Architecture of cathedrals and great churches
Cathedrals in particular, as well as many abbey churches and basilicas, have certain complex structural forms that are found less often in parish churches. Such a cathedral or great church is one of the finest buildings within its region and is a focus of local pride. Many cathedrals and basilicas, and a number of churches are among the worlds most renowned works of architecture. The earliest large churches date from Late Antiquity, as Christianity and the construction of churches and cathedrals spread throughout the world, their manner of building was dependent upon local materials and local techniques. Overlaid on each of the styles are the regional characteristics. Some of these characteristics are so typical of a country or region that they appear, regardless of style. Among the worlds largest and most architecturally significant churches, many were built to serve as cathedrals or abbey churches, among the Roman Catholic churches, many have been raised to the status of basilica. The categories below are not exclusive, a church can be an abbey, serve as a cathedral, and be a basilica.
Among the great Protestant churches, such as Ulm Minster have never served as any of these, such as Westminster Abbey, are former abbeys and cathedrals. Neither Orthodox or Protestant churches are designated as basilicas in the Catholic sense, the term cathedral in Orthodoxy and Protestantism is sometimes loosely applied to a large church that is not a bishops principal church. Some significant churches are termed temples or oratories, in fact, a cathedral does not have to be large or imposing, although many cathedrals are. The cathedral takes its name from the word cathedra, or bishops throne, a cathedral has a specific ecclesiastical role and administrative purpose as the seat of a bishop. The role of bishop as administrator of local clergy came into being in the 1st century and it was two hundred years before the first cathedral building was constructed in Rome. With the legalising of Christianity in 313 by the Emperor Constantine I, the architectural form which cathedrals took was largely dependent upon their ritual function as the seat of a bishop.
But in a cathedral, in general, these things are done with an amount of elaboration, pageantry. This elaboration is particularly present during important liturgical rites performed by a Bishop, a cathedral is often the site of rituals associated with local or national Government, the Bishops performing the tasks of all sorts from the induction of a mayor to the coronation of a monarch. Some of these tasks are apparent in the form and fittings of particular cathedrals, the church that has the function of cathedral is not always a large building. It might be as small as Christ Church Cathedral, but frequently, the cathedral, along with some of the abbey churches, was the largest building in any region
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the worlds oldest publishing house and it holds letters patent as the Queens Printer. The Presss mission is To further the Universitys mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global presence, publishing hubs, and offices in more than 40 countries. Its publishing includes journals, reference works, textbooks. Cambridge University Press is an enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press and it originated from Letters Patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, and has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed.
Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses, authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, and Stephen Hawking. In 1591, Thomass successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, the London Stationers objected strenuously, claiming that they had the monopoly on Bible printing. The universitys response was to point out the provision in its charter to print all manner of books. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university towards the house and presse and James Halman, Registrary of the University. It was in Bentleys time, in 1698, that a body of scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the Presss affairs. The Press Syndicates publishing committee still meets regularly, and its role still includes the review, John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century. Baskervilles concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design, a technological breakthrough was badly needed, and it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates.
This involved making a mould of the surface of a page of type. The Press was the first to use this technique, and in 1805 produced the technically successful, under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, who was University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the Press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks, during Clays administration, the Press undertook a sizable co-publishing venture with Oxford, the Revised Version of the Bible, which was begun in 1870 and completed in 1885. It was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories, the Cambridge Modern History was published between 1902 and 1912
A façade is generally one exterior side of a building, but not always, the front. It is a loan word from the French façade, which means frontage or face. In architecture, the façade of a building is often the most important aspect from a design standpoint, from the engineering perspective of a building, the façade is of great importance due to its impact on energy efficiency. For historical façades, many local zoning regulations or other laws restrict or even forbid their alteration. The word comes from the French foreign loan word façade, which in turn comes from the Italian facciata, from faccia meaning face, the earliest usage recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is 1656. It was quite common in the Georgian period for existing houses in English towns to be given a fashionable new façade, in modern highrise building, the exterior walls are often suspended from the concrete floor slabs. Examples include curtain walls and precast concrete walls, the façade can at times be required to have a fire-resistance rating, for instance, if two buildings are very close together, to lower the likelihood of fire spreading from one building to another.
