Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology. In his early work, he elaborated critiques of historicism and of psychologism in logic based on analyses of intentionality. In his mature work, he sought to develop a systematic foundational science based on the so-called phenomenological reduction. Arguing that transcendental consciousness sets the limits of all possible knowledge, Husserl redefined phenomenology as a transcendental-idealist philosophy. Husserl's thought profoundly influenced the landscape of 20th-century philosophy, he remains a notable figure in contemporary philosophy and beyond. Husserl studied mathematics under the tutelage of Karl Weierstrass and Leo Königsberger, philosophy under Franz Brentano and Carl Stumpf, he taught philosophy as a Privatdozent at Halle from 1887 as professor, first at Göttingen from 1901 at Freiburg from 1916 until he retired in 1928, after which he remained productive. Following an illness, he died in Freiburg in 1938.
Husserl was born in 1859 in Proßnitz, a town in the Margraviate of Moravia, in the Austrian Empire, which today is Prostějov in the Czech Republic. He was born into the second of four children, his father was a milliner. His childhood was spent in Proßnitz. Husserl traveled to Vienna to study at the Realgymnasium there, followed next by the Staatsgymnasium in Olomouc. At the University of Leipzig from 1876 to 1878, Husserl studied mathematics and astronomy. At Leipzig he was inspired by philosophy lectures given by Wilhelm Wundt, one of the founders of modern psychology, he moved to the Frederick William University of Berlin in 1878 where he continued his study of mathematics under Leopold Kronecker and the renowned Karl Weierstrass. In Berlin he found a mentor in Thomas Masaryk a former philosophy student of Franz Brentano and the first president of Czechoslovakia. There Husserl attended Friedrich Paulsen's philosophy lectures. In 1881 he left for the University of Vienna to complete his mathematics studies under the supervision of Leo Königsberger.
At Vienna in 1883 he obtained his PhD with the work Beiträge zur Variationsrechnung. Evidently as a result of his becoming familiar with the New Testament during his twenties, Husserl asked to be baptized into the Lutheran Church in 1886. Husserl's father Adolf had died in 1884. Herbert Spiegelberg writes, "While outward religious practice never entered his life any more than it did that of most academic scholars of the time, his mind remained open for the religious phenomenon as for any other genuine experience." At times Husserl saw his goal as one of moral "renewal". Although a steadfast proponent of a radical and rational autonomy in all things, Husserl could speak "about his vocation and about his mission under God's will to find new ways for philosophy and science," observes Spiegelberg. Following his PhD in mathematics, Husserl returned to Berlin to work as the assistant to Karl Weierstrass, yet Husserl had felt the desire to pursue philosophy. Professor Weierstrass became ill. Husserl became free to return to Vienna where, after serving a short military duty, he devoted his attention to philosophy.
In 1884 at the University of Vienna he attended the lectures of Franz Brentano on philosophy and philosophical psychology. Brentano introduced him to the writings of Bernard Bolzano, Hermann Lotze, J. Stuart Mill, David Hume. Husserl was so impressed by Brentano. Following academic advice, two years in 1886 Husserl followed Carl Stumpf, a former student of Brentano, to the University of Halle, seeking to obtain his habilitation which would qualify him to teach at the university level. There, under Stumpf's supervision, he wrote Über den Begriff der Zahl in 1887, which would serve as the basis for his first important work, Philosophie der Arithmetik. In 1887 Husserl married Malvine Steinschneider, a union that would last over fifty years. In 1892 their daughter Elizabeth was born, in 1893 their son Gerhart, in 1894 their son Wolfgang. Elizabeth would marry in 1922, Gerhart in 1923. Gerhart would become a philosopher of law, contributing to the subject of comparative law, teaching in the United States and after the war in Austria.
