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Gabriel Fauré

Gabriel Urbain Fauré was a French composer, organist and teacher. He was one of the foremost French composers of his generation, his musical style influenced many 20th-century composers. Among his best-known works are his Pavane, Sicilienne, nocturnes for piano and the songs "Après un rêve" and "Clair de lune". Although his best-known and most accessible compositions are his earlier ones, Fauré composed many of his most regarded works in his years, in a more harmonically and melodically complex style. Fauré was born into a cultured but not musical family, his talent became clear. At the age of nine, he was sent to the Ecole Niedermeyer music college in Paris, where he was trained to be a church organist and choirmaster; the Ecole Neidermeyer's pedagogy differed from that of the Paris Conservatoire. Among his teachers was Camille Saint-Saëns, who became a lifelong friend. After graduating from the college in 1865, Fauré earned a modest living as an organist and teacher, leaving him little time for composition.

When he became successful in his middle age, holding the important posts of organist of the Église de la Madeleine and director of the Paris Conservatoire, he still lacked time for composing. By his last years, Fauré was recognised in France as the leading French composer of his day. An unprecedented national musical tribute was held for him in Paris in 1922, headed by the president of the French Republic. Outside France, Fauré's music took decades to become accepted, except in Britain, where he had many admirers during his lifetime. Fauré's music has been described as linking the end of Romanticism with the modernism of the second quarter of the 20th century; when he was born, Chopin was still composing, by the time of Fauré's death and the atonal music of the Second Viennese School were being heard. The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, which describes him as the most advanced composer of his generation in France, notes that his harmonic and melodic innovations influenced the teaching of harmony for generations.

During the last twenty years of his life, he suffered from increasing deafness. In contrast with the charm of his earlier music, his works from this period are sometimes elusive and withdrawn in character, at other times turbulent and impassioned. Fauré was born in Pamiers, Ariège, in the south of France, the fifth son and youngest of six children of Toussaint-Honoré Fauré and Marie-Antoinette-Hélène Lalène-Laprade. According to the biographer Jean-Michel Nectoux, the Fauré family dates to the 13th century in that part of France; the family had at one time been substantial landowners, but by the 19th century its means had become reduced. The composer's paternal grandfather, was a butcher whose son became a schoolmaster. In 1829 Fauré's parents married, his mother was the daughter of a minor member of the nobility. He was the only one of the six children to display musical talent; the young Fauré was sent to live with a foster mother. When his father was appointed director of the École Normale d'Instituteurs, a teacher training college, at Montgauzy, near Foix, in 1849, Fauré returned to live with his family.

There was a chapel attached to the school, which Fauré recalled in the last year of his life: I grew up, a rather quiet well-behaved child, in an area of great beauty.... But the only thing I remember clearly is the harmonium in that little chapel; every time I could get away I ran there – and I regaled myself.... I played atrociously... no method at all, quite without technique, but I do remember that I was happy. An old blind woman, who came to listen and give the boy advice, told his father of Fauré's gift for music. In 1853 Simon-Lucien Dufaur de Saubiac, of the National Assembly, heard Fauré play and advised Toussaint-Honoré to send him to the École de Musique Classique et Religieuse, better known as the École Niedermeyer de Paris, which Louis Niedermeyer was setting up in Paris. After reflecting for a year, Fauré's father agreed and took the nine-year-old boy to Paris in October 1854. Helped by a scholarship from the bishop of his home diocese, Fauré boarded at the school for 11 years; the régime was austere, the rooms gloomy, the food mediocre, the required uniform elaborate.

The musical tuition, was excellent. Niedermeyer, whose goal was to produce qualified organists and choirmasters, focused on church music. Fauré's tutors were Clément Loret for organ, Louis Dietsch for harmony, Xavier Wackenthaler for counterpoint and fugue, Niedermeyer for piano and composition; when Niedermeyer died in March 1861, Camille Saint-Saëns took charge of piano studies and introduced contemporary music, including that of Schumann and Wagner. Fauré recalled in old age, "After allowing the lessons to run over, he would go to the piano and reveal to us those works of the masters from which the rigorous classical nature of our programme of study kept us at a distance and who, moreover, in those far-off years, were scarcely known.... At the time I was 15 or 16, from this time dates the filial attachment... the immense admiration, the unceasing gratitude I had for him, throughout my life."Saint-Saëns took great pleasure in his pupil's progress, which he helped whenever he could.