In general, the systems that are suspended or attached to the precast concrete slabs will be made from aluminium or stainless steel. In recent years more lavish materials such as titanium have sometimes been used, whether rated or not, fire protection is always a design consideration. The melting point of aluminium,660 °C, is reached within minutes of the start of a fire. Firestops for such building joints can be qualified, putting fire sprinkler systems on each floor has a profoundly positive effect on the fire safety of buildings with curtain walls. Some building codes limit the percentage of area in exterior walls. When the exterior wall is not rated, the slab edge becomes a junction where rated slabs are abutting an unrated wall. For rated walls, one may choose rated windows and fire doors, on a film set and within most themed attractions, many of the buildings are only façades, which are far cheaper than actual buildings, and not subject to building codes. In film sets, they are held up with supports from behind.
Within theme parks, they are usually decoration for the interior ride/attraction/restaurant, by Ulrich Knaack, Tillmann Klein, Marcel Bilow and Thomas Auer. ISBN 978-3-7643-7961-2 ISBN 978-3-7643-7962-9 Giving buildings an illusion of grandeur Poole, the article outlines the development of the façade in ecclesiastical architecture from the early Christian period to the Renaissance
In architecture, a tympanum is the semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance, door or window, bounded by a lintel and arch. It often contains sculpture or other imagery or ornaments, most architectural styles include this element. In ancient Greek and Christian architecture, tympana usually contain religious imagery, a tympanum over a doorway is very often the most important, or only, location for monumental sculpture on the outside of a building. These shapes naturally influence the typical compositions of any sculpture within the tympanum, bands of molding surrounding the tympanum are referred to as the archivolt. In medieval French architecture the tympanum is often supported by a pillar called a trumeau. Gable Pediment Portal Sculpted tympanums Chartres Cathedral, West Front, Central Portal Tympanum of the last Judgment - western portal of the abbey-church of Saint Foy
John Ruskin was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjects as varied as geology, myth, literature, education and his writing styles and literary forms were equally varied. Ruskin penned essays and treatises and lectures, travel guides and manuals, the elaborate style that characterised his earliest writing on art was superseded by a preference for plainer language designed to communicate his ideas more effectively. In all of his writing, he emphasised the connections between nature and society and he made detailed sketches and paintings of rocks, birds and architectural structures and ornamentation. He was hugely influential in the half of the 19th century. After a period of decline, his reputation has steadily improved since the 1960s with the publication of numerous academic studies of his work. Today, his ideas and concerns are widely recognised as having anticipated interest in environmentalism, from the 1850s he championed the Pre-Raphaelites who were influenced by his ideas.
His work increasingly focused on social and political issues, Unto This Last marked the shift in emphasis. In 1869, Ruskin became the first Slade Professor of Fine Art at the University of Oxford, in 1871, he began his monthly letters to the workmen and labourers of Great Britain, published under the title Fors Clavigera. In the course of this complex and deeply personal work, he developed the principles underlying his ideal society, as a result, he founded the Guild of St George, an organisation that endures today. Ruskin was the child of first cousins. His father, John James Ruskin, was a sherry and wine importer founding partner and de facto manager of Ruskin, Telford. John James was born and brought up in Edinburgh, Scotland, to a mother from Glenluce and his wife, Margaret Cox, née Cock, was the daughter of an aunt on the English side of the family and a publican in Croydon. She had joined the Ruskin household when she became companion to John Jamess mother, John James had hoped to practice law, but was instead articled as a clerk in London.
