For a quick estimate the material is driven 1/3 above ground, 2/3 below ground, but this may be altered depending on the environment. Taller sheet pile walls will need a tie-back anchor, or "dead-man" placed in the soil a distance behind the face of the wall, tied to the wall by a cable or a rod. Anchors are placed behind the potential failure plane in the soil. Bored pile retaining walls are built by assembling a sequence of bored piles, proceeded by excavating away the excess soil. Depending on the project, the bored pile retaining wall may include a series of earth anchors, reinforcing beams, soil improvement operations and shotcrete reinforcement layer; this construction technique tends to be employed in scenarios where sheet piling is a valid construction solution, but where the vibration or noise levels generated by a pile driver are not acceptable.
An anchored retaining wall can be constructed in any of the aforementioned styles but i
Herzog & de Meuron
Herzog & de Meuron Basel Ltd. or Herzog & de Meuron Architekten, BSA/SIA/ETH, is a Swiss architecture firm with its head office in Basel, Switzerland. The careers of founders and senior partners Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron paralleled one another, with both attending the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, they are best known for their conversion of the giant Bankside Power Station in London to the new home of Tate Modern. Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron have been visiting professors at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design since 1994 and professors at ETH Zürich since 1999. Herzog & de Meuron was founded in Basel in 1978. In 2001, Herzog & de Meuron were awarded the highest of honours in architecture. Jury chairman J. Carter Brown commented, "One is hard put to think of any architects in history that have addressed the integument of architecture with greater imagination and virtuosity." This was in reference to HdM's innovative use of exterior materials and treatments, such as silkscreened glass.
Architecture critic and Pritzker juror Ada Louise Huxtable summarized HdM's approach concisely: "They refine the traditions of modernism to elemental simplicity, while transforming materials and surfaces through the exploration of new treatments and techniques." In 2006, The New York Times Magazine called them "one of the most admired architecture firms in the world." HdM's early works were reductivist pieces of modernity that registered on the same level as the minimalist art of Donald Judd. However, their recent work at Prada Tokyo, the Barcelona Forum Building and the Beijing National Stadium for the 2008 Olympic Games, suggest a changing attitude; the shapes and forms of some of the works suggest art glass and objects d'art that one would see on a coffee table, like an art deco ashtray or quirky container for chocolates - a building becomes a blown-up version of desk art because the computer can do it, mimic the plasticity of the medium, make it possible as a feat of engineering. HdM's commitment of articulation through materiality is a common thread through all their projects.
Their formal gestures have progressed from the purist simplicity of rectangular forms to more complex and dynamic geometries. The architects cite Joseph Beuys as an enduring artistic inspiration and collaborate with different artists on each architectural project, their success can be attributed to their skills in revealing unfamiliar or unknown relationships by utilizing innovative materials. Completed1992 Goetz Collection, Germany 1997: Rudin House, France 1998 Dominus Winery, Napa Valley, California 1999 Swiss Federal Railways switchtower, Switzerland 2000 Tate Modern, London, UK 2002 St. Jakob-Park, Switzerland 2003 Laban Dance Centre, Deptford Creek, London, UK 2003 Prada Aoyama, Japan 2004 Forum Building, Barcelona 2004 IKMZ, Germany 2005 M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco, California 2005 Walker Art Center expansion, Minnesota 2005 Allianz Arena football stadium, Munich 2007 40 Bond Street, New York City, USA 2008 Beijing National Stadium, China 2008 CaixaForum Madrid, Spain 2008 Tenerife Espacio de las Artes, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain 2009 VitraHaus, Weil am Rhein, Germany 2010 1111 Lincoln Road parking garage, Miami Beach, Florida, USA 2010 Museum der Kulturen, Switzerland 2012 Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, London, UK 2012 Parrish Art Museum, Water Mill, New York 2013 Pérez Art Museum Miami, Florida 2013 Messe Basel, Switzerland 2015 Roche Tower Basel, Switzerland 2015 Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, UK 2015 Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux, France 2015 BBVA headquarters, Spain 2015 Unterlinden Museum, France 2016 Tate Modern 2, London 2016 Feltrinelli Porta Volta, Italy 2016 Elbe Philharmonic Hall, GermanyCurrentBerggruen Institute, Los Angeles, California El Punto Religious-Community Center, Ciudad Juárez, Mexico Contemporary Art Museum Barranca de Huentitán, Mexico Plaza de España, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Tenerife Kinderspital Zürich, Switzerland 56 Leonard Street, New York City Beirut Terraces, Lebanon M+, Hong Kong – with TFP Farrells National Library of Israel Roche tower, the 2º tallest Swiss skyscraper with 178m, Switzerland Vancouver Art Gallery Tai Kwun, Hong Kong – with Purcell and Rocco Design 1999 Schock Prize 2001 Prix de l'Équerre d'Argent, Rue Des Suisses, Paris 2001 Pritzker Prize 2003 Stirling Prize, for the Laban Dance Centre 2007 RIBA Royal Gold Medal and Praemium Imperiale 2009 Lubetkin Prize for the Beijing National Stadium Herzog & de Meuron Official Website Pritzker Architecture Prize profile Herzog & de Meuron: archeology of the mind exhibition at the Canadian Centre for Architecture Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2012 Rue des Suisses in Paris