Following his marriage Husserl began his long teaching career in philosophy. He started. In 1891 he published his Philosophie der Arithmetik. Psychologische und logische Untersuchungen which, drawing on his prior studies in mathematics and philosophy, proposed a psychological context as the basis of mathematics, it drew the adverse notice of Gottlob Frege. In 1901 Husserl with his family moved to the University of Göttingen, where he taught as extraordinarius professor. Just prior to this a major work of his, Logische Untersuchungen, was published. Volume One contains seasoned reflections on "pure logic" in which he refutes "psychologism"; this work became the subject of a seminar given by Wilhelm Dilthey. Two years in Italy he paid a visit to Franz Brentano his inspiring old teacher and to Constantin Carathéodory the mathematic
François Charles Mauriac was a French novelist, critic and journalist, a member of the Académie française, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature. He was awarded the Grand Cross of the Légion d'honneur in 1958, he was a lifelong Catholic. François Charles Mauriac was born in France, he studied literature at the University of Bordeaux, graduating in 1905, after which he moved to Paris to prepare for postgraduate study at the École des Chartes. On 1 June 1933 he was elected a member of the Académie française. A former Action Francaise supporter, he turned to the left during the Spanish Civil War, criticizing the Catholic Church for its support of Franco, he supported Petain after France's fall, but joined the resistance as early as December 1941. He was the only member of the Academie Francaise to publish a resistance text with the Editions de Minuit. Mauriac had a bitter dispute with Albert Camus following the liberation of France in World War II. At that time, Camus edited the resistance paper Combat.
Camus said newly liberated France should purge all Nazi collaborator elements, but Mauriac warned that such disputes should be set aside in the interests of national reconciliation. Mauriac doubted that justice would be impartial or dispassionate given the emotional turmoil of liberation. Despite having been viciously criticised by Robert Brasillach he campaigned against his execution. Mauriac had a bitter public dispute with Roger Peyrefitte, who criticised the Vatican in books such as Les Clés de saint Pierre. Mauriac threatened to resign from the paper he was working with at the time if they did not stop carrying advertisements for Peyrefitte's books; the quarrel was exacerbated by the release of the film adaptation of Peyrefitte's Les Amitiés Particulières and culminated in a virulent open letter by Peyrefitte in which he accused Mauriac of homosexual tendencies and called him a "Tartuffe". Mauriac was opposed to French rule in Vietnam, condemned the use of torture by the French army in Algeria.
In 1952 he won the Nobel Prize in Literature "for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life". He was awarded the Grand Cross of the Légion d'honneur in 1958, he published a biography of Charles de Gaulle. Mauriac's complete works were published in twelve volumes between 1950 and 1956, he encouraged Elie Wiesel to write about his experiences as a Jew during the Holocaust, wrote the foreword to Elie Wiesel's book Night. He was the father of writer Claude Mauriac and grandfather of Anne Wiazemsky, a French actress and author who worked with and married French director Jean-Luc Godard. François Mauriac died in Paris on 1 September 1970 and was interred in the Cimetière de Vemars, Val d'Oise, France. 1926 — Grand Prix du roman de l'Académie française 1933 — Member of the Académie française 1952 — Nobel Prize in Literature 1958 — Grand Cross of the Légion d'honneur 1913 – L'Enfant chargé de chaînes 1914 – La Robe prétexte 1920 – La Chair et le Sang 1921 – Préséances 1922 – Le Baiser au lépreux 1923 – Le Fleuve de feu 1923 – Génitrix 1923 – Le Mal 1925 – Le Désert de l'amour 1927 – Thérèse Desqueyroux 1928 – Destins 1929 – Trois Récits A volume of three stories: Coups de couteau, 1926.