His father, John Thomas Ruskin, described as a grocer, was an inadequate businessman, to save the family from bankruptcy, John James, whose prudence and success were in stark contrast to his father, took on all debts, settling the last of them in 1832. John James and Margaret were engaged in 1809, but opposition to the union from John Thomas, Ruskin was born at 54 Hunter Street, Brunswick Square, south of St Pancras railway station. His childhood was characterised by the influences of his father and mother. John James Ruskin helped to develop his sons Romanticism and they shared a passion for the works of Byron and especially Walter Scott
A Dutch gable or Flemish gable is a gable whose sides have a shape made up of one or more curves and has a pediment at the top. The gable may be an entirely decorative projection above a section of roof line, or may be the termination of a roof. The preceding is the definition, but the term is sometimes used more loosely. The term Dutch gable is used in America and Australasia to refer to a gablet roof, the Dutch gable was a notable feature of the Renaissance architecture which spread to northern Europe from the Low Countries, arriving in Britain during the latter part of the 16th century. Later Dutch gables with flowing curves became absorbed into Baroque architecture, examples of Dutch-gabled buildings can be found in historic cities across Europe. In Potsdam, Germany,150 red brick houses featuring steep Dutch gables form part of the citys Dutch Quarter, while in Bruges, the Flemish culture had a strong architectural impact in Arras, northern France. The style spread beyond Europe, for example Barbados is well known for the Dutch gables on its historic buildings, the formation of Dutch gables requires careful detailing, to weatherproof the junction of the roof with the inner face of the Dutch gable wall with a flashing.
Clock gable Awning History and Evolution of Cape Dutch Architecture
Bautzen is a hill-top town in eastern Saxony and administrative centre of the eponymous district. It is located on the Spree River, as of 2013, its population is 39,607. Asteroid 11580 Bautzen is named in honour of the city, Bautzen is often regarded as the unofficial, but historical capital of Upper Lusatia, and it is the most important cultural centre of the Sorbs, a Slavic people. The town on the River Spree is situated about 50 km east of Dresden between the Lusatian highland and the lowlands in the north, amidst the region of Upper Lusatia, to the north stretches the Bautzen Reservoir, which was flooded in 1974. This is the location of the villages of Malsitz and Nimschütz. The old part of Bautzen is located on the plateau above the Spree and it is bordered by the city walls. The later-built more recent quarters in the east were enclosed by the city ramparts, after their removal, the city expanded further east and to the left bank of the river. However, there has only been an urban area west of the Spree until today.
In the 1970s, the development areas of Gesundbrunnen and Allendeviertel were erected, after 1990, several neighbouring villages were incorporated. The city is bordered by Radibor, Großdubrau and Malschwitz in the North, Kubschütz in the East, Großpostwitz and Doberschau-Gaußig in the South, all of these belong to the Bautzen district. The 15 city districts are, Innenstadt,5278 inh, in the 3rd century AD an eastern Germanic settlement existed here, but excavations have proved that the region was already inhabited as early as the late Stone Age. Sorbs arrived in the area during the Migration period in the sixth century AD, the first written evidence of the existence of the city was in 1002. In 1015 the Polish Army led by Bolesław I Chrobry defeated, in 1018 the Peace of Bautzen was signed between the German king Henry II and the Polish prince Boleslaus I. The Treaty left Bautzen under Polish rule, in 1032 the city passed to the Holy Roman Empire, in 1319 to Czech Crown lands and in 1635 to Saxony.