Jüri Okas

Jüri Okas is a notable Estonian architect, installation artist and printmaker. From 1957 to 1968 Jüri Okas studied in the 46th Secondary School of Tallinn. From 1968 to 1970 he studied in the Tallinn Polytechnic Institute. From 1970 Jüri Okas studied in the State Art Institute of the Estonian SSR in the department of architecture, he graduated from the institute in 1974. From 1974 to 1989 Jüri Okas worked in the design bureau EKE Projekt. From 1989 he has worked in the architectural bureau Okas&Lõoke OÜ. Most notable works by Jüri Okas are the gas station in Paide, the main building of Forekspank bank, the modern farm in Saaremaa and the Delta Plaza office building in Tallinn; the art creation by Jüri Okas includes numerous performances, photo collages, installations, book designs and sculptures. Exhibitions of his works have been on display in many Estonian and Finnish galleries and his works have been part of exhibitions in Estonia, Lithuania, Sweden, Italy, Spain and Scotland. Jüri Okas is the son of painter Evald Okas.

Astlanda business center, 1992 Main office of the Forekspank bank, 1997 Estconde business center, 1999 Office building in the city center of Tallinn, 2001 Modern farm in Saaremaa, 2002 Apartment building on Kaarli Road, 2004 Apartment building on Rävala Road, 2005 Delta Plaza business center, 2008 Reconstruction O, print, 1974 Reconstruction M, print, 1976 Environment, installation, 1976, Tallinn Untitled, land art, 1979, Vääna-Jõesuu Perspective, installation, 1979, Harku Landscape II, print, 1982 Torn I, sügavtrükk, 1986 Nest, installation, 1987, Tallinn Cross-roads, installation, 1995, Tartu Drench to Heaven, installation, 1996, Rostock Eesti kunsti ja arhitektuuri biograafiline leksikon. Tallinn: Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus. 1996. P. 354. ISBN 5-89900-049-X. Union of Estonian Architects, members Museum of Evald Okas, family, Jüri Okas Architectural Bureau Okas&Lõoke OÜ, works List of Estonian architects

Laugh a Little Louder Please

Laugh a Little Louder Please is the third episode of the fifth and final series of the period drama Upstairs, Downstairs. It first aired on 21 September 1975 on ITV. Laugh a Little Louder Please was recorded in the studio on 6 and 7 February 1975. Rosemary Anne Sisson, the writer of this episode, used We Danced All Night, the autobiography of Barbara Cartland, party as an inspiration for this episode. We Danced All Night was used for other episodes in which Georgina played a main role. Sisson brought some of her own experiences and feelings, as a child in the Second World War, into this episode. In Laugh a Little Louder Please Madeleine Cannon makes her first appearance as Lady Dolly Hale. Lesley-Anne Down - Georgina Worsley Angela Baddeley - Mrs Bridges Gordon Jackson - Hudson Jean Marsh - Rose Simon Williams - James Bellamy Celia Bannerman - Diana Newbury Christopher Beeny - Edward Osmond Bullock - Captain Robin Eliott Karen Dotrice - Lily Jacqueline Tong - Daisy Gareth Hunt - Frederick Jenny Tomasin - Ruby Shirley Cain - Miss Treadwell John Quayle - Bunny Newbury Madeleine Cannon - Lady Dolly Hale Trevor Ray - The Hon. Tommy Spenton Anne Yarker - Alice Hamilton Jonathan Seely - William Hamilton Marsha Fitzalan - Bluebird Julia Schofield - Geraldine Victor Langley - Bather Nicholas Hunter - Red Indian It is Summer 1921, Georgina, Diana Newbury and Captain Robin Eliott, decide to hold a fancy dress "Freedom Party" while Richard and Virginia are away in Geneva on League of Nations business.