1939 – Les Chemins de la mer 1941 – La Pharisienne 1951 – Le Sagouin 1952 – Galigaï 1954 – L'Agneau 1969 – Un adolescent d'autrefois 1972 – Maltaverne 1938 – Asmodée 1945 – Les Mal Aimés 1948 – Passage du malin 1951 – Le Feu sur terre 1909 – Les Mains jointes 1911 – L'Adieu à l'Adolescence 1925 – Orages 1940 – Le Sang d'Atys 1931 – Holy Thursday: an Intimate Remembrance 1960 – Memoires Interieurs 1962 – Ce Que Je Crois 1964 – Soiree Tu Danse 1937 – Life of Jesus 1919 – Petits Essais de Psychologie Religieuse: De quelques coeurs inquiets. Paris: Societe litteraire de France. 1919. 1936 - “God and Mammon” in ‘Essays in Order: New Series, No. 1’. Edited by Christopher Dawson and Bernard Wall. Published in London by Sheed & Ward 1961 – Second Thoughts: Reflections on literature and on Life (tr. by Adrienne Foul
George Sutherland Fraser
George Sutherland Fraser was a Scottish poet, literary critic and academic. Fraser was born in Glasgow, Scotland moving with his family to Aberdeen, he attended the University of St. Andrews. During World War II he served in the British Army in Eritrea, he was published as a poet in a Cairo literary magazine. At the same time he was involved with the New Apocalyptics group, writing an introductory essay for the anthology The White Horseman, formulating as well as anyone did the idea that they were successors to surrealism. After the war he became a prominent figure in London's literary circles, working as a journalist and critic. Together with his wife Paddy he made friends with a gamut of literary figures, from the intellectual leader William Empson to the eccentric John Gawsworth, he worked with Ian Fletcher to have Gawsworth's Collected Poems published. His direction was that of the traditional man of letters. In 1948, Fraser contributed an essay entitled "A Language by Itself" to a biblio-symposium honouring the sixtieth birthday of T. S. Eliot.
Drawing comparisons with John Donne, he praised the poet's profound refreshment of the English poetic tongue, together with his subtle facility for transitional verse and his potent effect on the poetic youth. This ended. Subsequently he was much less the poet than the all-purpose writer, he became a lecturer at the University of Leicester in 1959, where he was an inspiring teacher, remaining there until retirement in 1979. He married Eileen Lucy Andrew in 1946, she wrote a brief memoir of her life with Fraser. Together they had two daughters, including Helen Fraser, a son. Paddy died in 2013; the Fatal Landscape and Other Poems Home Town Elegy The Traveller has Other Poems. Yeats Scotland with Edwin Smith Poetry now: an anthology edited by G. S. Fraser Faber & Faber Dylan Thomas Vision and Rhetoric. Studies in Modern Poetry Ezra Pound Keith Douglas. Collected Poems edited with J. C. Hall. Lawrence Durrell. A Study with a bibliography by Alan G. Thomas Conditions Metre and Free Verse John Keats: Odes edited P. H. Newby Essays on Twentieth Century Poets Alexander Pope.
Poems of G. S. Fraser editors Ian Fletcher and John Lucas, Leicester University Press A Short History of English Poetry 1981 A Stranger and Afraid: Autobiography of an Intellectual Carcanet Press A. Alvarez - Kingsley Amis - W. G. Archer - Patricia Avis - Bernard Bergonzi - Thomas Blackburn - Arthur Boyars - Alan Brownjohn - George Bruce - Charles Causley - Robert Conquest - Hilary Corke - Maurice James Craig - Donald Davie - Paul Dehn - Keith Douglas - Lawrence Durrell - D. J. Enright - Iain Fletcher - Roy Fuller - Robert Garioch - David Gascoyne - Sidney Goodsir Smith - W. S. Graham - Thom Gunn - J. C. Hall - Michael Hamburger - Jacquetta Hawkes - John Heath-Stubbs - Geoffrey Hill - John Holloway - Elizabeth Jennings - Peter Johnson - Sidney Keyes - Thomas Kinsella - James Kirkup - Philip Larkin - Laurie Lee - Alun Lewis - Christopher Logue - Rob Lyle - George MacBeth - Norman MacCaig - Mairi MacInnes - Ewart Milne - Richard Murphy - Norman Nicholson - Kathleen Nott - Philip Oakes - Jonathan Price - F. T.