A cylinder has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes. It is the idealized version of a solid physical tin can having lids on bottom; this traditional view is still used in elementary treatments of geometry, but the advanced mathematical viewpoint has shifted to the infinite curvilinear surface and this is how a cylinder is now defined in various modern branches of geometry and topology. The shift in the basic meaning has created some ambiguity with terminology, it is hoped that context makes the meaning clear. In this article both points of view are presented and distinguished by referring to solid cylinders and cylindrical surfaces, but keep in mind that in the literature the unadorned term cylinder could refer to either of these or to an more specialized object, the right circular cylinder; the definitions and results in this section are taken from the 1913 text and Solid Geometry by George Wentworth and David Eugene Smith. A cylindrical surface is a surface consisting of all the points on all the lines which are parallel to a given line and which pass through a fixed plane curve in a plane not parallel to the given line.
Any line in this family of parallel lines is called an element of the cylindrical surface. From a kinematics point of view, given a plane curve, called the directrix, a cylindrical surface is that surface traced out by a line, called the generatrix, not in the plane of the directrix, moving parallel to itself and always passing through the directrix. Any particular position of the generatrix is an element of the cylindrical surface. A solid bounded by a cylindrical surface and two parallel planes is called a cylinder; the line segments determined by an element of the cylindrical surface between the two parallel planes is called an element of the cylinder. All the elements of a cylinder have equal lengths; the region bounded by the cylindrical surface in either of the parallel planes is called a base of the cylinder. The two bases of a cylinder are congruent figures. If the elements of the cylinder are perpendicular to the planes containing the bases, the cylinder is a right cylinder, otherwise it is called an oblique cylinder.
If the bases are disks the cylinder is called a circular cylinder. In some elementary treatments, a cylinder always means a circular cylinder; the height of a cylinder is the perpendicular distance between its bases. The cylinder obtained by rotating a line segment about a fixed line that it is parallel to is a cylinder of revolution. A cylinder of revolution is a right circular cylinder; the height of a cylinder of revolution is the length of the generating line segment. The line that the segment is revolved about is called the axis of the cylinder and it passes through the centers of the two bases; the bare term cylinder refers to a solid cylinder with circular ends perpendicular to the axis, that is, a right circular cylinder, as shown in the figure. The cylindrical surface without the ends is called an open cylinder; the formulae for the surface area and the volume of a right circular cylinder have been known from early antiquity. A right circular cylinder can be thought of as the solid of revolution generated by rotating a rectangle about one of its sides.
These cylinders are used in an integration technique for obtaining volumes of solids of revolution. A cylindric section is the intersection of a cylinder's surface with a plane, they are, in general and are special types of plane sections. The cylindric section by a plane that contains two elements of a cylinder is a parallelogram; such a cylindric section of a right cylinder is a rectangle. A cylindric section in which the intersecting plane intersects and is perpendicular to all the elements of the cylinder is called a right section. If a right section of a cylinder is a circle the cylinder is a circular cylinder. In more generality, if a right section of a cylinder is a conic section the solid cylinder is said to be parabolic, elliptic or hyperbolic respectively. For a right circular cylinder, there are several ways. First, consider planes that intersect a base in at most one point. A plane is tangent to the cylinder; the right sections are circles and all other planes intersect the cylindrical surface in an ellipse.
If a plane intersects a base of the cylinder in two points the line segment joining these points is part of the cylindric section. If such a plane contains two elements, it has a rectangle as a cylindric section, otherwise the sides of the cylindric section are portions of an ellipse. If a plane contains more than two points of a base, it contains the entire base and the cylindric section is a circle. In the case of a right circular cylinder with a cylindric section, an ellipse, the eccentricity e of the cylindric section and semi-major axis a of the cylindric section depend on the radius of the cylinder r and the angle α between the secant plane and cylinder axis, in the following way: e = cos α, a = r sin α. If the base of a circular cylinder has a radius r and the cylinder has height h its volume is given by V = πr2h; this formula holds. This formula may be established by using Cavalieri's principle. In more generality, by the same principle, the volume of an