Shortly after the Party has started, Miss Treadwell and William's new Governess, arrives at Eaton Place. In the evening and Robin are upstairs in the nursery talking and Robin asks Georgina to marry him; when she says no, Robin says that he will kill himself if she does not as he can not live without her. She walks out of the room. Not long after, Miss Treadwell finds. Hudson, who arrived seconds after Miss Treadwell found the body, reads a letter that Captain Eliott had written on the back of a drawing from the nursery, it read "My dearest Georgina. You will never know. My life would be unbearable without you. God bless. Robin". Hudson screws this up before Georgina arrive; the following morning, Georgina carries on as normal saying "it did rather spoil the party, didn't it?". Meanwhile, Edward suggests to Daisy that they emigrate to Canada, but Daisy reminds him how lucky they are compared to many others. Diana Newbury and James talk about her marriage to Bunny, she shows little affection for him.

Richard Marson, "Inside UpDown - The Story of Upstairs, Downstairs", Kaleidoscope Publishing, 2005 Updown.org.uk - Upstairs, Downstairs Fansite

List of Swedish royal mistresses

The following is a list of women known to have been mistresses to members of the Swedish Royal Family. Kristina Abrahamsdotter, mistress of Charles VIII of Sweden before their marriage in 1470 Agda Persdotter, mistress of Eric XIV of Sweden Karin Jacobsdotter, mistress of Eric XIV of Sweden Karin Månsdotter, mistress of Eric XIV before their marriage in 1568 Karin Hansdotter, mistress of John III of Sweden Karin Nilsdotter, mistress of Charles IX of Sweden Ebba Brahe, alleged mistress of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden Margareta Slots, mistress of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden Märta Allerts, mistress of Charles X Gustav of Sweden Hedvig Taube, mistress of Frederick I of Sweden Catharina Ebba Horn, mistress of Frederick I of Sweden Sophie Hagman, mistress of Prince Frederick Adolf of Sweden Maria Schlegel, mistress of Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden Marie Marguerite Morel, mistress of Charles XIII of Sweden. Augusta Fersen, mistress of Charles XIII of Sweden Charlotte Eckerman, mistress of Charles XIII of Sweden.

Françoise-Éléonore Villain, mistress of Charles XIII of Sweden. Charlotte Slottsberg, mistress of Charles XIII of Sweden. Mariana Koskull, mistress of Charles XIII of Sweden. Mariana Koskull, mistress of Charles XIV John of Sweden, former mistress of Charles XIII of Sweden Emilie Högquist, mistress of Oscar I of Sweden Jaquette Löwenhielm, mistress of Oscar I of Sweden Laura Bergnéhr, mistress of Charles XV of Sweden Josephine Sparre, mistress of Charles XV of Sweden Johanna Styrell, mistress of Charles XV of Sweden Wilhelmine Schröder, mistress of Charles XV of Sweden Elise Hwasser, mistress of Charles XV of Sweden Marie Friberg, mistress of Oscar II of Sweden Emma Elisabeth Hammarström, mistress of Oscar II of Sweden Camilla Henemark, mistress of Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden List of English royal mistresses List of Scottish royal mistresses

Kamulah Satu-Satunya

Kamulah Satu-Satunya is a 2007 Indonesian comedy film directed by Hanung Bramantyo and starring Nirina Zubir, Junior Liem, Didi Petet, Fanny Fadillah, Ringgo Agus Rahman, Dennis Adhiswara. The film premiered on July 2007 in Jakarta. Productions by Oreima Films & Starvision. Nirina Zubir as Indah Junior Liem as Bowo Didi Petet as Abah Dennis Adhiswara as Security 1 Fanny Fadillah as Franky Ringgo Agus Rahman as Security 1 Tarzan as Teacher Aline Adita as Presenter Andhara Early as presenter quiz Almir Jumandi as post man Epy Kusnandar as assistant 1 ENce Bagus as assistant 2 Yurike Prastika as Bowo's Aunt Pak Ogah as Indah's friend in JakartaSpecial Appearances Dewa 19 Indah, whose parents died a long time ago, is studying in high school and living a poor lifestyle with her grandfather. Indah never complains, but she holds on to her dream of meeting her favorite idol group Dewa Band face to face, whose songs are inspirational to her, her dream is in reach when she hears that Dewa Band are giving out 10 tickets to fans to meet them directly through a lottery held throughout Indonesia.