Prince - Henry Reed - Anne Ridler - W. R. Rodgers - Alan Ross - E. J. Scovell - Tom Scott - John Short - Jon Silkin - Burns Singer - Robin Skelton - Martin Seymour Smith - Bernard Spencer - R. S. Thomas - Terence Tiller - Charles Tomlinson - Constantine Trypanis - John Wain - John Waller - Vernon Watkins - Gordon Wharton - Sheila Wingfield - Diana Witherby - David Wright Fraser, George Sutherland. "A Language by Itself." In T. S. Eliot: A Symposium, edited by Richard March and Tambimuttu, 167-177. London: Editions Poetry, 1948
Ontology is the philosophical study of being. More broadly, it studies concepts that directly relate to being, in particular becoming, reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or may be said to exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy, subdivided according to similarities and differences; the compound word ontology combines onto- and -logia. See classical compounds for this type of word formation. While the etymology is Greek, the oldest extant record of the word itself, the New Latin form ontologia, appeared in 1606 in the work Ogdoas Scholastica by Jacob Lorhard and in 1613 in the Lexicon philosophicum by Rudolf Göckel; the first occurrence in English of ontology as recorded by the OED came in a work by Gideon Harvey: Archelogia philosophica nova. Containing Philosophy in general, Metaphysicks or Ontology, Dynamilogy or a Discourse of Power, Religio Philosophi or Natural Theology, Physicks or Natural philosophy, Thomson, 1663.
The word was first used in its Latin form by philosophers based on the Latin roots, which themselves are based on the Greek. Leibniz is the only one of the great philosophers of the 17th century to have used the term ontology; some philosophers, notably in the traditions of the Platonic school, contend that all nouns refer to existent entities. Other philosophers contend that nouns do not always name entities, but that some provide a kind of shorthand for reference to a collection either of objects or of events. In this latter view, instead of referring to an entity, refers to a collection of mental events experienced by a person. Between these poles of realism and nominalism stand a variety of other positions. Principal questions of ontology include: "What can be said to exist?" "What is a thing?" "Into what categories, if any, can we sort existing things?" "What are the meanings of being?" "What are the various modes of being of entities?"Various philosophers have provided different answers to these questions.
One common approach involves dividing the extant subjects and predicates into groups called categories. Such lists of categories differ from one another, it is through the co-ordination of different categorical schemes that ontology relates to such fields as library science and artificial intelligence; such an understanding of ontological categories, however, is taxonomic, classificatory. Aristotle's categories are the ways in which a being may be addressed as a being, such as: what it is how it is how much it is where it is Further examples of ontological questions include: What is existence, i.e. what does it mean for a being to be? Is existence a property? Is existence a genus or general class, divided up by specific differences? Which entities, if any, are fundamental? Are all entities objects? How do the properties of an object relate to the object itself? Do physical properties exist? What features are the essential, as opposed to accidental attributes of a given object? How many levels of existence or ontological levels are there?
And what constitutes a "level"? What is a physical object? Can one give an account of what it means to say that a physical object exists? Can one give an account of what it means to say that a non-physical entity exists? What constitutes the identity of an object? When does an object go out of existence, as opposed to changing? Do beings exist other than in the modes of objectivity and subjectivity, i.e. is the subject/object split of modern philosophy inevitable? Essential ontological dichotomies include: universals and particulars substance and accident abstract and concrete objects essence and existence determinism and indeterminism monism and dualism idealism and materialism Philosophers can classify ontologies in various ways, using criteria such as the degree of abstraction and field of application: Upper ontology: concepts supporting development of an ontology, meta-ontology Domain ontology: concepts relevant to a particular topic, domain of discourse, or area of interest, for example, to information technology or to computer languages, or to particular branches of science Interface ontology: concepts relevant to the juncture of two disciplines Process ontology: inputs, constraints, sequencing information, involved in business or engineering processes Ontology features in the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy from the first millennium BCE.
The concept of guṇa which describes the three properties present in differing proportions in all existing things, is a notable concept of this school. In the Greek philosophical tradition, Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of existence. In the prologue or proem to his poem On Nature he describes two views of existence. Our opinions about truth must be false and deceitful. Most of western philosophy — including the fundamental concepts of falsifiability — has emerged from this view; this posits that