During the Middle Ages it was a member of the Six Cities Alliance of the Upper Lusatian cities of Görlitz, Zittau, Löbau, Lauban and it was the site of one of the battlefields of the Napoleonic War Battle of Bautzen in 1813. In 1839 the Sorbian student organization Societas Slavica Budissenensis was founded in the city, the Sorbian House, a Sorbian cultural centre, was opened in the city in 1904. During World War II and the Nazi era, there was a subcamp of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp in Bautzen, ernst Thälmann was imprisoned there before being deported to Buchenwald. Between 21 April and 30 April 1945, the Battle of Bautzen was fought, Bautzen was infamous throughout East Germany for its penitentiaries
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a Census-estimated 2,636,735 residents in 2015. It borders the borough of Queens at the end of Long Island. Today, if New York City dissolved, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous city in the U. S. behind Los Angeles, the borough continues, however, to maintain a distinct culture. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves, Brooklyns official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght which translates from early modern Dutch as Unity makes strength. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms. The history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years, the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North Americas first tidal mill. It was built by the Dutch, and the foundation can be seen today, the area was not formally settled as a town. Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furmans early compilation, what is today Brooklyn left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War.
The English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1,1683 and this tract of land was recognized as a political entity for the first time, and the municipal groundwork was laid for a expansive idea of Brooklyn identity. On August 27,1776 was fought the Battle of Long Island, the first major engagement fought in the American Revolutionary War after independence was declared, and the largest of the entire conflict. British troops forced Continental Army troops under George Washington off the heights near the sites of Green-Wood Cemetery, Prospect Park. The fortified American positions at Brooklyn Heights consequently became untenable and were evacuated a few days later, One result of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 was the evacuation of the British from New York City, celebrated by residents into the 20th century. The New York Navy Yard operated in Wallabout Bay for the entire 19th century, the first center of urbanization sprang up in the Town of Brooklyn, directly across from Lower Manhattan, which saw the incorporation of the Village of Brooklyn in 1817.
Reliable steam ferry service across the East River to Fulton Landing converted Brooklyn Heights into a town for Wall Street. Ferry Road to Jamaica Pass became Fulton Street to East New York and Village were combined to form the first, kernel incarnation of the City of Brooklyn in 1834. Industrial deconcentration in mid-century was bringing shipbuilding and other manufacturing to the part of the county. Each of the two cities and six towns in Kings County remained independent municipalities, and purposely created non-aligning street grids with different naming systems and it became the most popular and highest circulation afternoon paper in America. The publisher changed to L. Van Anden on April 19,1842, on May 14,1849 the name was shortened to The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, on September 5,1938 it was further shortened to Brooklyn Eagle
In architecture, a clerestory is a high section of wall that contains windows above eye level. The purpose is to light, fresh air, or both. Similar structures have been used in vehicles to provide additional lighting, ventilation. The technology of the clerestory appears to originate in the temples of ancient Egypt, Clerestory appeared in Egypt at least as early as the Amarna period. In the Minoan palaces of Crete such as Knossos, by contrast, according to Biblical accounts, the Hebrew temple built by King Solomon featured clerestory windows made possible by the use of a tall, angled roof and a central ridgepole. The clerestory was used in the Hellenistic architecture of the periods of ancient Greek civilization. The Romans applied clerestories to basilicas of justice and to the basilica-like bath-houses and palaces, early Christian churches and some Byzantine churches, particularly in Italy, are based closely on the Roman basilica, and maintained the form of a central nave flanked by lower aisles on each side.
The nave and aisles are separated by columns or piers, above which rises a wall pierced by clerestory windows, during the Romanesque period, many churches of the basilica form were constructed all over Europe. Many of these churches have wooden roofs with clerestories below them, some Romanesque churches have barrel vaulted ceilings with no clerestory. The development of the vault and ribbed vault made possible the insertion of clerestory windows. Initially the nave of an aisled and clerestoried church was of two levels and clerestory. During the Romanesque period a third level was inserted between them, a called the triforium. The triforium generally opens into space beneath the roof of the aisle. This became a feature of Romanesque and Gothic large abbey. Sometimes another gallery set into the space above the triforium. This feature is found in some late Romanesque and early Gothic buildings in France, in smaller churches, clerestory windows may be trefoils or quatrefoils. In some Italian churches they are ocular, in most large churches, they are an important feature, both for beauty and for utility.