Bowo, Indah’s close friend, can’t stand to see Indah disappointed because of his hidden feelings for her, strives to let Indah meet her idols by selling his beloved antiques bicycle and bringing her to Jakarta. Events don't go. Will Indah get to meet Dewa Band? Kamulah Satu-Satunya on IMDb @You're the Only One - Starvision

Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church

The Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church is an office of the papal household that administers the property and revenues of the Holy See. His responsibilities included the fiscal administration of the Patrimony of Saint Peter; as regulated in the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus of 1988, the camerlengo is always a cardinal, though this was not the case prior to the 15th century. His heraldic arms are ornamented with two keys – one gold, one silver – in saltire, surmounted by an ombrellino, a canopy or umbrella of alternating red and yellow stripes; these form part of the coat of arms of the Holy See during a papal interregnum. The camerlengo has been Kevin Farrell since his appointment by Pope Francis on 14 February 2019; the vice camerlengo has been Archbishop Giampiero Gloder since 20 December 2014. Until the 11th century, the Archdeacon of the Roman Church was responsible for the administration of the property of the Church, but its numerous ancient privileges and rights had come to make it a frequent hindrance to independent action on the part of the Pope.

Prior to the 18th century, the Camerlengo enjoyed an income of 10,000 to 12,000 scudi a year out of the Apostolic Camera. He had jurisdiction over all suits involving the Apostolic Camera, could judge separately or in association with the Clerics of the Apostolic Camera, he has appellate jurisdiction over suits decided by the Masters of the Roads. In a narration of the 18th century, the Camerlengo is the chief officer in the Apostolic Camera, the Financial Council of the Pope. In his office are the Governor of Rome, The Treasurer, the Auditor, the President, the Advocate General, the Fiscal Procurator, the Commissary, twelve Clerks of the Chamber; each Clerk of the Chamber received around 8,000 scudi a year, representing 10% of the business that passes through his office. The powers and functions of the Camerlengo were diminished in the 19th century, first by the reorganisation of the papal government after the election of Pope Pius VII in 1800 by the reorganization of the papal government after the return of Pope Pius IX from exile in 1850, by the loss of the Papal States in 1860 and the City of Rome in 1870.

The chief beneficiary of these changes was the Cardinal Secretary of State. Since early in the 20th century, the offices of Secretary of State and Camerlengo were held concurrently by Pietro Gasparri, Eugenio Pacelli, Jean-Marie Villot, by Tarcisio Bertone. Since Pope Francis has appointed as Camerlengo prelates who have not been Secretary of State: Jean-Louis Tauran and Kevin Joseph Farrell; the camerlengo is responsible for the formal determination of the death of the reigning pope. After the pope is declared dead, the camerlengo takes possession of the Ring of the Fisherman and cuts it with shears in the presence of the cardinals; this act prevents its use in forging documents. The camerlengo notifies the appropriate officers of the Roman Curia and the dean of the College of Cardinals, he participates in the preparations for the pope's funeral. In the past the camerlengo took possession of the pope's last will and took responsibility for revealing its contents. Now the last will of the pope is given to the College of Cardinals and its content is revealed during the first meeting of the College of Cardinals.

The only responsibility still in the camerlengo's hands is to safekeep the last will of the pope until the College of Cardinals takes possession of it. Until a successor Pope can be elected, the camerlengo serves as Vatican City's acting sovereign, he is no longer, responsible for the government of the Catholic Church when the papacy is vacant. His power is limited, being enough to allow Church institutions to continue to operate and perform some basic functions without making any definitive decisions or appointments that are reserved to other powers delegated by the pope. Unlike the rest of the Roman Curia, the camerlengo retains his office during the sede vacante period and functions as the executive director of the Vatican's operations, answerable to the College of Cardinals; this is to carry out the College's decisions with regard to the funeral of the late pope and the events leading up to the conclave. The only other people who keep their offices during this time are the Major Penitentiary, the Archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica, the Papal Almoner, the Vicars General for Rome and for the Vatican City State.

Those who have held the office of Camerlengo are: Two Camerlengos have been elected Pope: Gioacchino Pecci in 1878 and Eugenio Pacelli in 1939. Two others, Cencio Savelli and Rinaldo Conti di Segni were not Camerlengo at the time of their election to the papacy, Cencio having served from 1188 until 1198 and Rinaldo from 1227 until 1231. Dan Brown's novel Angels &