The ribbed vaulting and flying buttresses of Gothic architecture concentrated the weight and thrust of the roof, in Gothic masterpieces, the clerestory is generally divided into bays by the vaulting shafts that continue the same tall columns that form the arcade separating the aisles from the nave
A roof is part of a building envelope. It is the covering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which provides protection from animals and weather, notably rain or snow, the word denotes the framing or structure which supports that covering. In most countries a roof protects primarily against rain, a verandah may be roofed with material that protects against sunlight but admits the other elements. The roof of a garden conservatory protects plants from cold and rain, a roof may provide additional living space, for example a roof garden. Old English hrof roof, top, heaven, figuratively, highest point of something, there are no apparent connections outside the Germanic family. English alone has retained the word in a sense, for which the other languages use forms corresponding to OE. In many parts of the ceramic tiles have been the predominant roofing material for centuries. Other roofing materials include asphalt, coal tar pitch, EPDM rubber, polyurethane foam, PVC, Teflon fabric, TPO, and wood shakes and shingles.
The construction of a roof is determined by its method of support and how the space is bridged. The pitch is the angle at which the roof rises from its lowest to highest point, most US domestic architecture, except in very dry regions, has roofs that are sloped, or pitched. Although modern construction such as drainpipes may remove the need for pitch, roofs are pitched for reasons of tradition. So the pitch is dependent upon stylistic factors, and partially to do with practicalities. Some types of roofing, for example thatch, require a steep pitch in order to be waterproof, other types of roofing, for example pantiles, are unstable on a steeply pitched roof but provide excellent weather protection at a relatively low angle. In regions where there is rain, an almost flat roof with a slight run-off provides adequate protection against an occasional downpour. Drainpipes remove the need for a sloping roof, a person that specializes in roof construction is called a roofer. The shape of roofs differs greatly from region to region, the main factors which influence the shape of roofs are the climate and the materials available for roof structure and the outer covering.
The basic shapes of roofs are flat, mono-pitched, hipped, there are many variations on these types. Roofs constructed of sections that are sloped are referred to as pitched roofs
In architecture, tracery is the stonework elements that support the glass in a Gothic window. The term probably derives from the floors on which the complex patterns of late Gothic windows were laid out. There are two types, plate tracery and the bar tracery. Romanesque church windows were normally quite small, somewhat taller than wide, from around the 1140s, the pointed-arch Gothic window started to take over. With this type of design, the spandrels are just blank wall, the rose windows of early- and high-Gothic cathedrals, such as the example in the north transept of Laon Cathedral or the west facade at Chartres, employed plate tracery. This greatly limited the amount of light admitted to the interior by these windows. The earliest bar tracery designs were made for the windows at Reims around 1215. The cross-section of each mullion or tracery bar was important both for the integrity of the window and for the visual effect. As can be seen in Viollet-le-Ducs diagram there was normally a roll-moulding on both the inside and outside of the windows, which made the mullions appear even more slender than they actually were.
The shoulder marked B on the diagram is the glazing slot, as bar tracery opened the way for more complex patterns, masons started applying those same patterns to other surfaces as well as the actual window openings. When used on an otherwise solid walls, such motifs are known as blind tracery, open tracery in particular was a key feature of the phases of Rayonnant Gothic. Most 19th-century histories of Gothic architectural style used a series of rather arbitrary categories based on the evolution of the dominant patterns of window tracery. Such teleological models are now regarded as oversimplistic and are shunned by art historians. Because of the cost and size limitations of parchment sheets, such designs would normally be drawn by incising onto a board or a conveniently placed section of flat wall. In the latter case, the wall would be prepared with a layer of plaster. A number of churches and cathedrals still show the faint remains of these tracings, from where the compass points scratched through the plaster. A number of building sites originally had dedicated tracery chambers.
This meant that masons could carry on working through the winter season, the tracing floors themselves were covered with plaster of paris, which could be relaid and smoothed down after each set of designs were finished with